Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean
208 pages

Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean


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208 pages
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication


This book addresses the social implications of climate change and climatic variability on indigenous peoples and communities living in the highlands, lowlands, and coastal areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Across the region, indigenous people already perceive and experience negative effects of climate change and variability. Many indigenous communities find it difficult to adapt in a culturally sustainable manner. In fact, indigenous peoples often blame themselves for the changes they observe in nature, despite their limited emission of green house gasses. Not only is the viability of their livelihoods threatened, resulting in food insecurity and poor health, but also their cultural integrity is being challenged, eroding the confidence in solutions provided by traditional institutions and authorities.
The book is based on field research among indigenous communities in three major eco-geographical regions: the Amazon; the Andes and Sub-Andes; and the Caribbean and Mesoamerica. It finds major inter-regional differences in the impacts observed between areas prone to rapid- and slow-onset natural hazards. In Mesoamerican and the Caribbean, increasingly severe storms and hurricanes damage infrastructure and property, and even cause loss of land, reducing access to livelihood resources. In the Columbian Amazon, changes in precipitation and seasonality have direct immediate effects on livelihoods and health, as crops often fail and the reproduction of fish stock is threatened by changes in the river ebb and flow. In the Andean region, water scarcity for crops and livestock, erosion of ecosystems and changes in biodiversity threatens food security, both within indigenous villages and among populations who depend on indigenous agriculture, causing widespread migration to already crowded urban areas.
The study aims to increase understanding on the complexity of how indigenous communities are impacted by climate change and the options for improving their resilience and adaptability to these phenomena. The goal is to improve indigenous peoples' rights and opportunities in climate change adaptation, and guide efforts to design effective and sustainable adaptation initiatives.


Publié par
Publié le 25 juin 2010
Nombre de lectures 26
EAN13 9780821383810
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo


Environment and Sustainable Development
Indigenous Peoples and
Climate Change in
Latin America and
the Caribbean
Jakob Kronik and Dorte VernerIndigenous Peoples and Climate Change
in Latin America and the CaribbeanIndigenous Peoples and
Climate Change in Latin
America and the Caribbean
Jakob Kronik and Dorte Verner© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 13 12 11 10
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions
expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive
Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does
not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work.
The maps in this book were produced by the Map Design Unit of The World Bank.
The boundaries, colors, denominations, and any other information shown on these
maps do not imply, on the part of The World Bank Group, any judgement on the legal
status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions
or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages
dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of
the work promptly.
For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request
with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood
Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470;
All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed
to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC
20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail:
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8237-0
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8381-0
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8237-0
Cover photos: Dorte Verner
Cover design: Naylor Design, Inc.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been requested.Contents
Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Abbreviations xv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Indigenous Peoples of LAC 2
Climate Change and Climatic Variability in LAC 4
Determinants of Vulnerability 8
Approach and Outline of Study 11
Notes 12
References 13
Chapter 2 Indigenous Peoples of the Amazon 15
Threats and Perceptions of Climate Change 17
Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous
Peoples’ Livelihoods 25
Transforming Structures and Processes 32
Institutional Framework 35
Adaptation and Survival Strategies 37
Summary 39
vvi Contents
Notes 40
References 41
Chapter 3 Indigenous Peoples of the Andes 45
Threats from Climate Change 46
Andean Region—Bolivia’s Northern Altiplano 50
Sub-Andean Region—Bolivia’Yungas 58
Summary 65
Notes 66
References 68
Chapter 4 Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean
and Central America 71
Abrupt Effects of Extreme Events 72
Effects of Slow-Onset Climate Change Processes 85
Indirect Social Impacts from Climate Change 92
Summary 92
Notes 93
References 94
Chapter 5 Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change
Across the Region 97
Threats 100
Impacts 102
Potential Effects 106
Adaptation 107
Indigenous Peoples, Mitigation of Climate
Change, and Protection of Biodiversity 110
Notes 116
References 117
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 123
Indigenous Peoples of Latin America
and the Caribbean 124
Culture, Livelihood, Institutions, and Knowledge 125
Impact of Climate Change on Indigenous Peoples 127
Climate-Change Adaptation in an
Indigenous Context 129
Climate-Change Mitigation in an 130Contents vii
Operational Recommendations 131
Needs for Further Research 133
Notes 134
References 135
Appendix A Climate Change and Climatic Variability
in Latin America and the Caribbean 137
Images of Present Change 138
Images of the Future 144
Aspects of Observed Climate 146
Global Climate Change Issues 150
Projections of Regional Climate Change 153
Further Research 164
Notes 165
References 166
Appendix B Field Work Methodology 171
Notes 173
Reference 173
Index 175
1.1 Projected Climate Change and Climatic Variability
in LAC 6
2.1 The Annual Ecological Calendar (as It Should Be) 20
2.2 The Effects of Seasonal Change on the Giant Turtle,
an Endangered Species 26
3.1 Glacial Retreat Gravely Affects Highland Herders 48
3.2 Quechua-Speaking Populations and Water Resources
in the Cordillera 53
3.3 Competition and Conflict over Water Resources 58
3.4 Some Testimonies 63
4.1 Indigenous Peoples in Mexico and Nicaragua 73
4.2 Edited Testimony of April 2008 by Oswaldo Morales,
Garifuna, Member of the National Commission for
Territorial Demarcation of Indigenous Land, Laguna
de Perlas, Nicaragua 81
6.1 Indigenous Peoples and Migration Related to
Climate Change 127
A.1 Climate Definitions 140viii Contents
A.2 Sources of Uncertainty in Regional Climate
Change Projections 154
A.3 Hurricanes 157
1.1 Climate Change Hot Spots in LAC 7
1.2 Nexus between Climate Change and Social Implications 8
1.3 The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework 9
2.1 Monthly Temperatures on the Amazon and
Putumayo Rivers 18
2.2 Colombian Amazonia: Northern and Southern
Seasonal Regimes 19
2.3 Colombian Amazonia: Northern and Southern Seasonal
Regimes: River Levels and Precipitation 20
2.4 Caquetá River (Araracuara) Monthly Precipitation 22
2.5 Caquetá River Monthly Levels 23
2.6 Precipitation in Northern and Southern Regimes 24
2.7 Colombian Amazon Population Density and
Indigenous Peoples’ Areas 31
2.8 Colombian Amazon Forest Cover 33
2.9 Indigenous Territories and Conservation Areas in
Colombian Amazonia 34
3.1 Major Indigenous Peoples in Bolivia 49
3.2 Andean Region of the Northern Altiplano 50
3.3 Sub-Andean Region of Yungas 59
4.1 Climate Change and Indigenous Communities on the
Nicaraguan Atlantic Coast 75
4.2 Frequency and Economic Losses from Natural
Disasters in Mexico, 1970–2000 77
4.3 Areas Affected by Hurricane Joan, 1988 78
4.4Affected by Hurricane Felix, 2007 79
4.5 Five Major Groups of Indigenous Peoples of
Michoacán, Mexico 90
4.6 Increasing Aridity in the State of Michoacán,
Mexico, 2030, 2060, and 2090 91
A.1 Linear Trend of Annual Temperatures 139
A.2 Trend in Annual Land Precipitation Amounts,
1901–2005 142
A.3 Geographic Distribution of Long-Term Linear
Trends in Mean Sea Level, 1955–2003 143

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