Toward Better Infrastructure

Toward Better Infrastructure

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Examining innovative ways to address Africa's infrastructure deficit is at the heart of this analysis. Africa's infrastructure stock and quality is among the least developed in the world, a challenge that significantly hinders economic development. It is estimated that the finance required to raise infrastructure in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) to a reasonable level within the next decade is at US$93 billion per year, with two-thirds of this amount needed for capital expenditures. With the existing spending on infrastructure being estimated at US$45 billion per annum and after accounting for potential efficiency gains that could amount to US$17 billion, Africa's infrastructure funding gap remains around US$31 billion a year. One approach to address this challenge is by facilitating the increase of private provision of public infrastructure services through public-private partnerships (PPPs). This approach, which is a relatively new arrangement in SSA is multifaceted and requires strong consensus and collaboration across both public and private sectors.
There are several defined models of PPPs. Each type differs in terms of government participation levels, risk allocations, investment responsibilities, operational requirements, and incentives for operators. Our definition of PPPs assumes transactions where the private sector retains a considerable portion of commercial and financial risks associated with a project. In more descriptive terms, among the elements defining the notion of PPPs discussed in this study are: a long-term contract between a public and private sector party; the design, construction, financing, and operation of public infrastructure by the private sector; payment over the life of the PPP contract to the private sector party for the services delivered from the asset; and the facility remaining in public ownership or reverting to public sector ownership at the end of the PPP contract. The observations and policy recommendations that follow draw on ongoing World Bank Group PPP engagements in these countries, including extensive consultations with key public and private sector stakeholders involved in designing, financing, and implementing PPPs.
The study is structured around the most inhibiting constraints to developing PPPs, as shared by all six countries.

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Publié le 05 juillet 2011
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A W O R L D B A N K S T U D Y
Toward Better Infrastructure 
C O N D I T I O N S , C O N S T R A I N T S , A N D O P P O R T U N I T I E S I N F I N A N C I N G P U B L I C - P R I V AT E P A R T N E R S H I P S I N S E L E C T A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S
Riham Shendy, Zachary Kaplan, Peter Mousley
W O R L D B A N K S T U D Y
Toward BeĴer Infrastructure
Conditions, Constraints, and Opportunities in Financing Public-Private Partnerships in Select African Countries
Riham Shendy Zachary Kaplan Peter Mousley
Copyright © 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: www.worldbank.org
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World Bank Studies are published to communicate the results of the Banks work to the development community with the least possible delay. The manuscript of this paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formally-edited texts. This volume is a product of the staof the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Thendings, interpre-tations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judge-ment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmiĴing portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for Reconstruc-tion and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com. All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Of-1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422;ce of the Publisher, The World Bank, e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8781-8 eISBN: 978-0-8213-8820-4 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8781-8
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Shendy, Riham.  Towards beĴer infrastructure : conditions, constraints, and opportunities innancing public-private partnerships : evidence from Cameroon, Côte dIvoire, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal / Riham Shendy, Zachary Kaplan, Peter Mousley ; PPIAF.  p. cm. This report was produced at the request of the Government of Ghana (GOG) under the leadership of the Project Finance and Analysis (PFA) Unit of the Public Investment Department (PID) of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and with support from the World Bank and Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF)--Acknowledgements. ISBN 978-0-8213-8781-8 -- ISBN 978-0-8213-8820-4 1. Public-private sector cooperation--Africa. 2. Public works--Africa--Finance. 3. Infrastructure (Economics)--Africa. I. Kaplan, Zachary. II. Mousley, Peter. III. World Bank. IV. Public-Private Infra-structure Advisory Facility. V. Title. HD3872.A35S54 2011 658.15224--dc22  2011019769
Contents
Acknowledgments..................................................................................................................vii
Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................................................................................ix
Overview.....................................................................................................................................xi
1. Background .............................................................................................................................1
Current Status of PPP Markets in Selected Countries ..................................................1
This Report ..........................................................................................................................6
2. Sources of Financing ............................................................................................................9
Sources of Local Financing for PPP Projects .................................................................10
Sources of International Financing for PPP Projects ...................................................21
3. The Legislative and Institutional Framework................................................................27
4. A Well-Structured PPP Pipeline........................................................................................34
5. Risk Allocation and Fiscal Management of PPPs ..........................................................36
6. Medium-Term Options for PPP Financing ....................................................................40
Tackling High Upfront Capital Costs .............................................................................40
Longer-Term Local Debt Financing ................................................................................44
