Building Engines for Growth and Competitiveness in China

Building Engines for Growth and Competitiveness in China

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In the past 30 years, China has achieved an unprecedented development "miracle" in human history. How did China achieve this? What are the key drivers for such a rapid growth? And most importantly, what can be learned from China's success?
While many factors could be identified to explain China's success, it is no doubt that the numerous Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and industrial clusters that emerged after the country's reforms are two important engines that have been driving China's rapid development. The key experiences of China's SEZs and industrial clusters could be best summarized as: gradualism with experimental approach; strong commitment; and an active facilitating state with strong pragmatism.
This book reviews the development experiences of China's SEZs and industrial clusters through extensive research, field visits, and case studies in an attempt to benefit the policy-makers, development practitioners, scholars from developing countries, and the global development community in general. It contains five detailed case studies - three SEZs in the broadest sense (Shenzhen, Tianjin and Kunshan) and two industrial clusters (Wenzhou footwear cluster in Zhejiang and Xiqiao textile cluster in Guangdong). This volume represents the most comprehensive volume to date on China's experiences with both its SEZ and cluster experiences.

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Publié le 25 août 2010
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DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT
Countries and Regions
Building Engines for Growth
and Competitiveness in China
Experience with Special Economic Zones
and Industrial Clusters
Douglas Zhihua Zeng
EditorBuilding Engines for Growth and
Competitiveness in ChinaBuilding Engines for Growth
and Competitiveness in China
Experience with Special Economic Zones
and Industrial Clusters
Douglas Zhihua Zeng
Editor© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
E-mail: feedback@worldbank.org
All rights reserved
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This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the
governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
aries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply
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endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
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ISBN: 978-0-8213-8432-9
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8433-6
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8432-9
Cover photo: Tianjin Economic–Technological Development Area (TEDA) Archives/Jiao Yongpu
Cover design: Quantum Think
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Building engines for growth and competitiveness in China : experience with special economic
zones and industrial clusters / edited by Douglas Zhihua Zeng.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8213-8432-9 — ISBN 978-0-8213-8433-6 (electronic)
1. Industrial clusters—China. 2. Enterprise zones—China. 3. Industrial policy—China.
4. Economic development—China. 5. China—Economic policy. I. Zeng, Douglas Zhihua.
HC430.D5B85 2010
338.8'7—dc22
2010017085Contents
Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Abbreviations xvii
Currency xviii
Chapter 1 How Do Special Economic Zones and Industrial
Clusters Drive China’s Rapid Development? 1
Douglas Zhihua Zeng
Terms and Definitions 4
SEZs and Clusters: “Top-Down” versus “Bottom-Up”? 6
Special Economic Zones in China:
A Testing Lab for the Market Economy 8
Industrial Clusters in China:
A Competitive Engine for the Local Economy 24
Reflections on the Experiences of China’s
SEZs and Industrial Clusters 36
Challenges to the Sustainable Development of
China’s SEZs and Industrial Clusters 39
Policy Implications 42
vvi Contents
Conclusion 45
Annex A 46
Annex B 47
Notes 48
Bibliography 49
Chapter 2 China’s First Special Economic Zone:
The Case of Shenzhen 55
Yiming Yuan, Hongyi Guo, Hongfei Xu,
Weiqi Li, Shanshan Luo, Haiqing Lin,
and Yuan Yuan
Background on the Shenzhen SEZ 56
Development Achievements 58
Development Stages 66
Roles of the Government 72
Preferential Policies 77
Key Experiences 80
Challenges and Recommendations 81
Notes 85
Bibliography 86
Chapter 3 A Case Study of Tianjin Economic–
Technological Development Area 87
Xiaoxi Li, Ruijun Duan, and Huanzhao Zhang
TEDA’s Accomplishments 88
Background on TEDA 96
The Role of Government in the Construction
of TEDA 101
TEDA’s Preferential Tax and Fiscal Policies 106
TEDA’s Success 109
Challenges Faced by TEDA 113
Lessons Learned from TEDA 117
Notes 120
Bibliography 120
Chapter 4 From County-Level to State-Level Special
Economic Zone: The Case of the Kunshan
Economic and Technological Development Zone 123
Jianming Wang and Ming HuContents vii
The Major Achievements of KETD 125
Background and History of KETD’s
Development 128
Preferential Policies for Foreign-Funded
Enterprises 135
The Essential Experiences of KETD’s
Development 139
Challenges and Some Policy Suggestions 145
Conclusions 149
Bibliography 149
Chapter 5 Industrial Clustering in China:
The Case of the Wenzhou Footwear Sector 151
Jici Wang
Overview of the Chinese Footwear Industry 152
The Formation of the Wenzhou Footwear
Industry 156
The Structure of the Wenzhou Footwear
Cluster 160
Success Factors and Challenges of the Wenzhou
Footwear Manufacturing Cluster 166
Independent Innovation: The Road to Upgrading 175
Policy Suggestions for Upgrading the Footwear
Industry in Wenzhou 176
Notes 178
Bibliography 178
Chapter 6 Cluster Development and the Role of
Government: The Case of Xiqiao Textile
Cluster in Guangdong 181
Jun Wang and Fangmin Yue
An Overview of Industrial Cluster
Development in China 182
Outline of Industrial Cluster Development
in Guangdong 187
A Typical Textile Cluster in Xiqiao Town 195
Role of Government, Policy Instruments, and
Their Implementation 201viii Contents
Evaluation of Government Policy and the
Xiqiao Textile Cluster 209
Discussion, Conclusion, and Policy Implications 215
Notes 218
Bibliography 219
Index 223
Figures
1.1 China’s GDP Growth, 1980–2008 2
1.2s Per Capita GDP, 1980–2008 2
1.3 China’s Exports of Goods and Services, 1980–2008 3
1.4 Output and Foreign Investment in Shenzhen’s Secondary
Sector, 1979–2006 20
1.5s Tertiary
Sector, 1979–2006 20
1.6 Employment and Foreign Investment in
Shenzhen, 1979–2006 21
1.7 Productivity of Selected Sectors in Shenzhen, 1993–2004 21
2.1 Growth Rate and Total Value of Exports in Shenzhen,
1979–2008 60
2.2 Actually Utilized Foreign Capital in Shenzhen,
1979–2007 61
3.1 Gross Regional Output and Gross Industrial Output of
TEDA, 1986–2008 89
3.2 Growth of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Industrial
Output of TEDA, 1996–2008 89
5.1 Formation of the Wenzhou Footwear Manufacturing
Cluster, 1970s–Present 157
5.2 Annual Output of the Wenzhou Footwear Industry,
1990–2005 161
5.3 Structure of the Wenzhou Footwear Cluster 162
5.4 The Development of the “Chinese Shoe Metropolis,”
1999–2008 171
5.5 Development Stages of the Kangnai Company,
Selected Years, 1980–2004 176
6.1 Distribution of Industrial Clusters in Guangdong,
2006 192
6.2 Public Platform of “One Platform and Five Pillars”
for Upgrading the Innovation of the Textile Cluster 208