World Development Report 2008
390 pages
English

World Development Report 2008

YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
390 pages
English
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication

Description

The world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods.
'World Development Report 2008' seeks to assess where, when, and how agriculture can be an effective instrument for economic development, especially development that favors the poor. It examines several broad questions:
▪ How has agriculture changed in developing countries in the past 20 years? What are the important new challenges and opportunities for agriculture?
▪ Which new sources of agricultural growth can be captured cost effectively in particular in poor countries with large agricultural sectors as in Africa?
▪ How can agricultural growth be made more effective for poverty reduction?
▪ How can governments facilitate the transition of large populations out of agriculture, without simply transferring the burden of rural poverty to urban areas?
▪ How can the natural resource endowment for agriculture be protected? How can agriculture's negative environmental effects be contained?
This year's report marks the 30th year the World Bank has been publishing the 'World Development Report'.

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Publié par
Publié le 15 octobre 2007
Nombre de lectures 15
EAN13 9780821368077
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 5 Mo

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world development report2008
Agriculture for
Development
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bankworld development report2008
Agriculture for
Development
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bankworld development report2008
Agriculture for
Development
THE WORLD BANK
Washington, DC
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank© 2007 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
E-mail: feedback@worldbank.org
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 5 10 09 08 07
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel-
opment / The World Bank. The fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily refl ect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or
the governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The
boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work
do not imply any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any
territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all
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for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work
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the Offi ce of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA;
fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
Cover design by Chris Lester of Rock Creek Strategic Marketing and Bill Pragluski of
Critical Stages.
Typesetting by Precision Graphics.
Printed in the United States by Quebecor World.
Cover photos by World Bank staff members, clockwise from top left: milk thermometer,
Lillian Foo; wheat threshing, Alexander Rowland; Holstein cow, Lillian Foo; supermarket
beans, Lillian Foo; Andean woman and baby at market, Curt Carnemark/World Bank
Photo Library; cotton plant, Arne Hoel.
Softcover Hardcover
ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6807-7 ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6808-4
ISSN: 0163-5085 ISSN: 0163-5085
eISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6809-1 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7235-7
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7233-3
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World BankContents
Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Abbreviations and Data Notes xvii
Overview 1
What can agriculture do for development? 2
What are effective instruments in using agriculture for development? 8
How can agriculture-for-development agendas best be implemented? 18
Part I W hat can agriculture do for
development? 26
1 Growth and poverty reduction in agriculture’s
three worlds 26
The structural transformation 27
The three worlds of agriculture for development 29
Agriculture’s development potential shortchanged 38
The political economy of agricultural policy 42
A new role for agriculture in development 44
focus A: Declining rural poverty has been a key factor in aggregate
poverty reduction 45
2 Agriculture’s performance, diversity,
and uncertainties 50
Productivity growth in developing countries drove agriculture’s
global success 50
Growth across regions and countries has been uneven 53
Differences in performance refl ect different underlying conditions 54
Opportunities for a new agriculture through diversifi cation 58
Future perspectives: confronting challenges and rising uncertainties 61
Conclusion—a continuing production challenge 68
focus B: Biofuels: the promise and the risks 70
v
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bankvi CONTENTS
3 Rural households and their pathways out of poverty 72
Three complementary pathways out of rural poverty: farming, labor,
and migration 73
The variation in rural households’ income strategies 74
Rural occupations and income sources 77
Household behavior when markets and governments fail: rational,
despite appearances 82
Rural household asset positions: often low and unequal 84
Pervasive risks and costly responses 89
Smallholder challenges to compete 90
Conclusions 92
focus C: What are the links between agricultural production and
food security? 94
Part II What are effective instruments for using
agriculture for development? 96
4 Reforming trade, price, and subsidy policies 96
Agricultural protection and subsidies in developed countries 96
Agricultural taxation in developing countries 98
Simulated gains from trade liberalization 103
Scope for achieving potential gains 110
Transitional support 112
Public investment for long-term development 114
Conclusions 116
5 Bringing agriculture to the market 118
Food staples: improving commodity trading and risk management 118
Traditional bulk export commodities: maintaining international
competitiveness 122
Higher-value urban markets: linking producers to modern supply chains 124
Higher-value exports: meeting product standards 128
Conclusion 133
focus D: Agribusiness for development 135
6 Supporting smallholder competitiveness through
institutional innovations 138
Land policies for secure rights and reallocating resources 138
Financial services for smallholders 143
Insurance to manage risk 147
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World BankContents vii
Developing effi cient input markets 150
Producer organizations in a context of value chains and globalization 153
Institutional innovations—still a work in progress 157
7 Innovating through science and technology 158
Genetic improvement has been enormously successful, but not everywhere 159
Management and systems technologies need to complement genetic
improvement 163
Investing more in R&D 165
Institutional arrangements to increase the effi ciency and effectiveness of
R&D systems 169
Using available technology better: extension and ICT innovations 172
Moving forward 176
focus E: Capturing the benefi ts of genetically modifi ed organisms for
the poor 177
8 Making agricultural systems more environmentally
sustainable 180
Drivers of resource degradation 181
Improving agricultural water management 182
Greening the green revolution 188
Managing intensive livestock systems 189
Reversing degradation in less-favored areas 190
Payment for environmental services 197
Conclusions 199
focus F: Adaptation to and mitigation of climate change in agriculture 200
9 Moving beyond the farm 202
Rural employment: a daunting challenge 202
Agricultural wage employment 205
Rising rural nonfarm employment 209
Wages and earnings in the rural labor market 212
Labor supply: migration and the urban economy 214
Schooling, training, and transition to the labor market 216
Providing safety nets to reduce vulnerability 219
A fi nal word on rural labor markets and migration: the need for
policy attention 221
focus G: Education and skills for rural development 222
focus H: The two-way links between agriculture and health 224
(c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bankviii CONTENTS
Part III How can agriculture-for-development
agendas best be implemented? 226
10 Emerging national agendas for agriculture’s
three worlds 226
New opportunities and challenges 226
The proposed approach 227
Agriculture-based countries—accelerating growth, poverty reduction,
and food security 229
Transforming countries—reducing rural-urban income gaps and
rural poverty 234
Urbanized countries—linking smallholders to the new food markets and
providing good jobs 238
Political, administrative, and fi nancial feasibility 242
Recognizing the policy dilemmas 243
11 Strengthening governance, from local to global 245
Changing roles: the state, the private sector, and civil society 246
Agricultural policy processes 248
Governance reforms for better policy implementation 251
Decentralization and local governance 254
Community-driven development 256
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