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broussal-ref-deb-cours

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        
 ! "# $%  %&!
'!  ! &  !(!(  &! !    !
 ) !* '   !  + + &!,!     (  -#. /+,  !0 ! &!  )  1! 2 $% !  )  !&*
" !    3!    4  !5* '   4   &!&5  1! &!1  )* 1 ! 5  )  5 1! 6 2 !)! 5     * ' 5  ! ! 4 !  !&! 1 /7! .80  ! &  1!   * &&   !5!    !&! 1*  )  !  !&!
     9  :!) /.8 0 ; < " 1 &!&   !&!   &!  ! & ! )! 11 =* 7!! 7! 5&&  &  !&! 1   1> 5 ;  ) 
(     !5  &1    ?5  
 &     1+ &!!* '  !5    &! &! !&&! 2  * %  !&! 1    &   * -626!    !&!   1 ! 5 @! 2 A5!  & &!)  2   &1  2    * " !&! 1   1 !     !5   2  1 ! &!    !  &!   & &!) B!  5  5* 7!! 7!  &! !  <  4 &    . !5   && C&D !  & =*  ! &! !   11! !  +&!   5  2  &1    ! 1     2    & &! &! !&&! 2 6 * -      &  !&! 1  &!B !!  1!*
           
# 4  5!    !   1!  &  5  ) +&!   ) 5  5 & !  &! (!)   E(   !  1+ &! !  !     & &!)  * '   ! &   F  5!)  &! &3    !  (! ; 
!&!      ! &5 5 !  1  ))  !     !   !&!( +  H < 6! &!)!5   !1! = /: 0 G + #4  )   !  )* &&!  &! !     &! <   ! = ;    !  !    I - !   &!    !
&!*   5 %! ! ; < " !,!  &    &
 !5  )   )  &! !!& 2   &!) 1         !&!  ()  !&!* =* "   ! & @! &   &(  () &   &! !5   1+  !5 &!  &!  )! ! 
!)!* 7! +&  )! !  ! &!&! 2 ) + (    !* ' !54 2   "(! J  K .L  &!  @ !    5  & 5 ; < - !  !  ) ,  &!!  5  ,5   !5 5 !5, 2  1  !, ?!      ! 5  8 !&!!  )   &! + ,5   !& =* "   ! &&!  &! ! 3 2  !! !!  + 5   1,!  ( !*  & !    ) 
&!)!  !&!     ?  5 ?    5!
  5 5* #   ! + &(, !&!(  &!> , 2 &!   ?   5 &!! !B!    &!  @    !!  6!1!* - &!  , 2 ?1!  (+  !  &1 ;    !  (* - (+  ! 2   , +   )  1 6  &! &! !!    5!)   * $
           
+, 1  2    &!& #%#"   !    &!! 1 1* " &!&      5 ;  ,5 &  1  !   !*  )  5! &1  ! !!*
- !  @!   &&!  5  ! 1! ! 
+ + ; !   !  5 (!  !? !! ! + 5* "
!&! &&!   + !!; 6  !    ! ))! &(  &&! 5 (   &!  !) M
6    1 &!  ,5  !  1! !  &&!   & 
! / +   &&! &!5)  ! 1!0*
-  &   &!&  5!  & 5 ;   &!! & !! &   )!  + &!,!    ( & &!,! 2 + &!5 ;    (    !!* ' &!! &! 26@  1>  )   &!5*   +, &  ! 2 &!!    11! !+  !&!
1   1 !      !1!  &  6!
  !1!*     "     ) 1   ) &!!  ! 1   ! ))!&(* &&  ) !  ! &! !  1! ;     !? &* " ,5 & 5 +  1
 !*    4   )! !  !1* ")   5!!    5 !  !  &  ,5* " !& 5 1 ;  5   !  5*
#  ! + ,5 ; < 52 NN   ? 5  NNN  O  O  O  N ! 7! N  " =* P  !  6!& !  
!  5 2  !4( * 7  ,5 !!) ) !  
    ! ;   <  Q,! =* -  &!! &!5   (*
           
