Doing Business 2010
231 pages
English
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
231 pages
English
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication

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The seventh in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it, 'Doing Business' presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies--from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe--and over time. Regulations affecting 10 stages of a business's life are measured: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in 'Doing Business 2010' are current as of June 1, 2009. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where and why.

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Publié le 11 septembre 2009
Nombre de lectures 26
EAN13 9780821379615
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 4 Mo

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COMPARING REGULATION IN 183 ECONOMIESCOMPARING REGULATION IN 183 ECONOMIES
A COPUBLICATION OF PALGRAVE MACMILLAN,
IFC AND THE WORLD BANK© 2009 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington, DC 20433
Telephone 202-473-1000
Internet www.worldbank.org
E-mail feedback@worldbank.org
All rights reserved.
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Additional copies of Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difcult Times, Doing Business 2009, Doing Business 2008,
Doing Business 2007: How to Reform, Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs, Doing Business in 2005: Removing Obstacles
to Growth and Doing Business in 2004: Understanding Regulations may be purchased at www.doingbusiness.org.
ISBN: 978-0-8213-7961-5
E-ISBN: 978-0-8213-7965-3
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7961-5
ISSN: 1729-2638
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for.
Printed in the United StatesContents
Doing Business 2010 is the seventh in a tors, paying taxes, trading across bor- About Doing Business v
series of annual reports investigating the ders, enforcing contracts and closing a Overview 1
regulations that enhance business activity business. Data in Doing Business 2010 are Starting a business 10
and those that constrain it. Doing Busi- current as of June 1, 2009. Te indicators
Dealing with construction permits 17
ness presents quantitative indicators on are used to analyze economic outcomes
Employing workers 22business regulations and the protection and identify what reforms have worked,
Registering property 27of property rights that can be compared where and why.
Getting credit 33across 183 economies—from Afghanistan Te methodology for the employ-
to Zimbabwe—and over time. ing workers indicators changed for Doing Protecting investors 38
Regulations afecting 10 stages of Business 2010. See Data notes for details. Paying taxes 43
the life of a business are measured: start- Research is ongoing in 2 new areas: get- Trading across borders 49
ing a business, dealing with construction ting electricity and worker protection. Enforcing contracts 55
permits, employing workers, registering Initial results are presented in this report.
Closing a business 60
property, getting credit, protecting inves-
Annex: pilot indicators
on getting electricity 65
Annex: worker protection 70
THE DOING BUSINESS WEBSITE studies and customized country and regional References 73
profles Current features Data notes 77
http://www.doingbusiness.org/downloads News on the Doing Business project
Ease of doing business 97http://www.doingbusiness.org Subnational and regional projects
Country tables 102Diferences in business regulations at the Rankings
subnational and regional level How economies rank—from 1 to 183
http://www.doingbusiness.org/subnational http://www.doingbusiness.org/
Acknowledgments 164economyrankings Law library
Online collection of laws and regulations Reformers
relating to business and gender issues Short summaries of DB2010 reforms, lists
http://www.doingbusiness.org/lawlibraryof reformers since DB2004 and a ranking
http://www.org/simulation tool
genderlawlibrary http://www.doingbusiness.org/reformers
Local partners Historical data
More than 8,000 specialists in 183 economies Customized data sets since DB2004
who participate in Doing Business http://www.doingbusiness.org/customquery
http://www.doingbusiness.org/LocalPartners
Methodology and research
Reformers’ Club The methodology and research papers
Celebrating the top 10 Doing Business underlying Doing Business
reformers http://www.doingbusiness.org/
http://www.reformersclub.org MethodologySurveys
Business Planet Download reports
Interactive map on the ease of doing business Access to Doing Business reports as well as
http://www.doingbusiness.org/mapsubnational and regional reports, reform case STARTING A BUSINESS v
in redeploying resources, make it easier small and medium-size enterprises. About Doing
to stop doing things for which demand A fundamental premise of Doing
has weakened and to start doing new Business is that economic activity re -Business
things. Clarifcation of property rights quires good rules. Tese include rules
and strengthening of market infrastruc- that establish and clarify property rights
ture (such as credit information and and reduce the costs of resolving disputes,
collateral systems) can contribute to con- rules that increase the predictability of
fdence as investors and entrepreneurs economic interactions and rules that
look to rebuild. provide contractual partners with core
Until very recently, however, there protections against abuse. Te objective:
were no globally available indicator sets regulations designed to be efcient, to be
for monitoring such microeconomic fac- accessible to all who need to use them
tors and analyzing their relevance. Te and to be simple in their implementa-
frst eforts, in the 1980s, drew on per- tion. Accordingly, some Doing Business
ceptions data from expert or business indicators give a higher score for more
surveys. Such surveys are useful gauges regulation, such as stricter disclosure re-
In 1664 William Petty, an adviser to of economic and policy conditions. But quirements in related-party transactions.
