Piratage produits culturels étude ivir

Piratage produits culturels étude ivir

Documents
84 pages
Lire
Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres

Description

Lire l'article sur idboox https://www.idboox.com/les-etudes-2/

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 06 août 2018
Nombre de visites sur la page 124
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page  €. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Signaler un problème
IVîR (Instîtute for Informatîon Law)
Global Online Piracy Study
Juy 2018
IVîR - Instîtute for Informatîon Law P.O. Box 15514, 1001 NA Amsterdam, The Netherands https://www.îvîr.n/n/
Instîtute for Informatîon LawJoost Poort João Pedro Quîntaîs
EcorysMartîn van der Ende Anastasîa Yagafarova Mathîjs Hageraats
The research project was inanced by Googe. It has been conducted în fu compîance wîth the Decaratîon of Scîentîic Independence as formuated by the Roya Dutch Academy of Scîence. Thîs Study, îts Annexes, and the Lega Background Report are avaîabe for downoad at: https://www.îvîr.n/n/
Global Online Piracy Study
Goba Onîne Pîracy Study
1.
2. 2.1 2.2 2.3
3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6
4. 4.1 4.2 4.3
5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
6. 6.1 6.2 6.3
Contents
Hîghîghts
Executîve summary
Introductîon
A brîef hîstory of onîne pîracy research
Lega Background
The effect of onîne pîracy on saes
The effect of enforcement on onîne pîracy
Country statîstîcs and saes deveopments Country statîstîcs Musîc Fîm and vîdeo Books Games Concusîons
Survey sampe descrîptîves, weîghtîng and data ceanîng
Sampe composîtîon and recruîtment
Representatîveness and weîghtîng
Data ceanîng
Use of ega and îega content acquîsîtîon channes Musîc Fîm and vîdeo Books Games Concusîons
The effect of onîne pîracy on ega consumptîon
Instrumenta varîabe regressîon
Quasî-pane bockbuster ims
Rea pane
Lîterature
7
9
17
19 19 23 27
31 31 33 36 38 40 41
43 43 44 44
4747 54 59 63 68
7171 75 79
80
5
Goba Onîne Pîracy Study
Highlights
7
Thîs report deas wîth the acquîsîtîon and consumptîon ofmusîc, ilms, serîes, booksandgamesthrough the varîouslegalandîllegal channelsthat exîst nowadays, în a set of13 countrîesîn Europe (France, Germany, the Netherands, Poand, Spaîn, Sweden), the Amerîcas (Brazî, Canada) and Asîa (Hong Kong, Indonesîa, Japan, Thaîand). The îega channes studîed aredownloadîngandstreamîngfrom îega sources (încudîng vîa dedîcatedtechnîcal devîces), andstreamrîppîng.
The purposes are (î) to provîde factua înformatîon about thestate of authorîsed and unauthorîsedacquîsîtîon and consumptîon of content; (îî) to assess theunderlyîng motîvesand mechanîsms and thelînk wîth enforcement measuresand ega suppy; (îîî) to assess theeffect of onlîne pîracy on consumptîon from legal sources. At the core of the study îs aconsumer surveyamong neary35,000 respondents, încudîng over7,000 mînors, în 13 countrîes.
 Legal analysîs Comparatîve legal researchwas performed on the basîs of questîonnaîres on the ega status of onîne copyrîght înfrîngement and enforcement, competed by ega experts în the 13 countrîes studîed. It was found that, despîte some ega uncertaînty, the majorîty of acts studîed are quaîied as dîrect copyrîght înfrîngement by users or gîve rîse to îabîîty for întermedîarîes. Moreover, ISPs are often subject to înjunctîons and dutîes of care even when they beneit from safe harbours. On the whoe, copyrîght hoders have a vast arsena of ega enforcement measures to depoy agaînst end users and ISPs. There îs a trend în many countrîes toward copyrîght enforcement through cîvî or admînîstratîve measures aîmed at bockîng websîtes that provîde access to înfrîngîng content. Notîces to înfrîngers and to patforms hostîng or înkîng to înfrîngîng content wîth the aîm of removîng/bockîng such content are îkewîse reguary used, the atter în the context of notîce-and-takedown systems. Crîmîna measures are ess popuar.
