Price competition and price convergence
284 pages
English
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Price competition and price convergence

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284 pages
English

Description

Intra-Community trade - free movement of goods
Competition policy

Informations

Publié par
Nombre de lectures 24
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 6 Mo

Exrait

The Single 2HCL Γfee t Review
SUBSERIES V: IMPACT ON
COMPETITION AND SCALE EFFECTS The Single Aíarfcet Review
IMPACT ON COMPETITION
AND SCALE EFFECTS
PRICE COMPETITION AND
PRICE CONVERGENCE The Single Market Review series
Subseries I - Impact on manufacturing
Volume: 1 Food, drink and tobacco processing machinery
2 Pharmaceutical products
3 Textiles and clothing
4 Construction site equipment
5 Chemicals
6 Motor vehicles
7 Processed foodstuffs
8 Telecommunications equipment
Subseries II Impact on services
Volume: 1 Insurance
2 Air transport
3 Credit institutions and banking
4 Distribution
5 Road freight transport
6 Telecommunications: liberalized services
7 Advertising
Audio-visual services and production 8
9 Single information market
10 Single energy market
11 Transport networks
Subseries III -Dismantling of barriers
Volume: 1 Technical barriers to trade
2 Public procurement
3 Customs and fiscal formalities at frontiers
Industrial property rights 4
5 Capital market liberalization
Currency management costs 6
Subseries - Impact on trade and investment IV
Volume: 1 Foreign direct investment
2 Trade patterns inside the single market
Trade creation and trade diversion
4 External access to European markets
Subseries Impact on competition and scale effects V
Volume: 1 Price competition and price convergence
2 Intangible investments
3 Competition issues
4 Economies of scale
Subseries VI -Aggregate and regional impact
Volume: 1 Regional growth and convergence
2 The cases of Greece, Spain, Ireland and Portugal
3 Trade, labour and capital flows: the less developed regions
4 Employment, trade and labour costs in manufacturing
5 Aggregate results of the single market programme
Results of the business survey EUROPEAN COMMISSION
The Single Al&rícet Review
IMPACT ON COMPETITION
AND SCALE EFFECTS
PRICE COMPETITION AND
PRICE CONVERGENCE
The Single jMa.rlc.et Review
SUBSERIES V : VOLUME 1
OFFICE FOR OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS
OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
KOGAN PAGE . EARTHSCAN This report is part of a series of 39 studies commissioned from independent consultants in the
context of a major review of the single market. The 1996 Single Market Review responds to
a 1992 Council of Ministers Resolution calling on the European Commission to present an
overall analysis of the effectiveness of measures taken in creating the single market. This
review, which assesses the progress made in implementing the single market programme,
was coordinated by the Directorate-General 'Internal Market and Financial Services'
(DG XV) and thel 'Economic and Financial Affairs' (DG II) of the
European Commission.
This document was prepared for the European Commission
by
DRI Europe Ltd
It does not, however, express the Commission's official views. Whilst every reasonable
effort has been made to provide accurate information in regard to the subject matter covered,
the Consultants are not responsible for any remaining errors. All recommendations are made
by thes for the purpose of discussion. Neither the Commission nor the
Consultants accept liability for the consequences of actions taken on the basis of the
information contained herein.
The European Commission would like to express thanks to the external experts and
representatives of firms and industry bodies for their contribution to the 1996 Single Market
Review, and to this report in particular.
© European Communities, 1997
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without
written permission from the copyright holder.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
2 rue Mercier, L-2985 Luxembourg
ISBN 92-827-8801-6 Catalogue number: C1-71-96-001-EN-C
Kogan Page.Earthscan
120 Pentonville Road, London NI 9JN
ISBN 0 7494 2334 X Table of contents
Table of contents
List of tables χ
List of figures xii
List of abbreviations xv
Acknowledgements xvi
1. Summary 1
2. Objectives of the study 11
3. Price convergence patterns by broad products/services categories 17
3.1. Key results
3.2. Trends in price dispersion across regions
3.2.1. Trends for broad products and services categories 17
3.2.2. Energy 25
3.2.3. Services6
3.2.4. Equipment goods
3.2.5. Construction
3.2.6. Consumer goods8
3.3. Trends in price convergence over time 31
3.4. The role of indirect taxation (VAT and excise duties)
3.4.1. General results
3.4.2. Indirect taxation and convergence patterns
3.4.3. Impact of indirect taxes for detailed product categories 39
3.5. The significance of high coefficients of price variation: comparison with price
disparities at regional level 44
4. Price convergence patterns by detailed products/services categories 47
4.1. Key results
4.2. Ranking of products/services based on the level of price dispersion 48
4.3. General patterns of price convergence over time for detailed product/service
categories 60
4.3.1. Food products
4.3.2. Beverages3