England’s Charles II, compiled the frst their reliance on perceptions and their Some give a higher score for a simplifed
known national accounts. He made 4 incomplete coverage of poor countries way of implementing existing regulation,
entries. On the expense side, “food, hous- constrain their usefulness for analysis. such as completing business start-up
ing, clothes and all other necessaries” Te Doing Business project, launched formalities in a one-stop shop.
were estimated at 40 million. National 8 years ago, goes one step further. It looks Te Doing Business project encom-
income was split among 3 sources: 8 at domestic small and medium-size com- passes 2 types of data. Te frst come
million from land, 7 million from other panies and measures the regulations ap- from readings of laws and regulations.
personal estates and 25 million from plying to them through their life cycle. Te second are time and motion indi-
labor income. Doing Business and the standard cost cators that measure the efciency in
In later centuries estimates of coun- model initially developed and applied in achieving a regulatory goal (such as
try income, expenditure and material the Netherlands are, for the present, the granting the legal identity of a business).
inputs and outputs became more abun- only standard tools used across a broad Within the time and motion indicators,
dant. But it was not until the 1940s that range of jurisdictions to measure the cost estimates are recorded from ofcial
a systematic framework was developed impact of government rule-making on fee schedules where applicable. Here,
1for measuring national income and ex- business activity. Doing Business builds on Hernando de
penditure, under the direction of British Te frst Doing Business report, pub- Soto’s pioneering work in applying the
economist John Maynard Keynes. As the lished in 2003, covered 5 indicator sets in time and motion approach frst used
methodology became an international 133 economies. Tis year’s report covers by Frederick Taylor to revolutionize the
standard, comparisons of countries’ f- 10 indicator sets in 183 economies. Te production of the Model T Ford. De Soto
nancial positions became possible. Today project has benefted from feedback from used the approach in the 1980s to show
the macroeconomic indicators in na- governments, academics, practitioners the obstacles to setting up a garment fac-
2 3tional accounts are standard in every and reviewers. Te initial goal remains: tory on the outskirts of Lima.
country. to provide an objective basis for under-
Governments committed to the eco- standing and improving the regulatory What Doing Business Does
nomic health of their country and op- environment for business. not ocver
portunities for its citizens now focus on
more than macroeconomic conditions. What Doing Business ocvers Just as important as knowing what Doing
Tey also pay attention to the laws, regu- Business does is to know what it does
lations and institutional arrangements Doing Business provides a quantitative not do—to understand what limitations
that shape daily economic activity. measure of regulations for starting a must be kept in mind in interpreting
Te global fnancial crisis has re- business, dealing with construction the data.
newed interest in good rules and regu- permits, employing workers, register-
Limited in scopelation. In times of recession, efective ing property, getting credit, protecting
business regulation and institutions can investors, paying taxes, trading across Doing Business focuses on 10 topics, with
support economic adjustment. Easy bord ers, enforcing contracts and closing the specifc aim of measuring the regula-
entry and exit of frms, and fexibility a business—as they apply to domestic tion and red tape relevant to the life cycle DoING BUSINESS 2010vi
6of a domestic small to medium-size frm. sumer goods in a few urban areas. labor law. Doing Business measures one
Accordingly: Such assumptions allow global cov- set of factors that help explain the oc-
• Doing Business does not measure all erage and enhance comparability. But currence of informality and give policy
aspects of the business environment they come at the expense of generality. makers insights into potential areas of
that matter to frms or investors—or all Business regulation and its enforcement, reform. Gaining a fuller understanding
factors that afect competitiveness. It particularly in federal states and large of the broader business environment,
does not, for example, measure security, economies, difer across the country. And and a broader perspective on policy chal-
macroeconomic stability, corruption, of course the challenges and opportuni- lenges, requires combining insights from
the labor skills of the population, the ties of the largest business city—whether Doing Business with data from other
underlying strength of institutions Mumbai or São Paulo, Nuku’alofa or sources, such as the World Bank Enter-
4 7or the quality of infrastructure . Nor Nassau—vary greatly across countries. prise Surveys.