",5    )1  +  Q,!* ")  4 !  5 & & 2       1!;
#'P#R''S# ; ( > 4  /0  ( NNN  CTD (   ! 2 ?/0     N &! ? & 5    ?! 5 N  ?4 5 & !1( ( CTD ?4   & !1(   +&  ( 2  . NNN  ?  /0 N &!5  1!  2 ! N ?/0    &6@! 5  & /0 & 4    ! N +&! 5   & &   NN   &! >  ? 4 /0 ! 1! !! N  ( ;;  N 52 CTD ?/0    N &! ? & & > N   & ?/0  1 N 52
 ,5  !  1  ! +&!   &5 !&!!  <  Q =   )   1   1> 5 ; . #'P* -K$# UP $# :U$P :#V NN 5 5!!F >    &!,  5 !F ;;  - -. - /
. .L
.L. .L .LH .L
.L8 .L .LL
.L .L
#"#:# #'P*
#"#:# #'P* #"#:# #"#:##'P* #"#:# #'P*
#"#:# #'P*
    0O  > 5 !  -K$#
UP  5 54F ! ,! N  5 /0!F ! ,! NN  ! N  +  Q,! ( ;;
 5 5F !(! N 9  /0 4  + 
Q,! NN ( ;;
   5 5F NN !(!  7! 2 "   > 5 
!  ! N > 1  &/0 & &  + ,!   ( ;; ( NN !   N > 1  &/0 & &  + ,!
  (   5 5F !(! 2 & N 5 5!F !(! N #$W  5)6+ N Q,!
           
&!,  !   &!! &!5 ) !&!  &  * U ! !   &( &  )  + ,5  !?  & 1! &! !  5 2 !* 7!   & +  ,5 !&  11* 7 )    & !  "4 2 7!* $ ,5 " &!&  !? "4 -!6!! U! 7!* $ ! ,5 &! !  &!; . #"#:# $   &  ! ! NNN --U$-  #'P*  2 ! . #"#:# $  2 ! N  5  "4 2 N ( N ! 2 N 2 U! N --U$-  #"#:#  7! H #"#:# $ & &!,  !!5 2 7! --U$-  #'P* 52 N  O  N  /0  O  /0   " N ?  1! &! !  "4 2 7!     NN
8
 L
 
.
.. .
#"#:# $ --U$- #'P*
#"#:# $ --U$- #'P*
#"#:# $ --U$- #'P*
#"#:# #'P*
-! !!  U!
52  ?   N  & &! "4 N   5 ! 2 U! N X ?/0 & & YZ &! -!6!!   !  &  (
    N     (    !  ! N
 N  )  &! &! -!6!! B!  !  &!  5! N   N   &!  5! 
& )  &! &! -!6!!
           
",5  &!&  !!  !      &! !  ! !! 1!> &6@!  5!  5 &! &!&!  !?   & !  !* P   L <  ?  =   B! 2 &!!  !   )!   &!& ! ! 2  !5 &! ; < 52     " =* ")    !&  ?   <   !
 &  =       * "!  1! 
!    ;
#'P#R''S# ; (  ;; NN > 4    ( ?5 & & N  !   ! N  2 !  &! + N ( ;;  & &! &! ! &!  4  ! 5   & ! !  ! N 4 !   ! !?   & &! ! &! !  2 2 2  N  >  5!  ?4 5 & N ?4 5 & & 5  1!   NN  & 4 N &  4   5  !    5  5!  &  &! &! 2  2 N   1  N  !! ! "#P 1!   !   (  ( N  ;;   & N   & 5 !  ;; CTD &!     ;;;  ;;; N  ! & !  ! CTD #'$[S#$ ;   &   !   ( ;; N ( ;;    ( ;; N   &  +&  1 #'P#R''S# ;   2 1 N   &  1   2 1 N   ? & N ?  & +& &!  ? & &  /!!0 N &!  ( ;;     !  >  &1 ;; N    !  !)!  !  ( ;; N  !)!  1!   !  ! CTD &!  N   ( ;; &
" !&  ,5  !  !5   !  ! 
&!         !5 ! &!  !;     !  !& 5  1!   !* ") 5  < ! =   !   5&&!   !  !  
!1!  !* " ! < &!  5! =  <   ! =  &&!        61!  2 &&! 2   ! 6  !! !   +5   !  &!(  !1! 2 
!?  *
 !  1! )  ! @! 5   !  &  & +&* # &! ; < ?  & +& &!  ? & &  /0 N &!  ( ;;     !  >  &1 ;; N   
!  !)!  !  ( ;; N  !)!  1!   !  ! =* " 
           