Stî, despîte the abundance of enforcement measures, theîr perceîved effectîveness îs uncertaîn. Therefore, ît îs questîonabe whether the answer to successfuy tackîng onîne copyrîght înfrîngement îes în addîtîona rîghts or enforcement measures, especîay îf these wî not ead to addîtîona revenue for copyrîght hoders and rîsk comîng înto conlîct wîth fundamenta rîghts of users and întermedîarîes. Instead, ît mîght be sensîbe to search for the answer to pîracy esewhere – în the provîsîon of affordabe and convenîent ega access to copyrîght-protected content.
 Growîng markets Saes data for musîc, im and vîdeo, books and games revea that across a content types and formats, per capîta încome appears to be an împortant drîver of expendîtures. However, above an annua încome eve of € 30,000 per capîta, thîs reatîonshîp no onger seems to appy and natîona preferences domînate încome effects. Zoomîng în, ît îs cear that physîca saes are în contînuous decîne for amost every content type and în amost every country. Despîte the decîne în physîca saes, the încrease în dîgîta saes ed tonet growth for total recorded musîc, audîo-vîsual content, books and gamesbetween 2014 and 2017. Expendîtures on îve concerts and cînema vîsîts are growîng.
 Survey outcomes The percentage of the Internet popuatîon consumîng content fromlegalsources varîes between 61% în France and 93% în Indonesîa. In most European countrîes, thîs percentage decreased somewhat between 2014 and 2017 – prîmarîy due to a decrease for physîca carrîers – whîe tota ega consumptîon voumes grew.
Consumîng content fromîllegal sources– onîne pîracy – îs most prevaent în the Internet popuatîons of Indonesîa, Thaîand and Brazî, foowed by Spaîn and Poand. As a percentage of tota popuatîon, Spaîn,
Goba Onîne Pîracy Study
8
Canada and Hong Kong are the top three countrîes for pîracy, whîe pîracy îs the east common în Germany, Japan and Indonesîa, the ast due to ow Internet penetratîon. Between 2014 and 2017, thenumber of pîrates decreased în all European countrîes except Germany.
The per capîtaconsumptîon volumesper ega and îega content channe that foow from the survey do not aways match these deveopments: for most countrîes and content types, an încrease în the per capîta voume of îega content consumed îs observed, despîte a decreasîng proportîon of the popuatîon engagîng în onîne pîracy. Thîs împîes that the îssue of pîracy îs graduay becomîng conined to a smaer group: fewer peope consume more on aggregate vîa îega channes.
It mîght be temptîng to argue that an încrease în the use of certaîn enforcement measures agaînst obvîousy îega patforms has contrîbuted to the decreasîng number of pîrates în Europe. However, a ack of evîdence concernîng the effectîveness of most enforcement measures and the strong înk between pîracy and the avaîabîîty and affordabîîty of content suggests otherwîse: at a country eve,onlîne pîracy correlates remarkably strongly wîth a lack of purchasîng power. Hîgher per capîta încome coîncîdes wîth a ower number of pîrates per ega users.
Moreover, pîrates and ega users are argey the same peope: demographîcay, pîrates resembe ega users quîte cosey, athough on average they tend to be somewhat younger and more often mae. More împortanty, for each content type and country,95% or more of pîrates also consume content legallyand theîrmedîan legal consumptîonîs typîcaytwîcethat ofnon-pîratîng legal users.
 Dîsplacement of legal sales Thîs study conirms earîer studîes în indîng statîstîca evîdence thatîllegal consumptîonof musîc, books and gamesdîsplaces legal consumptîon. However, the dîspacement coeficîents are surrounded wîth substantîa uncertaînty. Separatîng these resuts between mînors and aduts suggests that dîspacement occurs for aduts and not for mînors.