does it focus on regulations specifc to Recognizing governments’ interest in
foreign investment. such variation, Doing Business has com- Why this focus
• Doing Business does not assess the plemented its global indicators with sub-
strength of the fnancial system or national studies in such countries as Bra- Doing Business functions as a kind of
fnancial market regulations, both zil, China, Colombia, the Arab Republic cholesterol test for the regulatory envi-
important factors in understanding of Egypt, India, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, ronment for domestic businesses. A cho-
5some of the underlying causes of the Nigeria and the Philippines. lesterol test does not tell us everything
global fnancial crisis. In areas where regulation is complex about the state of our health. But it does
• Doing Business does not cover all and highly diferentiated, the standard- measure something important for our
regulations, or all regulatory goals, ized case used to construct the Doing health. And it puts us on watch to change
in any economy. As economies and Business indicator needs to be carefully behaviors in ways that will improve not
technology advance, more areas of defned. Where relevant, the standard- only our cholesterol rating but also our
economic activity are being regulated. ized case assumes a limited liability overall health.
For example, the European Union’s company. Tis choice is in part empiri- One way to test whether Doing Busi-
body of laws (acquis) has now grown cal: private, limited liability companies ness serves as a proxy for the broader
to no fewer than 14,500 rule sets. are the most prevalent business form in business environment and for competi-
Doing Business measures just 10 most economies around the world. Te tiveness is to look at correlations be-
phases of a company’s life cycle, choice also refects one focus of Doing tween the Doing Business rankings and
through 10 specifc sets of indicators. Business: expanding opportunities for other major economic benchmarks. Te
Te indicator sets also do not cover entrepreneurship. Investors are encour- indicator set closest to Doing Business
all aspects of regulation in a particular aged to venture into business when po- in what it measures is the Organisation
area. For example, the indicators tential losses are limited to their capital for Economic Co-operation and Devel-
on starting a business or protecting participation. opment’s indicators of product market
investors do not cover all aspects of regulation; the correlation here is 0.75.
Focused on the FormaL secort commercial legislation. Te employing Te World Economic Forum’s Global
workers indicators do not cover all In constructing the indicators, Doing Competitiveness Index and IMD’s World
aspects of labor regulation. Measures Business assumes that entrepreneurs are Competitiveness Yearbook are broader in
for regulations addressing safety at knowledgeable about all regulations in scope, but these too are strongly corre-
work or right of collective bargaining, place and comply with them. In prac- lated with Doing Business (0.79 and 0.72,
for example, are not included in the tice, entrepreneurs may spend consid- respectively). Tese correlations suggest
current indicator set. erable time fnding out where to go and that where peace and macroeconomic
what documents to submit. Or they stability are present, domestic business
Based on andstardized case may avoid legally required procedures regulation makes an important difer-
scenarios altogether—by not registering for social ence in economic competitiveness.
Doing Business indicators are built on the security, for example. A bigger question is whether the
basis of standardized case scenarios with Where regulation is particularly issues on which Doing Business focuses
specifc assumptions, such as the busi- onerous, levels of informality are higher. matter for development and poverty re-
ness being located in the largest business Informality comes at a cost: frms in duction. Te World Bank study Voices
city of the economy. Economic indicators the informal sector typically grow more of the Poor asked 60,000 poor people
commonly make limiting assumptions slowly, have poorer access to credit and around the world how they thought they
8of this kind. Infation statistics, for ex- employ fewer workers—and their work- might escape poverty. Te answers were
ample, are ofen based on prices of con- ers remain outside the protections of unequivocal: women and men alike pin ABoUT DoING BUSINESS vii
their hopes above all on income from business regulation, can be benefcial for regulations and their way of implement-
their own business or wages earned in several reasons. Flexible regulation and ing them, while many poor economies
employment. Enabling growth—and en- efective institutions, including efcient still work with regulatory systems dating
suring that poor people can participate processes for starting a business and ef- to the late 1800s.