 5 !  &!   !   ! & & 2 5  ,5 !&! 5  ! &&!B    )* \     !  )  < !!! =  ,5  5)    &5 !5!  !   6!  5    
  &!(* " 1 !! !  1  5; < 
! & !  ! = M < &!  N   ( ;; & =* - +    ! !& & 2 !5! + &!5   5!   ! ! !&!  !  !&! 1     3  )     6! 
 !1!  &  5 +!  & @!  3!*
                      5  ! !  &!&  ) < &!  ( ;;     !  >  &1 ;; N    !  !)!   !  ( ;; N  !)!  1!   !  !* = -  ) &     !   !1 )1 &!&   !  ! ! 5 (  )   1! ; < !)!!  1! !  ! =* - 11! /R .0  11!  1 &! ! +  1 &! )  1! 2  ! ))!&(* U & & 5!     1 2  1 ),! 
!1 ! 5!)   )   !* # 11   ) 
 !&&!  !! &  & &!* -  !&& ]5 "  ! L  & )&  < !&!  !  ! ))!&( =  "54  "    !   < !&! 1 !  )) !! &!  !  ) )  &  =* " &!   !1! /%! .0     &! ! !&! !  5  &  !1! ;  !5!  ! !,! &! !  !!  ! !  !  5    *
           
"   !   !! 5) 2 &! ,! (   !1! 2  !  !!  ! 5 &! "54  " ; < , !   !B + 5!   @ ) + ! &! 5!    ! 1!    &  ? 2 B!  ! 5  < !! = &! ! &!  ))!&( =       &!
 &* ")   !  &!& ) + ,5   2 !  
!  !1 !* $   )! +  !1! 2  !  2  ! + 11!  !* - !  (!, /! .80   &!  &!?    ;  1 !  1! !  &&!   &  * P   !   !    &  1!  &!?  *          !
. '    !! 2  +, 1!       +   < ! =   &!,! !! !  &!5 . ; < ( 1  5 54F ! ,! N  5 !F ! ,! NN  !  +  Q,! = 2  +, !!  &!5  ; <   !  & * =
'  &!!  !   1!    &(! &! .. !&!!  !  "!   &!! &   5!    !) !  !&!   1 )    !   5,
 9 !5 ,5  !!* &! &!5 . ;   (*   & )  !1,! 2  ! 1 +&!  1   !   !  & !  5  !  ! &!  ( ;
           
.
#'P*
-K$# UP $# :U$P :#V NN 5 5!!F >  
 &!,  5 !F ;;  - -. - CTD  > 5 !  -K$# UP  5 54F ! ,! N  5 /0!F ! ,! NN  ! N  +
 Q,!
" < ! = !&  +  +&  (* # 5 )! & )!! !  &!  &!  &!  !   &  !* P!  !    ,!    !  Q,! M !  ! 
!    !  !(    &  5!*
" !   < ! = &&!B  11!  &!5 * $ ,5  &!&  !!   & !  !* " !&  ) ; <   !  &  = !1,! &!   < ! =  2  &  !1!  2  !  2  5!  &!   ! !,)  !* -  5&&  !&! ; <  !  &!  5! N   N   &!  5!  & )  &! &! -!6!! =* "&&    !    !5
 1! !      9 !,)  < & &!  5! =  &&!)  
!  5 )!  !  < ! =* - 1!   +   < ! =  &&! 2  &(, . +    &(!    "! ; < ' ! &! &(!  &(, !( &     11 &!   1   !&! !5   + &1 2  *
" ( !      &&5!  4!  &(! !      !( 4! ?!* =
- &(!  !) !   1  +    &!&  ) )* # 11   & .  +  ! &!(  ) !    ! !  !! 2  < ! = ))!&(  &   +  ! &!  E(  ! ; ! 1! !  !*  &!5 .  5    ! ! !  .H ! )),! &!(  &!! !   * S  
           