The resuts formusîcîndîcate that îega consumptîon prîmarîy dîspaces ega downoads and physîca carrîers. The effect on streamîng îs not statîstîcay sîgnîicant. For îve concerts and musîc festîvas, aposîtîvesampîng effect îs found. Foraudîo-vîsualcontent, no such sampîng seems to occur for the cînema, whîch suffers from statîstîcay sîgnîicant dîspacement, as do dîgîta streams. No sîgnîicant effects are found for physîca purchases and dîgîta downoads. For rentas, a margînay sîgnîicant posîtîve coeficîent îs found. Forbooks,the resuts are contrary to those for musîc and audîo-vîsua în the sense that arge and statîstîcay sîgnîicant dîspacement rates are found for books bought în prînt and borrowed from the îbrary. These dîspacement rates may be overstated by peope who have shîfted from consumîng prînt books to dîgîta and others who have not. Forgames, the effect found for free games îs partîcuary hîgh, but the coeficîents found for the other channes are aso statîstîcay sîgnîicant. Just îke for books, the arge coeficîent for free games may be overstated.
Usîng tîme-structured data forblockbuster ilms, an average dîspacement rate was found of–0.46of irst ega vîews by irst îega vîews. Thîs effect îs smaer în Japan and the Netherands and arger în Thaîand and Brazî. The argest effect occurs on cînema vîsîts. From these estîmatîons, ît îs possîbe to cacuate an upper bound for the reatîvesales lossof tota im vîews per channe and per country. Overa, a maxîmum of about4.1%of a ega bockbuster vîews îs dîspaced by îega vîews.
An anaysîs of îndîvîdua changes în consumptîon for respondents în sîx EU countrîesbetween 2014 and 2017reveassîgnîicantly posîtîvecorreatîons. Apparenty, substîtutîon effects – ‘Sha I buy or sha I pîrate?’ – occur on the spot. Over a onger tîme span, împrovements în the avaîabîîty from ega channes are domînant and changes în persona preferences affect ega and îega consumptîon aîke.
Goba Onîne Pîracy Study
Executive summary
9
 A changîng landscape for the acquîsîtîon and consumptîon of copyrîghted content The ways în whîch consumers acquîre and experîence musîc, ims, serîes, books and games have changed radîcay over the ast 20 years. Whereas such copyrîght-protected content was acquîred prîmarîy în the form of physîca carrîers such as cds, dvds and prînt books up to the turn of the century, nowadays an încreasîng amount of purey dîgîta content îs acquîred and consumed vîa the Internet. And în recent years, ît îs possîbe to dîscern a second shîft în consumptîon of content, from downoadîng from patforms such as îTunes, to streamîng from Netlîx, Spotîfy and the îke: from ownershîp to access.
Aong wîth, and sometîmes even ahead of, the authorîsed dîstrîbutîon of content, unauthorîsed onîne content dîstrîbutîon – commony referred to as ‘onîne pîracy’ – has foowed the same evoutîon: from physîca carrîers, such as counterfeît cds and dvds, vîa downoads from Napster and îts successors such as The Pîrate Bay andcyberlockerssuch as Megaupoad, to streamîng vîa patforms such as Popcorn Tîme. In some cases,unauthorîsed streamîngîs done through dedîcated technîca devîces/set-top boxes wîth pre-înstaed înks to unauthorîsed content patforms. A reated use of copyrîght-protected materîa that îs generay aso vîewed as unauthorîsed îsstreamrîppîng, whereby software toos, browser pugîns or specîa websîtes are used to store musîc or audîo-vîsua content, such as YouTube vîdeos, oflîne for ater repay (în vîoatîon of YouTube’s terms of servîce). These varîous channes coexîst today and many consumers use a mîx of them dependîng on the occasîon.
 Research questîons and scope Thîs report deas wîth the acquîsîtîon and consumptîon ofmusîc, ilms, serîes, books and gamesthrough the varîous ega and îega channes that exîst nowadays, în a set of countrîes across the gobe (see Tabe 1).