in its benefts—requires an environment cient insolvency or bankruptcy systems,
where new entrants with drive and good can facilitate reallocation of labor and Doing Business—
ideas, regardless of their gender or ethnic capital. And regulatory institutions and a user’s guiDe
origin, can get started in business and processes that are streamlined and acces-
where good frms can invest and grow, sible can help ensure that, as businesses Quantitative data and benchmarking can
generating more jobs. rebuild, barriers between the informal be useful in stimulating debate about
Small and medium-size enterprises and formal sectors are lowered, creating policy, both by exposing potential chal-
are key drivers of competition, growth more opportunities for the poor. lenges and by identifying where pol-
and job creation, particularly in develop- icy makers might look for lessons and
ing countries. But in these economies up Doing Business as a good practices. Tese data also provide
to 80% of economic activity takes place Benchmarking exercise a basis for analyzing how diferent policy
in the informal sector. Firms may be pre- approaches—and diferent policy re-
vented from entering the formal sector Doing Business, in capturing some key forms—contribute to desired outcomes
by excessive bureaucracy and regulation. dimensions of regulatory regimes, has such as competitiveness, growth and
Where regulation is burdensome been found useful for benchmarking. greater employment and incomes.
and competition limited, success tends Any benchmarking—for individuals, Seven years of Doing Business data
to depend more on whom you know frms or economies—is necessarily par- have enabled a growing body of research
than on what you can do. But where tial: it is valid and useful if it helps on how performance on Doing Busi-
regulation is transparent, efcient and sharpen judgment, less so if it substitutes ness indicators—and reforms relevant
implemented in a simple way, it becomes for judgment. to those indicators—relate to desired
easier for any aspiring entrepreneurs, Doing Business provides 2 takes on social and economic outcomes. Some
regardless of their connections, to oper- the data it collects: it presents “absolute” 405 articles have been published in
ate within the rule of law and to beneft indicators for each economy for each of peer-reviewed academic journals, and
from the opportunities and protections the 10 regulatory topics it addresses, and about 1,143 working papers are available
10that the law provides. it provides rankings of economies, both through Google Scholar. Among the
In this sense Doing Business values by indicator and in aggregate. Judgment fndings:
good rules as a key to social inclusion. It is required in interpreting these mea- • Lower barriers to start-up are associ-
11also provides a basis for studying efects sures for any economy and in determin- ated with a smaller informal sector.
of regulations and their application. For ing a sensible and politically feasible path • Lower costs of entry encourage
example, Doing Business 2004 found that for reform. entrepreneurship, enhance frm
12faster contract enforcement was associ- Reviewing the Doing Business rank- productivity and reduce corruption.
ated with perceptions of greater judicial ings in isolation may show unexpected • Simpler start-up translates into
13fairness—suggesting that justice delayed results. Some economies may rank un- greater employment opportunities.
9is justice denied. expectedly high on some indicators. And
In the current global crisis policy some economies that have had rapid How do governments use Doing
makers face particular challenges. Both growth or attracted a great deal of invest- Business? A common frst reaction is
developed and developing economies are ment may rank lower than others that to doubt the quality and relevance of
seeing the impact of the fnancial crisis appear to be less dynamic. the Doing Business data. Yet the debate
fowing through to the real economy, But for reform-minded govern- typically proceeds to a deeper discussion
with rising unemployment and income ments, how much their indicators im- exploring the relevance of the data to the
loss. Te foremost challenge for many prove matters more than their absolute economy and areas where reform might
governments is to create new jobs and ranking. As economies develop, they make sense.
economic opportunities. But many have strengthen and add to regulations to Most reformers start out by seeking
limited fscal space for publicly funded protect investor and property rights. examples, and Doing Business helps in
activities such as infrastructure invest- Meanwhile, they fnd more efcient ways this. For example, Saudi Arabia used the
ment or for the provision of publicly to implement existing regulations and company law of France as a model for re-
funded safety nets and social services. cut outdated ones. One fnding of Doing vising its own. Many countries in Africa
Reforms aimed at creating a better in- Business: dynamic and growing econo- look to Mauritius—the region’s stron-
vestment climate, including reforms of mies continually reform and update their gest performer on Doing Business indi-DoING BUSINESS 2010viii
development of the methodologycators—as a source of good practices for are lacking) and the time component
reform. In the words of Luis Guillermo are based on actual practice rather than Te methodology for calculating each
Plata, the minister of commerce, indus- the law on the books. Tis introduces a indicator is transparent, objective and
try and tourism of Colombia, degree of subjectivity. Te Doing Busi- easily replicable. Leading academics col-
ness approach has therefore been to work laborate in the development of the indi-
It’s not like baking a cake where you follow with legal practitioners or professionals cators, ensuring academic rigor. Seven
the recipe. No. We are all diferent. But we who regularly undertake the transac- of the background papers underlying
can take certain things, certain key les- tions involved. Following the standard the indicators have been published in
sons, and apply those lessons and see how methodological approach for time and leading economic journals. One is at an
they work in our environment. motion studies, Doing Business breaks advanced stage of publication.
