Current topics in occupational health

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Knowledge and research needs
Working conditions
Health policy
Medical and biological research

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
DIRECTORATE-GENERAL
FOR EMPLOYMENT,
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS
Current topics
in occupational
health
Knowledge
and research needs
J.
/ /
Ν ' s
Γ
i Health and safety
/ /
-ï- ■ _/_ European Commission
Current topics
in occupational
health
Knowledge and research needs
O. Svane, T. C. Aw and V. H. Madsen
Directorate-General
Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs
1996 Published by the
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General V
Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs
L-2920 Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of
the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1996
ISBN 92-826-9352-X
© ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1996
Printed in Spain As a professional user of scientific results, my experience is that repetition of investigations occurs too often on well
documented problems, whereas many new areas are poorly investigated. Whatever the mechanism behind this inertia is, it
should be on the mind of researchers and funds which support research and development that health policy should take its
point of departure from the scientific results. An authority like the EC Directorate of Health and Safety has, as one of its
priorities, to seek a broad interface between European health research and its staff and consultants. The 'Recent trends in
occupational health, hygiene and safety' workshop is one of several initiatives to create this interface.
William D. Hunter
Director, EC Directorate of Public Health and Safety at Work Contents
CONTRIBUTORS 7
PREFACE 9
Chapter 1 WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AND LOW-BACK PAIN 11
Possibilities for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders
J. Dui, V. H. Hildebrandt, P. Vink
Current understanding of work-related low-back pain. Its origin and risk factors 19
H. Riihimäki
Chapter 2 MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARDS OF SOLID WASTE AND SEWAGE HANDLING 25
Microbiological hazards of waste disposal
J. Lacey
Infectious, toxic and immune reactions to micro-organisms in waste 35
P. Malmberg
Chapter 3 INDOOR AIR 41
Indoor air pollution in non-industrial workplaces
I. Andersen
Indoor air pollution in non-industrial workplaces: areas for future research and action 49
G. Raw
Chapter 4 PESTICIDES : OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS 57
Strategies for preventing health effects in the use and handling of pesticides at work
M. Maroni
Occupational and environmental health risks to pesticides: gaps in knowledge and research prioritites 63
T. C. Aw
Chapter 5 STRESS AT WORK 67
Stress factors at work and mental health
D. Zapf
From research to practice 75
G. Westlander
Chapter 6 WORK-RELATED PREMATURE INCAPACITY AND DISEASE, 81
EXPERIENCES FROM TWO EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
The German experience from periodic health assessments data
M. Kentner, H. Valentin
Experience in the Netherlands from survey data 89
E. Buringh
Chapter 7 OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION 97
Working conditions and pregnancy
N. Mamelle
Reproductive hazard assessment of chemical exposure at the workplace 105
H. B. W. M. Koeter
Chapter 8 SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR PREVENTION 113
O. Svane
List of participants at the 'Recent trends in occupational health, hygiene, and safety' workshop
Luxembourg, 4 and 5 February 19929 CONTRIBUTORS
lb Andersen Vagn H. Madsen
Director, MD, DMSc. Principal Administrator
National Institute of Occupational Health The Danish Working Environment Service
Denmark Landskronagade 33­35
Lersø Parkallé 105, DK 2100 DK 2100 Copenhagen 0
Copenhagen 0, Denmark Denmark
fax + 45 39 27 01 07 fax+ 45 31 18 35 60
T.C. Aw, MD Per Malmberg
Senior Lecturer Professor Dr.Med.
University of Birmingham Arbetsmilj öinsti tutet
Institute of Occupational Health Respiratory Division
Edgbaston Ekelundsvägen 16
17184 Solna Birmingham Β 15 2TT
Sverige United Kingdom
fax + 46 87 30 19 67 fax+ 44 21 47 15 208
Eltjo Buringh, Dr. Ir. Nicole Mamelle
PhD, Director of Research CARGO
INSERM 265 Unit Pob.124
2300 AC Leiden 151 cours Albert Th69424 Lyon Cedex 03
The Netherlands France
fax+ 31 71 17 63 82 fax + 33 72 34 87 84
Marco Maroni Jan Dui, PhD
Professor TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care
International Centre for Pesticide Safety Department of Posture and Movement Research
Via Magenta 25 P.O. Box 124
20020 Btísto Garolfo (Mi) 2300 AC Leiden
Italy The Netherlands
fax + 39 33 15 68 023 fax+ 31 71 17 63 82
Gary J. Raw Michael Kentner
DPhil, Psychol Professor Dr. Med.
Head of Human Factors and Health Section Robert Bosch Gmbh
Building Research Establishment t Bosch Str. 200
Bucknalls Lane, Garston 3200 Hildesheim
Watford WD2 7JR Germany
United Kingdom fax +49 512149 32 48
fax + 44 92 36 64 507
Herman B.W.M. Koèter
Hilkka Riihimäki, Dr. Principal Administrator
Dpt. of Epidem. and Biostat. OECD Environmental Health and Safety Division
Institute of Occupational Health 2, rue André­Pascal
Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A 75775 Paris Cedex 16
SF­00250 France
Helsinki fax+ 33 145 24 16 75
Finland
fax+ 35 90 41 46 34 J. Lacey
BSc; PhD, Senior Researcher
Ole Svane, MD, DPH, Rothamsted Experimental Station
Director of Medical Services Harpenden, Herts
The Danish Working Environment Service AL5 2JQ
Landskronagade 33­35 United Kingdom
DK­2100 Copenhagen 0 fax+ 44 58 27 60 981
Denmark
fax+ 45 31 18 12 41 Helmut Valentin
Professor, Dr. Med.
Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine
Schillerstrasse 25/29
D-8520 Erlangen
Germany
fax+ 49 91 31 85 23 17
Günela Westlander,
Professor Ph.D.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
Ekelunds vägen 16
S-17184 Solna
Sverige
fax+ 46 87 30 19 67
Dieter Zapf, Dr.
University of Giessen
Department of Psychology
Otto-Behaghel-Strasse 10
D-6300 Giessen
Germany
fax+ 49 64 17 o2 38 11