Frauen und Arbeit

-

Documents
272 pages
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus

Description

Women and work Report on existing research in the European Union Employment Si social affairs Equality between women and men European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Unit V/D.5 Manuscript completed in September 1997 This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs. It does not necessarily represent the Commission's official position. If you are interested in receiving the electronic newsletter '5mail' from the European Commission's Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, please send an e-mail to 5mail@dg5.cec.be. The newsletter is published on a regular basis in English, French and German. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999 ISBN 92-828-7649-7 © European Communities, 1999 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF MAIN RESULTS 1 Janneke Plantenga and Jill Rubery 2. OVERVIEW AND COMPARATIVE STUDIES 13 Jill Rubery 3.

Informations

Publié par
Nombre de visites sur la page 9
Langue English
Signaler un problème

Women and work
Report on existing research
in the European Union
Employment Si social affairs
Equality between women and men
European Commission
Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations
and Social Affairs
Unit V/D.5
Manuscript completed in September 1997 This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-
General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs. It does not necessarily
represent the Commission's official position.
If you are interested in receiving the electronic newsletter '5mail' from the European
Commission's Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs,
please send an e-mail to 5mail@dg5.cec.be. The newsletter is published on a regular basis in
English, French and German.
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999
ISBN 92-828-7649-7
© European Communities, 1999
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium
PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF MAIN RESULTS 1
Janneke Plantenga and Jill Rubery
2. OVERVIEW AND COMPARATIVE STUDIES 13
Jill Rubery
3. WOMEN'S ENTREPRENEURSHIP 27
Teresa Domingo and Maria Luisa Molto
4. SEGREGATION OF THE LABOUR MARKET 41
Lena Gonäs and Arja Lehto
5. GENDER PAY GAP 5
Friederike Maier
6. DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORK 7
Anne Eydoux
7. UNPAID WORK 89
Janneke Plantenga
8. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE - GERMAN LANGUAGE AREA 101
Friederike Maier (in collaboration with Christine Ezeoji (Germany), Karin Oberholzer
(Switzerland) and Ulli Pastner (Austria))
9. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE - FRENCH LANGUAGE AREA 107
Marie-Noël Beauchesne, Anne Eydoux andAdinda Vanheerswynghels
10. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE - SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES AREA 115
Lena Gonäs and Arja Lehto (in collaboration with Karen Sjørup (Denmark) and Lilja
Mósesdóttir (Iceland)
11. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE - SOUTHERN LANGUAGES AREA 121
Maria Luisa Molto and Teresa Domingo (in collaboration with María Karamessini
(Greece), Margarida Ruivo (Portugal) and Paola Villa (Italy))
12. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE - DUTCH LANGUAGE AREA 127
Gwennaële Bruning and Janneke Plantenga (in collaboration with Ingrid Robeyns
(Flanders))
13. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE - ENGLISH LANGUAGE AREA 133
Claire Faichnie, Damian Grimshaw, Jill Rubery and Mark Smith
BIBLIOGRAPHY GERMAN LANGUAGE AREA 141
Germany 14
Austria 150
Switzerland7 BIBLIOGRAPHY FRENCH LANGUAGE AREA 161
France 16
Belgium (Waloon region)8
BIBLIOGRAPHY SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES AREA 17
Sweden 17
Denmark 186
Finland9
Iceland 19
Norway7
BIBLIOGRAPHY SOUTHERN LANGUAGES AREA 202
Spain 20
Greece 214
Italy
Portugal 223
BIBLIOGRAPHY DUTCH LANGUAGE AREA 228
The Netherlands
Belgium (Flemish region) 23
BIBLIOGRAPHY ENGLISH LANGUAGE AREA. ... 236 Chapter I
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF MAIN RESULTS
Janneke Plantenga and Jill Rubery
1.1. Introduction
There is now an extremely extensive literature on women in the labour market. Much of this
literature reflects the initial and continuing efforts of primarily female social scientists, often
working outside the mainstream of their professions, to make visible the role of women in
society and in the labour market and to explore the reasons for both continuity and change in the
gender division of labour. However, even mainstream social science has been unable to ignore
the significance of women's integration into the labour market, argued by some to represent the
most important labour market development over recent years. Labour market studies have thus
increasingly focused on gender as a significant factor in, for example, explaining labour supply
trends, the development of atypical work or the growth of service sector employment.
Research has also focused on the continuing evidence of gender inequality in the labour market.
A wide range of methodological approaches have been adopted: at one end of the spectrum
studies seek to reduce the measured level of discrimination and to 'explain' inequality by
differences in preferences between men and women; at the other end studies show how current
measures of inequality reflect a male-centred view of society and consequently fail to make
visible all aspects of gender inequality, in particular women's role in unpaid work. Including
gender as an important factor in labour market analyses has become both more acceptable as an
area of social science research and a more commonplace practice. However, the impact of this
development has been to highlight the differences in methodological approaches. A division is
clear between those who believe that adding a gender dimension requires a different perspective
on labour markets and society and those who instead seek to explain gender divisions within
established paradigms and perspectives.
As a consequence of these methodological differences the literature on women's position in the