down each process or transaction, such Doing Business uses a simple averag-
Over the past 7 years there has been as starting and legally operating a busi- ing approach for weighting subindica-
much activity by governments in re- ness, into separate steps to ensure a bet- tors and calculating rankings. Other ap-
forming the regulatory environment for ter estimate of time. Te time estimate proaches were explored, including using
domestic businesses. Most reforms relat- for each step is given by practitioners principal components and unobserved
ing to Doing Business topics were nested with signifcant and routine experience components. Te principal components
in broader programs of reform aimed at in the transaction. and unobserved components approaches
enhancing economic competitiveness. In Over the past 7 years more than turn out to yield results nearly identical to
structuring their reform programs, gov- 11,000 professionals in 183 economies those of simple averaging. Te tests show
ernments use multiple data sources and have assisted in providing the data that that each set of indicators provides new
indicators. And reformers respond to inform the Doing Business indicators. Tis information. Te simple averaging ap-
many stakeholders and interest groups, year’s report draws on the inputs of more proach is therefore robust to such tests.
all of whom bring important issues and than 8,000 professionals. Table 14.1 lists
Improvements ot the concerns into the reform debate. the number of respondents per indicator
methodology and a tda revIsIonsWorld Bank support to these reform set. Te Doing Business website indicates
processes is designed to encourage criti- the number of respondents per economy Te methodology has undergone contin-
cal use of the data, sharpening judgment and per indicator. Respondents are pro- ual improvement over the years. Changes
and avoiding a narrow focus on improv- fessionals or government ofcials who have been made mainly in response to
ing Doing Business rankings. routinely administer or advise on the legal country suggestions. For enforcing con-
and regulatory requirements covered in tracts, for example, the amount of the
methoDology anD Da ta each Doing Business topic. Because of the disputed claim in the case study was
focus on legal and regulatory arrange- increased from 50% to 200% of income
Doing Business covers 183 economies— ments, most of the respondents are law- per capita afer the frst year of data col-
including small economies and some of yers. Te credit information survey is an- lection, as it became clear that smaller
the poorest countries, for which little or swered by ofcials of the credit registry or claims were unlikely to go to court.
no data are available in other data sets. bureau. Freight forwarders, accountants, Another change relates to starting a
Te Doing Business data are based on architects and other professionals answer business. Te minimum capital require-
domestic laws and regulations as well as the surveys related to trading across bor- ment can be an obstacle for potential
administrative requirements. (For a de- ders, taxes and construction permits. entrepreneurs. Initially, Doing Business
tailed explanation of the Doing Business Te Doing Business approach to measured the required minimum capital
methodology, see Data notes.) data collection contrasts with that of regardless of whether it had to be paid
enterprise or frm surveys, which capture up front or not. In many economies only
InformtIa on sources for the atda ofen one-time perceptions and experi- part of the minimum capital has to be
Most of the indicators are based on laws ences of businesses. A corporate lawyer paid up front. To refect the actual po-
and regulations. In addition, most of the registering 100–150 businesses a year tential barrier to entry, the paid-in mini-
cost indicators are backed by ofcial fee will be more familiar with the process mum capital has been used since 2004.
schedules. Doing Business respondents than an entrepreneur, who will register Tis year’s report includes changes
both fll out written surveys and provide a business only once or maybe twice. A in the core methodology for one set of
references to the relevant laws, regu- bankruptcy judge deciding dozens of indicators, those on employing work-
lations and fee schedules, aiding data cases a year will have more insight into ers. Te assumption for the standardized
checking and quality assurance. bankruptcy than a company that may case study was changed to refer to a
For some indicators part of the undergo the process. small to medium-size company with 60
cost component (where fee schedules employees rather than 201. Te scope of

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