&!5   (!, ! ! &)  &(! ! !   &!& 1!  + 4!* - 1!  + !      ; 1!  ( !   &&! ))!&(   5>    !&! &1     !*
S    2 &!&! 4 5* &&   !&!
1   +    1+ !  + & &!) 5 &! &!5! 2  !!*  !5  ,5  &!&  !! 2  5,   !&! &! )  1     6@
   ; <  !   &&! &! 1!  (* = " &!   !6&&! !   11 &!  2 & !  !  5* $  !&!     ) 2 !!  !5 ,5
5      !(    !* ' !?) , ! 
 & !! !> 2 &!&    B!6,5     <   ()  &1 2 )  ! &!  &) 1!  )  & ;   9  5  1   5 . &* = ' !!5    R!! P54 5   !  &
 ; <   &!1! 2 !!    ,5  &!  .8  1  &!   ! 9   /&!1!0 &!* = $ !
!&! ! 2 &!5!  &!5    !  6 !1!  !   !!  (     ) 7 "! <  )  ))   &! =* +   !&!  5!  &  &&! ! +  !5   ! 2 !&!!   ! (F  ,5   &!(  &&!)   11!* " -(! 7*  %) * /0*   * 7! ; P*
! %* /.0*   * ^  !* 7! ; 7$*
!> * /.0*     * 7! ; 7$*
R _*6_* /.0*     * K '_; #!*
R!F _*6* /.0*  7! ; U&(!4*
           

" ]* /H0*    !    * 7! ; ! -*
"! 7* /.L0*   `1!`    !* " #! $%! /&* L6L0* 7! ; %  P  K*
"54 _*  " %* /!0* /H0*        * 7! ; *
%! _ *6"* /.0*&    '* ! ; 7! ")*
7! 7*  P!>4 * /.80* " &    !5   1!  &*( *)%** .H6H.*
7! 7*  P!>4 * /.0* "!)    !)  5 (& &!1*'  +  , S 15!! .* (&;OOaaa*!)61*!)O7)O!(!)O(O!4*(*
! 7* /.80*    * 7!; ! - *
 #* /.80*   5!  )* - ../) L6 .H*
P54 R* /.0* %,    &!1! ;  11*0%!! * "4 R* (! * /!*0  ! 1      .* !+ ;  Q $5!*
:!) R* /.80* -&  (,   (! &!!   !&!* 2 -*3 868*
: * /0*  4!   0* 7! ; K( &!!*
. 7! 7*  P!>4 * /.0* "!)    !)  5 (& &!1*'  +  ,* S 15!! .*(&;OOaaa*!)6 1*!)O7)O!(!)O(O!4*(* 7! 7*  P!>4 * /.80* " &    !5   1!  &*( )%* .H6H.* H  #* /.80*   5!  )* - ..! /) L6 .H* ! %* /.0*   * #  ! 7$ &* * 8  !&* L* #%#"6'7 /.H0* 5,)K! &*L6LL* L " ]* /H0*    !    * ! - &* HH* "54 _*  " %* /!0 /H0*        *  &* .* 6 * &* .H* . < P  1)!    & &1 /4,  !&!) &!! M ?  1! !?0 M  &&! !1!  &!  !1!  1)!   !* " 1!   !1!  1  1)!  !  ! &!&! ! 5!  !1!   ! 5 5!!* = - * /.0* P  1!  )*02     6    )U&(!4 &* . * .. "! 7* /.L0*   `1!`    !* " #! 7 $% !* 7! ; %  P  `K && L6L*
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