labour market is very rich. Moreover this richness has been enhanced by comparative and
historical research which has revealed differences in the meaning and significance of women's
work over time and space. These differences still exist within Europe and much can be learned
from comparative research which contrasts and explores the differences and similarities of
women's position, for example in the Nordic countries on the one hand and the Southern
countries on the other. Comparative research has also revealed the significance of institutions
and policies in shaping women's position in the labour market. However, research has also
pointed to the limits of these policy developments, the problems of implementation of equality
policies and regimes and the significance of the actions of both men and women in shaping the
gender order. European and national policy makers need to take into account this research in
understanding the obstacles to equality and in shaping policies for equality. The study we have undertaken has three main goals:
1) to give an European wide survey of the most significant texts by language and country
within the field of women and work;
2) to identify both issues and gaps in knowledge relevant to and important for the fourth
action programme for equal opportunities for women and men in the European Union;
3) to provide an assessment of the literature according to major themes of significance for an
understanding of women in the labour market.
To achieve these objectives the study and the report have been organised according to the
following principles. First, we identified six main themes within the literature on women's
position in the labour market which provide the focus for the thematic chapters of this report.
The themes include overview and comparative studies of women's employment, women's
entrepreneurship, segregation of the labour market, gender pay gap, different forms of work and
unpaid work.
Second, we divided the European union into six main country and language area blocks. This
enabled us to cover all the countries and languages of the European Union while avoiding an
unwieldy report based on separate country studies. The divisions chosen enabled us to focus
both on the vast research literatures available, for example, in the English, French and German
languages and also to group together countries which share certain common features relating to
women's position in the labour market- for example the Southern countries and the Scandinavian
or Nordic countries. We also expanded our range of coverage to include some European
Economic Area countries such as Norway, Iceland and Switzerland and to include key
contributions to the literature from America, Canada and even Australia. However, the prime
focus remained on identifying the classic texts and recent work within the European literature.
This country/language division was used both to collect the information for the thematic surveys
and to generate overviews of the strengths and weaknesses of the research literature within these
country/language areas. These overviews are presented in the country/language chapters of this
report, covering:
German language literature (Germany, Austria and Switzerland)
French language literature (France, Belgium (Walloon region) and Luxembourg)
Scandinavian languages and literature (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway)
Southern countries' languages and literature (Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal)
Dutch language literature (the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders))
English language literature (the UK, Ireland, United States and Canada)
Finally we provide a bibliography covering the thematic areas divided by country and language
area.
1.2. Summary of the main findings
The first and perhaps most important element of this study is to provide a broad based overview
of the most significant texts on women and men in the labour market, organized around six
thematic areas. In the following pages we will present the main findings of these thematic
studies, identifying both the strength and weaknesses of the current state of the art. 1.2.1. Overview and comparative studies
One of the main areas of debate over women's position in the labour market is the relationship
between women's role in paid and unpaid work. For the new household economics theorists,
women's subordinate position in the labour market reflects their choice to specialise in unpaid
work. This notion of free choice has been challenged by a range of studies and approaches. For
the dual systems theorists, women's position in the labour market is the outcome of both
capitalism in the labour market and patriarchy in the home; for yet others, women's work in the
home constitutes a central and integral element of the overall productive system. There is
general agreement that women's integration into the labour market has come about despite the
persistence of the double burden. Where women have been able to reduce their role in unpaid
work this has been achieved more through the collective provision of services than through a
change in the gender division of labour. Similarly, the burden of parenting has been moderated.
as much through a reduction in fertility rates as through a move to equal parenting.
Historical studies of women's integration into wage work in a wide range of countries have
related this process to phases of economic development. However, a narrow economic
interpretation has generally been rejected, with stress placed both on the importance of national
specificities and historical continuity in explaining differences in women's integration between
societies, and the importance of specific institutional, political and ideological influences on the
process of integration. Gaps still remain in our understanding; for example we do not yet have a
satisfactory explanation for the higher rate of integration of women in Portugal compared to the
other Southern countries.
Despite the rapid integration of women into wage work and the implementation of equality laws
throughout Europe, gender inequality still prevails. A very wide and interdisciplinary literature