Risk Mitigation Guarantee Products ..............................................................................49 PPP Market Failures Deriving from Country Size and Cross-Border Infrastructure Financing Constraints......................................................................51
7.Recommendations................................................................................................................53
Developing Long-Term Financing for Infrastructure .................................................53
Strengthening Other Aspects of a Strong Enabling Environment .............................54
References..................................................................................................................................59
Boxes
Box 2.1: Pension Funds and Investments in Infrastructure in Latin American Countries.............................................................................................................................16 Box 2.2: Potential Steps for Governments to Tap Financing for Infrastructure from InstitutionalInvestors.......................................................................................................17 Box 2.3: PIDG Facilities ...........................................................................................................23 Box 3.1: Examples of Sector Reforms that Supported PPP Transactions in Kenya, Nigeria,andSenegal.........................................................................................................32 Box 5.1: The Examples of a Preferred Risk Allocation Matrix............................................37
Box 6.1: Description of MIGA Coverage Products...............................................................51
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Figures
Contents
Figure 1.1: Fiscal Flows Devoted to Infrastructure ................................................................2
Figure 1.2: Infrastructure Ineciency Waste ..........................................................................2
Figure 1.3: Infrastructure Funding Gap ...................................................................................3
Figure 1.4: Private Participation in Infrastructureby Sector .............................................5
Figure 1.5: Private Participation in Infrastructureby Sector ExcludingTelecom..............................................................................................................5
Figure 1.6: Private Participation in Infrastructureby PPP Type .......................................5
Figure 1.7: Private Participation in Infrastructureby PPP Type ExcludingTelecom..............................................................................................................6
Figure 2.1: Financial Life Cycle of a PPP Project ....................................................................9
Figure 2.2: Private Credit (US$ billions) ................................................................................11
Figure 2.3: Pension Assets under Management....................................................................14
Figure 2.4: Aggregate Insurance Industry Investments (Life and Non-life InsuranceCompanies)......................................................................................................18
Figure 2.5: Aggregate Insurance Industry Investments (Life Insurance Companies) ...18
Tables
Table2.1:CountryStatistics....................................................................................................10
Table 2.2: Country Statistics on the Banking Sector ............................................................12
Table 2.3: The Local Capital Market ......................................................................................20
Table 2.4: BRVM Bond Characteristics by Issuer (2003-2009) .............................................20
Table 2.5: Nongovernment Bonds Financing Infrastructure...............................................21
Table 3.1: PPP Legislative and Institutional Environment..................................................28
Table 6.1: World Bank Pricing Approaches to Long-Term Currency Financing ............46
Acknowledgments
This report was produced at the request of the Government of Ghana (GOG) under the leadership of the Project Finance and Analysis (PFA) Unit of the Public Invest-ment Department (PID) of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MOFEP) and with support from the World Bank and Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Fa-cility (PPIAF). The laĴer is a multidonor technical assistance facility aimed at helping developing countries improve the quality of their infrastructure through private sector involvement. The authoring team of Riham Shendy, Zachary Kaplan, and Peter Mousley would like to thank the MOFEP and the PFA Unit for their collaboration and guidance on this study. We would also oer our deep thanks to the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), specically the Infrastructure Concession Regulatory Commission (ICRC), and the governments of Kenya, Senegal, Côte d Ivoire, and Cameroon. Input for this report for the Francophone countries was made possible by the background report completed by Axelcium Consultants and for the Anglophone countries from Benjamin Darche and Thomas Cochran. We extend our thanks to our colleagues at PPIAF who provided the resources for this study. World Bank sta who have also provided guidance and feed-back include Clemente Del Valle, Sophie Sirtaine, Jordan Schwarĵ , Subrahmanya Pulle Srinivas, Sri Kumar Tadimalla, Clive Harris, Jeery Demon, Iain Menzies, and Dante Reyes. Vivien Foster and Cecelia M. Briceño-Garmendia were instrumental for their work on the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostics (AICD) Report and for provid-ing generous advice on the infrastructure data. We also thank private sector entities for their input at various stages of drafting this report: Ecobank in Ghana, Stanbic Bank in Nigeria, and Macquarie Group in South Africa, the laĴer during the PPP forum in the 2010 Spring Meeting. Additional thanks to Robert Holzman for his valuable input on the potential role of pensions in infrastructurenancing and to Varsha Marathe and Tatiana Nenova for their guidance, respectively, on the India and Bangladeshinancial interme-diary loan arrangements for PPPnancing. A workshop presenting thethis study took place in Accra onnancing section of December 6, 2010. The event was chaired by the National Development Planning Com-mission Chairman Mr P. V. Obeng, together with the World Bank Country Director, Ishac Diwan. The workshop was aĴended by a wide number of stakeholders: MoFEP, Bank of Ghana , National Insurance Commission (NIC), Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT), the Ministry of Roads and Highways, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Energy, Ghana Stock Exchange, and Ghana Ports and Harbor Authority. In addition, representatives from the private sector included: African Finance Corporation, AB & David Law Firm, National Investment Bank, Barclays Bank, PriceWaterhouseCoo-pers, Standard Chartered Bank, and the Financial Times. The African Development Bank and the World Bank Group (with representatives from IFC and MIGA) also participated. We thank all participants for their useful feedback. Finally, the authors would like to note that the focus of this report is to scope out and describe in an introductory fashion the factors aecting long-termnancing for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the sample countries. The report further describes the current PPP initiatives in Cameroon, Côte DIvoire, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal
