Open Skies for Africa
264 pages

Open Skies for Africa


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264 pages
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In Africa, where poor roads, ports, and railways often constrain efficient transportation, air transport holds great potential as a lever for economic growth and development. Yet Africa has suffered several decades of inefficient air services. Uncompetitive flag carriers, set up by newly independent African states, offered primarily intercontinental flights, while the domestic air service market remained underdeveloped and underserved. The 1999 pan-African treaty on liberalization of access to air transport markets, the Yamoussoukro Decision, attempted to address these shortcomings. Yet a decade later, only partial liberalization has been achieved.
'Open Skies for Africa: Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision' reviews progress made in carrying out the treaty and suggests ways in which the liberalization process can be encouraged. The book analyzes the completed and still-pending steps toward implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision, both on a pan-African level and within various regions. Special focus is given to the challenges posed by the poor aviation safety and security standards that exist in most African countries. Finally, the book measures the impact that certain policy steps of the Yamoussoukro Decision have had and evaluates the economic significance of air transportation and its full liberalization in Africa. The book concludes that the process of liberalizing African air services must continue, and provides policy recommendations for the way forward.



Publié par
Publié le 23 juin 2010
Nombre de lectures 45
EAN13 9780821382066
Langue English


Open Skies for Africa
Implementing the
Yamoussoukro Decision
Charles E. SchlumbergerOpen Skies for AfricaOpen Skies for Africa
Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision
Charles E. Schlumberger© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
Telephone 202-473-1000
All rights reserved.
1 2 3 4 :: 13 12 11 10
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the
governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
aries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply
any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the
endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this
work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will
normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly.
For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete
information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet:
All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax:
202-522-2422; e-mail:
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8205-9
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8206-6
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8205-9
Cover photo: Charles E. Schlumberger.
Cataloging-in-Publication data is available from the Library of Congress.This book is dedicated to the many African men and women who, every
day, fulfill their duties as pilots and flight attendants to the best of their
abilities to ensure safe air travel, while sometimes facing difficult and excep-
tional challenges.Contents
Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii
About the Author xv
Abbreviations xvii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Notes 7
Chapter 2 Elements and Entry into Force of
the Yamoussoukro Decision 9
The YDeclaration 9Decision 10
The Abuja Treaty and Its Entry into Force 16
Entry into Force of the Yamoussoukro Decision 20
Conclusion 27
Notes 27
Chapter 3 Status Quo of the Implementation of
the Yamoussoukro Decision 29
Policy Implementation 31
viiviii Contents
Operational Implementation 37
The African Air Transport Industry
and Liberalization 41
Safety and Security Requirements 42
Implementation: Condition Precedent
or Subsequent? 52
Notes 57
Chapter 4 Regional Implementation of
the Yamoussoukro Decision 61
North Africa 62
West Africa 72
Central Africa 86
Southern and East Africa 92
Conclusion 110
Notes 112
Chapter 5 Impact of Liberalization 115
Data Sources and Methodology 115
General Traffic Analysis 119al Fleet Analysis 121
Effects of Liberalization on Traffic and
Air Carriers by Region 124
Conclusions 146
Notes 148
Chapter 6 Economic Aspects of Liberalizing
Air Services in Africa 149
Economic Benefits of the Air Transport Sector 150
Potential Impact of Liberalizing of Air Transport
Services 157
Economic Significance of Liberalizing African
Air Transport Services 165
Conclusion 168
Notes 170
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Policy Recommendations 171
Appendix A Ethiopian Air Service Agreements
with Other African States 177

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