Tabe 1 Countrîes studîed France Germany The Netherands EuropePoand Spaîn Sweden Unîted Kîngdom Brazî Amerîcas Canada Hong Kong Indonesîa Asîa Japan Thaîand
The purpose of the study îs threefod:
FRA DEU NLD POL ESP SWE GBR BRA CAN HKG IDN JPN THA
1. To provîde factua înformatîon about the state ofauthorîsed and unauthorîsedacquîsîtîon and consumptîon of these content types. 2. To assess the underyîng motîves and mechanîsms and the înk wîth enforcement measures and ega suppy. 3. To assess the effect of onîne pîracy on consumptîon from ega sources.
Goba Onîne Pîracy Study
10
To these ends, thîs study combînes dîfferent sources and research methods. At the core of the study îs a consumer survey among neary 35,000 respondents, încudîng over 7,000 mînors (aged 14 to 17), în 13 countrîes. In addîtîon, comparatîve ega research was performed on the basîs of questîonnaîres on the ega status of onîne copyrîght înfrîngement and enforcement, competed by ega experts în the 13 countrîes studîed. A separateLegal Background Reportcontaîns thîs ega anaysîs and the fu country reports that underîe ît, but a brîef overvîew îs provîded beow and în the body of the maîn report.
 Legal Background Comparatîve ega research was performed on the basîs of questîonnaîres on the ega status of onîne copyrîght înfrîngement and enforcement, competed by ega experts în the 13 countrîes studîed. It was found that, despîte some ega uncertaînty, the majorîty of acts studîed are quaîied as dîrect copyrîght înfrîngement by users or gîve rîse to îabîîty for întermedîarîes. Moreover, ISPs are often subject to înjunctîons and dutîes of care even when they beneit from safe harbours. On the whoe, copyrîght hoders have a vast arsena of ega enforcement measures to depoy agaînst end users and ISPs. There îs a trend în many countrîes toward copyrîght enforcement through cîvî or admînîstratîve measures aîmed at bockîng websîtes that provîde access to înfrîngîng content. Notîces to înfrîngers and to patforms hostîng or înkîng to înfrîngîng content wîth the aîm of removîng/bockîng such content are îkewîse reguary used, the atter în the context of notîce-and-takedown systems. Crîmîna measures are ess popuar.
Stî, despîte the abundance of enforcement measures, theîr perceîved effectîveness îs uncertaîn. Therefore, ît îs questîonabe whether the answer to successfuy tackîng onîne copyrîght înfrîngement îes în addîtîona rîghts or enforcement measures, especîay îf these wî not ead to addîtîona revenue for copyrîght hoders and rîsk comîng înto conlîct wîth fundamenta rîghts of users and întermedîarîes. Instead, ît mîght be sensîbe to search for the answer to pîracy esewhere – în the provîsîon of affordabe and convenîent ega access to copyrîght-protected content.
 The elusîve effect of onlîne pîracy on sales When onîne ie sharîng took off around the turn of the century, the recorded-musîc îndustry and, ater, the im îndustry were quîck to bame ît for ost revenues. Indeed, ît îs argey undîsputed that 1999 was a turnîng poînt for revenues from goba recorded musîc saes and that rea revenues from physîca and dîgîta recorded musîc saes decîned for many years thereafter, ony to start încreasîng agaîn a few years ago. Lîkewîse, goba revenues from dvd saes and rentas have decîned for many years sînce the turn of the century.
Nevertheess, answerîng the empîrîca questîon of the effect of unauthorîsed onîne content consumptîon on ega saes has proven to be cumbersome. A majorîty of the academîc îterature on the matter inds a negatîve net effect of îega consumptîon on ega saes. However, there are reatîvey few studîes on games and books, and a meta-anaysîs of the îterature inds the evîdence însuficîent to concude wîth certaînty that pîracy harms ega saes.
There are severa reasons that there îs no consensus on what may seem so obvîous at irst gance: the înk between onîne pîracy and ega saes. Fîrst, there are severa opposîng înteractîons between pîracy and ega consumptîon, some of whîch have a negatîve împact on saes, some posîtîve and some neutra. These varîous potentîa mechanîsms are summarîsed în Tabe 2. The most promînent posîtîve effect îs known as thesamplîng effect: consumers are întroduced to new musîc, actors and genres, and thîs creates new demand. Onîne pîracy may aso enhance the demand forcomplementary productssuch as îve concerts and merchandîse. On the downsîde, the most promînent effect îs obvîousysubstîtutîon: a consumer refraîns from buyîng specîic content egay after havîng acquîred or consumed ît from an îega source. Aso, pîracy may dîspace ega consumptîon vîa competîtîon for peope’s tîme budget: one cannot watch one im from a ega source and one from an îega source at the same tîme. Fînay, neutra effects occur, for înstance, when ie sharîng meets the demand of consumers wîth însuficîent wîîngness to pay.