can be found relating to explanations for this failure of social change to bring about gender
equality. These explanations range from the economists' stress on preferences, the
psychoanalytical stress on the importance of the subconscious, the political science focus on the
exclusion of women from decision-making, to the institutionalist analysis of segmented labour
markets and gendered institutions.
Attempts to provide general explanations for women's role in the labour market have inevitably
led to critiques of the methodologies adopted within social science. It is no longer simply
sufficient to 'make women visible'; instead it must be recognised that current social science
methodologies and perspectives are inherently 'masculine' in orientation and need to be
rethought at a fundamental level. These developments have occurred within most social science
disciplines. One of the most important consequences of feminist sociological research has been
to make different forms of work more visible, an outcome which has then led to debate over
whether or not wage work is usefully distinguished from non-wage work. The feminist critique
of mainstream economics theorising has also begun to develop a higher profile through the
publication of several key texts, the start up of an international journal on Feminist Economics
and the establishment of an international conference on the topic (Out of the Margin Foundation
conferences). Feminist economists believe the problems lie in the definition of rationality
embodied within the neoclassical framework. Rational economic man displays a masculine
selfhood and for progress to be made the autonomous, isolated agent needs to be replaced by 'a
socially and materially situated human being' (Humphries 1995: XVI). This objective of moving
away from the isolated individual to concerns not only about the connected lives of individuals
but also about the collective interests of societies is seen in the recent work by Folbre (1994) on
'Who pays for the kids?' This work focuses on the structures of constraint which shape so-called
individual choices, calling into question the welfare-maximising assumptions of the new
household economics school. The significance of institutional structures, economic organisation and welfare state regimes in
shaping women's employment position has been the subject of wide ranging comparative
research into women'st position. The debate on different welfare state regimes and
on the importance of societal systems in explaining European divergence has been particularly
important in shaping our understanding of the continuing differences in the gender order
between European societies. Moreover, gender research has made important contributions in
revealing the limitations of comparative research which ignores such differences in the gender
order. Recently critiques of structural explanations of women's position have pointed to the
importance of practice as well as structure, of social definitions of masculinity and fernininity
and norms of social behaviour and to the roles of women and men as actors within the economic
and political system. This work has also questioned the significance of the nation state as the
basis for comparative research and called for a more differentiated analysis which allows for
spatial or regional differences within states and for differences among women and men.
Needs for further research
The first research need is to expand and develop the research literature within the Southern
countries of Europe. The different historical experiences of women within these countries would
add to our understanding of the developing gender order in Europe.
The now established tradition of linking women's role in the household and in the wage
economy to phases of development needs to be continued and strengthened. The emergent trend
towards dual earner households, more complex lifestyles and more diverse forms of
employment cannot be understood without placing gender relations at the heart of the analysis.
Similarly research is needed on the implications of the reshaping of general labour market
institutions including labour market deregulation, social security reform and public sector
restructuring. This work needs to be pursued at both a national and a comparative level.
Differences in women's role in the wage economy provide one of the main explanations of
divergence between European labour markets, but future trends towards further integration of
women into the economy could also provide a major source of convergence for Europe.
Finally, we need to develop and harness the critiques of social science methodologies in the
pursuit of effective mainstreaming of gender issues in policy-making and evaluation. There is a
general dearth of literature on the issue of mainstreaming and the appropriate application of a
gender perspective in gender audits. Yet the critique of social science methodologies has
provided some indications of the deficiencies of current methodologies. In particular there is a
tendency to treat preferences as exogenous, to stress short term costs over long term benefits, to
prioritise monetised costs over those borne for example by women in the form of unpaid work or
by children in the form of inadequate care facilities. In developing methodologies for
mainstreaming some lessons may be learnt from the work of environmentalists who have sought
to include the long term costs for the environment within project evaluation procedures.
1.2.2. Women's entrepreneurship
Over the last two decades there has been a growing interest in the issue of female
entrepreneurship. This is partly the result of theg labour force participation of women
against the backdrop of high unemployment rates. This has stimulated research on the
possibilities of becoming self-employed or setting up a small business. At the same time, there
has also been a certain positive reappraisal of the value of small and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs), generated primarily by the conviction that large corporation can no longer guarantee
future growth in employment. Flexibility and growth in the economy will be sought increasingly
through SMEs.