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Acknowledgments
and highlights the general challenges regarding the enabling environment required for PPP programs. Noting that one size does nott all and that addressingnancial and capital market constraints and designing a PPP program may vary signicantly across countries, this analysis is meant to lay the groundwork for more in-depth country-speciwill explore and expand on the concepts touched upon in thisc diagnostics that study. Indeed, each section merits its own analytical review. Furthermore we highlight that segments of this report outline other country PPP experiences, such as the pension market in Peru and changes in banking prudential norms in India. The authors note that in some instances the reforms are so recent that it is too early to draw conclusions on their eectiveness; they are therefore used in this report illustratively rather than as specic recommendations to be pursued.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
AICD APIX
BIDC BOAD BOT BRVM CAD Fund CEPIP
CET CIC CIMA CMA DASP DSX
EAIF EBID ECOWAS EOI FANAF FGN FSAP GOG GSE
ICRC IFC IGF
IFI IFS IMF IPP MDA MoF MOFEP NGN NIC NSE
Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostics Agence Nationale chargée de la Promotion de lInvestissement des Grands Travaux Banque DInvestissement et de Développement de la Cedeao, also EBID West African Development Bank Build/Operate/Transfer Bourse Régionale des Valeur Mobiliers China-Africa Development Fund Ministry of Economic Infrastructure and the Investment Promotion Center Construction-Exploitation-Transfert (French equivalent of BOT) China Investment Corporation Inter-African Conference for the Insurance Market Capital Market Authority La Direction de lAppui au Secteur Privé Douala Stock Exchange Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development , also BIDC The Economic Community of West African States Expression of Interest La Fédération des Sociétés dAssurances de Droit National Africaines Federal Government of Nigeria Financial Sector Assessment Program Government of Ghana Ghana Stock Exchange Infrastructure Concession Regulatory Commission International Finance Corporation Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund International Financial Institutions International Financial Statistics International Monetary Fund Independent Power Plant Ministry, Department and Agency Ministry of Finance Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning Nigerian Naira National Insurance Commission Nairobi Stock Exchange
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World Bank Study
NSE Nigeria Stock Exchange PAU Project Advisory Unit PFA Project Finance and Analysis Unit PIDG Private Infrastructure Development Group PPI Private Participation in Infrastructure PPIAF Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility PPP Public-Private Partnership PCG Partial Credit Guarantee PRG Partial Risk Guarantee RBA Retirement Benet Authority REC Regional Economic Communities SME Small and Medium Enterprise SPV Special Purpose Vehicle SSA Sub-Saharan Africa SSNIT Social Security and National Insurance Trust SWF Sovereign Wealth Funds TMRC Tanzania Mortgage Renance Corporation VfM Value for Money VGF Viability Gap Fund/ Facility WAMEU West Africa Monetary and Economic Union WDI World Development Indicators WEO World Economic Output
Overview
Ennixthingaminis.ssiaanylatoreddAssicfroitavwevsyaredeasnirfsartcuutongsamtyiualiasfructraicinsakcqdnerutotsArfdpertofcittheisheaatevoltedelsahte in the world, a challenge that signicantly hinders economic development. It is estimat-ed that thenance required to raise infrastructure in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) to a rea-sonable level within the next decade is at US$93 billion per year, with two-thirds of this amount needed for capital expenditures. With the existing spending on infrastructure being estimated at US$45 billion per annum and after accounting for potential eciency gains that could amount to US$17 billion, Africas infrastructure funding gap remains around US$31 billion a year. One approach to address this challenge is by facilitating the increase of private provision of public infrastructure services through public-private partnerships (PPPs). This approach, which is a relatively new arrangement in SSA is multifaceted and requires strong consensus and collaboration across both public and private sectors. There are several dened models of PPPs. Each type diers in terms of government participation levels, risk allocations, investment responsibilities, operational require-ments, and incentives for operators. Our denition of PPPs assumes transactions where the private sector retains a considerable portion of commercial andnancial risks associ-ated with a project. In more descriptive terms, among the elements dening the notion of PPPs discussed in this study are: a long-term contract between a public and private sector party; the design, construction,nancing, and operation of public infrastructure by the private sector; payment over the life of the PPP contract to the private sector party for the services delivered from the asset; and the facility remaining in public ownership or reverting to public sector ownership at the end of the PPP contract. The observa-tions and policy recommendations that follow draw on ongoing World Bank Group PPP engagements in these countries, including extensive consultations with key public and private sector stakeholders involved in designing,nancing, and implementing PPPs. The study is structured around the most inhibiting constraints to developing PPPs, as shared by all six countries. Section 1 provides a brief background of the infrastructure needs in the sample countries and outlines the current scope of PPP transactions; Section 2 examines the sources ofnancing for PPPsdomestic and foreignwith a particu-lar focus on domestic sources; Section 3 explores the supporting legislative, regulatory, and institutional environment for PPPs; Section 4 addresses issues connected with the importance of developing a sound pipeline of PPP projects; and Section 5 tackles the im-portance of managing the increased governmentscal commitments that are commonly coupled with PPPs. Section 6 outlines medium-term options for PPPnancing. Finally, Section 7 puts forth policy recommendations intended to assist in overcoming the chal-lenges in building private sector condence in the SSA infrastructure market in order to aĴract greater levels ofprivate sector investment in core infrastructurenancing for services through PPPs.
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