4.3.3. Tobacco4
4.3.4. Clothing and footwear5
4.3.5. Durable consumer goods6
4.3.6. Other manufactured products8
4.3.7. Energy 7
4.3.8. Services1
4.3.9. Equipment goods
4.3.10. Construction7 Price competition and price convergence
4.4. Analysis of price disparities between the EU-6 and the EU-12 78
79 4.4.1. Food products
4.4.2. Beverages 81
4.4.3. Tobacco 82
4.4.4. Clothing and footwear 82
4.4.5. Durable consumer goods 83
Other manufactured products 84 4.4.6.
4.4.7. Energy 85
4.4.8. Services 86
4.4.9. Equipment goods 87
4.4.10. Construction 88
4.5. Statistical significance of price convergence/divergence patterns 89
5. Price patterns across countries and the role of exchange rates 93
5.1. Key results 9
5.2. The role of exchange rates
5.2.1. Theoretical impact of exchange rate variations on price convergence/
divergence patterns4
5.2.2. Observed impact of exchange rates variation on price/
divergence patterns7
5.3. National price indices relative to the minimum price index 102
5.4. Correlation between national price indices 105
6. Price convergence and the SMP: theoretical impact9
6.1. Definition of pan-European markets
6.2. European integration and price convergence 111
6.3. Theoretical discussion of the impact of European integration on prices based
on certain market characteristics2
6.3.1. Introduction 11
6.3.2. The case of homogeneous product markets4
6.3.3.e case of horizontally differentiated product markets 116
6.3.4. The case of verticallyd product markets8
6.4. Breakdown of the product categories between homogeneous and
differentiated markets 121
7. Factors underlying price convergence: descriptive analysis 129
7.1. Key results
7.2. Price convergence patterns for traded versus non-traded product/service
categories 129
8. Factors underlying price convergence: econometric analysis 137
8.1. Key results 13
8.2. Approach8
8.3. Results of the econometric analysis 141 Table of contents
9. Selection criteria for the case studies 149
9.1. Soft drinks and mineral water
9.2. White goods 14
9.3. Construction 150
9.4. Chocolate confectionery
10. The soft drinks and mineral water sector 151
10.1. Single market indicators
10.2. Main trends in the industry4
10.2.1. The European food and drink industries: the context 15
10.2.2. Impact of the single market6
10.3. Remaining barriers to the establishment of a single market 160
10.3.1. Structural barriers 16
10.3.2. Behavioural barriers1
10.3.3. Policy barriers2
11. The white goods sector3
11.1. Single market indicators
11.2. Remaining barriers to the establishment of a single market 16
11.2.1. Policy barriers6
11.2.2. Structural barriers7
11.2.3. Behavioural barriers 168
12. The construction services sector 17
12.1. Single market indicators
12.2. The internationalization of European construction and contracting 176
12.3. Remaining barriers to the establishment of a single market 182
12.3.1. Behavioural barriers 18
12.3.2. Policy barriers3
12.3.3. Structural barriers4
13. The chocolate confectionery sector7
13.1. Price data and convergence
13.2. Single market indicators 190
13.3. Remaining barriers to the establishment of a single market 19
13.3.1. Structural barriers
13.3.2. Behavioural barriers5
13.3.3. Policy barriers
Appendix A: About the data9
A.l. General description
A. 1.1. Household consumer goods and services 20
A. 1.2. Specific area: health 202
A.1.3. Equipment goods
A. 1.4. Construction and civil engineering3 Price competition and price convergence
A.2. Calculation of price dispersion coefficients 205
A.3. Questionable data points6
Appendix B: Methodology for the calculation of price dispersion indices net
of taxes 208
Appendix C: List of the 174 product/service categories and summary of
aggregations9
Appendix D: Test for the equality of price variances over time 213
Appendix E: Analysis of the convergence in sectoral producer price indices 214
E.l. Approach 214
E.2. Analysis of the convergence in sectoral producer price indices 216
Appendix F.l: List of products/services ranked by EU-12 coefficient of price
variation in 1993 (based on price including taxes) 220
Appendix F.2: List ofs ranked by EU-9 coefficient of price
variation in 1993 (based on price excluding VAT) 223
Appendix G.l: List of products/services ranked by EU-12 coefficient of price
variation in 1980 (based on price including taxes) 226
Appendix G.2: List ofs ranked by EU-9 coefficient of price
variation in 1980 (based on price excluding VAT) 229
Appendix H.l: List of products/services ranked by EU-12 coefficient of price
variation in 1985 (based on price including taxes) 232
Appendix H.2: List ofs ranked by EU-9 coefficient of price
variation in 1985 (based on price excluding VAT) 235
Appendix 1.1: List of products/services ranked by EU-12 coefficient of price
variation in 1990 (based on price including taxes) 238
Appendix 1.2: List ofs ranked by EU-9 coefficient of price
variation in 1990 (based on price excluding VAT) 241
The soft drink and mineral water sector 244 Appendix J:
J.l 244 List of information sources
244 J. 1.1. Interviews
244 J. 1.2. Other main source of information
245 J.2. Other statistical material
Appendix K 248 The white goods sector
K.l 248 List of information sources
248 K. 1.1. Interviews
248 K. 1.2. Data sources

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