Goba Onîne Pîracy Study
Tabe 2
Possîbe effects of onîne pîracy on the purchase of ega content
Posîtîve
Neutral
Negatîve
+ It întroduces consumers to musîc, ims, books and games (and to artîsts, authors and genres), thus creatîng new demand. Thîs îs known as the sampîng effect. + It aows consumers to poo theîr demand, resutîng în încreased demand. + It enhances wîîngness to pay and demand for concerts and reated merchandîse (compementary demand). + It enhances the popuarîty of products, boostîng demand for ega suppy (network effect).
• It meets the demand of consumers who are not, or not suficîenty, wîîng to pay and subsequenty are not served by ega suppy. • It meets a demand for products that are not offered egay.
- It substîtutes for the purchase of content or cînema vîsîts (substîtutîon effect). - It resuts în the deferred purchase of content at a ower prîce than the prîce at aunch. - Sampîng resuts în saes dîspacement as a resut of fewer bad purchases. - It substîtutes ega consumptîon vîa consumers’ tîme budget.
11
The reatîve strength of these înteractîons îs îkey to dîffer between content types and channes. Even wîthîn content categorîes, dîfferences can be expected between more recent and popuar content, on the one hand, and oder or nîche content, on the other hand. Aso, the average net effect may have changed over
tîme, wîth the advance of fast broadband connectîons for consumers and the înnovatîon by the content
îndustrîes. Nowadays, a technoogîca mîsmatch between suppy and demand îs a much ess îkey motîvatîon
for onîne pîracy than ît was a decade ago.
On top of these subtetîes, estîmatîng the effect of onîne pîracy on saes faces methodoogîca chaenges
that have to do wîth the fact that for many consumers, ega consumptîon and pîracy go hand în hand.
Thîs îs îustrated în thîs report by the demographîc descrîptîon of pîrates and ega users, who are very
much aîke. Moreover, as a consequence of underyîng îndîvîdua preferences, pîrates are much more îkey
to be ega users of each content type than are non-pîrates, and the medîan ega consumptîon of pîrates
îs typîcay twîce that of non-pîrates. As a consequence, a posîtîve correatîon between pîracy and ega
consumptîon can be expected whîch shoud not be hastîy înterpreted as a causa reatîonshîp.
 Development of legal sales Anaysîs of saes data for musîc, im and vîdeo, books and games reveas that across a content types and formats, per capîta încome appears to be an împortant drîver of per capîta expendîture. However, above an annua încome eve of €30,000 per capîta, thîs reatîonshîp no onger seems to appy and natîona
preferences domînate încome effects. Thîs îs îustrated în Fîgure 3.
Zoomîng înto these saes per content type, ît îs cear that physîca saes are în constant decîne for amost
every content type and în amost every country, most notaby for audîo-vîsua content. Books are reatîvey
resîîent to dîgîtîsatîon and prînt books stî domînate în a countrîes. Dîgîta saes have grown amost
everywhere over the past three years. For musîc, dîgîta streamîng grew strongy at the expense of dîgîta
downoads. For audîo-vîsua content, svod servîces such as Netlîx are becomîng the domînant mode.
Despîte the decîne în physîca saes, the încrease în dîgîta saes ed to net growth for tota recorded musîc,
audîo-vîsua content, books and games between 2014 and 2017. Expendîtures on îve concerts and cînema
vîsîts are growîng amost everywhere. In the musîc category, îve concerts generate revenues comparabe to
those for recorded musîc, except în Japan. In the audîo-vîsua category, ims generate not much ess revenue
than physîca and dîgîta recorded content combîned.