Designing Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Quality Reflective Assurance ; Nuotolinio mokymo(-si) turinio kokybės reflektyvaus vertinimo projektavimas

Designing Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Quality Reflective Assurance ; Nuotolinio mokymo(-si) turinio kokybės reflektyvaus vertinimo projektavimas

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Airina VOLUNGEVI ČIEN Ė DESIGNING DISTANCE LEARNING/ TEACHING CURRICULUM QUALITY REFLECTIVE ASSURANCE Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Educology (07 S) Kaunas, 2008 Dissertation was written on a non-resident basis. Scientific Consultant: Prof. habil. dr. Margarita Teresevi čien ė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology – 07 S). Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Social sciences, Educology, at Vytautas Magnus University: Chairman: Prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Laužackas (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology – 07 S) Members: Prof. habil. dr. Aleksandras Targamadz ė (Kaunas University of Technology, Technology sciences, Informatics Engineering - 07 T) Dr. Vaiva Zuzevi či ūt ė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology – 07 S) Dr. Daiva Bukantait ė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology – 07 S) Dr. Nijol ė Burkšaitien ė (Mykolas Riomeris University, Social sciences, Educology – 07 S) Opponents: Assoc. prof. dr. Sigitas Daukilas (Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Social sciences, Educology – 07 S) Assoc. prof. dr.

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY
Airina VOLUNGEVIČIEN
DESIGNING DISTANCE LEARNING/ TEACHING CURRICULUM QUALITY REFLECTIVE ASSURANCE Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Educology (07 S) Kaunas, 2008
Dissertation was written on a non-resident basis. Scientific Consultant: Prof. habil. dr. Margarita Teresevičien(Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology  07 S). Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Social sciences, Educology, at Vytautas Magnus University: Chairman:  Prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Lauackas (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology  07 S) Members: Prof. habil. dr. Aleksandras Targamadz (Kaunas University of Technology, Technology sciences, Informatics Engineering - 07 T) Dr. Vaiva Zuzevičit(Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology  07 S) Dr. Daiva Bukantait(Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Educology  07 S) Dr. Nijol Burkaitien Riomeris University, Social sciences, (Mykolas Educology  07 S) Opponents: Assoc. prof. dr. Sigitas Daukilas (Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Social sciences, Educology  07 S) Assoc. prof. dr. Aura Kazlauskien (iauliai University, Social sciences, Educology  07 S) Dissertation will be defended at 15:00 on March the 5th, 2008, during the public session of the Council of Social sciences, Educology at Vytautas Magnus University. Venue  the Small Hall at Vytautas Magnus University, S.Daukanto 28, LT 44244, -Kaunas, Lithuania. The summary of the dissertation was distributed on February 1st, 2008. Dissertation can be reviewed at the Library of Vytautas Magnus University and Lithuanian National M.Mazvydas library.
VYTAUTO DIDIOJO UNIVERSITETAS
Airina VOLUNGEVIČIEN
NUOTOLINIO MOKYMO(-SI) TURINIO KOKYBS REFLEKTYVAUS VERTINIMO PROJEKTAVIMAS Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07 S) Kaunas, 2008
Disertacija ginama eksternu. Mokslinis konsultantas: Prof. habil. dr. Margarita Teresevičien Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai (Vytauto mokslai, edukologija  07 S). DisertacijaginamaVytautoDidiojouniversitetoSocialini moksl edukologijos krypties taryboje: Pirmininkas:  Prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Lauackas (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07 S) Nariai: Prof. habil. dr. Aleksandras Targamadz (Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijmokslai, informatikos ininerijos kryptis - 07 T) Dr. Vaiva Zuzevičit (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07 S) Dr. Daiva Bukantait Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, (Vytauto edukologija  07 S) Dr. Nijol Burkaitien (Mykolo Riomerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07 S) Oponentai: Doc. dr. Sigitas Daukilas (Lietuvos emskio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija  07 S) Doc. dr. Aura Kazlauskien (iauli socialiniai mokslai, universitetas, edukologija  07 S) Disertacija bus ginama vieame Vytauto Didiojo universiteto Socialini moksledukologijos krypties tarybos posdyje 2008 m. kovo 5 d. 15 val. Vytauto Didiojo universiteto Maojoje salje. Adresas: S.Daukanto 28, LT-44244, Kaunas, Lietuva. Disertacijos santrauka isista 2008 m. vasario mn. 1 d. Disertaciją peri galimarti Vytauto Didiojo universiteto bibliotekoje ir Lietuvos nacionalinje M.Mavydo bibliotekoje.
Content INTRODUCTION1. DISTANCELEARNING/TEACHINGCURRICULUMQUALITYASSURANCE FACTORS1.1. Designing Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum 1.2. Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Quality Assurance Dimensions 1.2.1. Quality conception and quality definition perspectives 1.2.2. Internal quality assurance 1.2.3. Quality assurance process 1.2.4. assurance on the level of study module. Process perspective.Quality 1.2.5. Metacognitive dimension of distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance 1.3. Distance Learning/Teaching Curriculum Assurance during Distance Learning Curriculum Design and Learning/ Teaching Process 1.3.1. Quality assurance of distance learning/ teaching curriculum during curriculum designing 1.3.1.1. Needs analysis 1.3.1.2. Definition of learning objectives 1.3.1.3. Learning/ teaching organization methods 1.3.1.4. Evaluation strategy 1.3.1.5.Curriculum realization with ICT 1.3.2. Improvement of distance learning/ teaching curriculum during learning/ teaching organization process 1.4. The Model of Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Quality Reflective Assurance: Assessment of Quality Factors during Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Design and Learning/ Teaching Process 2. RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY ANDMETHODICS2.1. Research Methodological Conceptualization 2.2. Empirical Research Methods and Organization 2.2.1. Distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality conception: teacher and learner experience and opinion analysis research characteristics
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2.2.2. Applicability of distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance factors: characteristics of experimental research 2.2.3. Identification of distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance factors during expert evaluation 3. APPLICABILITY OFDISTANCELEARNING/TEACHINGCURRICULUM QUALITYASSURANCEFACTORS3.1. Quality Conception of Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum: Opinion and Experience Analysis among Teachers and Learners  3.1.1. Perception of roles of distance learning/ teaching participants in the context of distance learning/ teaching quality (first pilot research)  3.1.2. ICT influence to distance learning/ teaching curriculum efficiency (second pilot research)  3.1.3. Evaluation of motivation and support provision factors (third pilot research)  3.1.4. Research on teacher motivation factors and learning needs (fourth pilot research)  3.1.5. Learner satisfaction with distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality (fifth pilot research) 3.2. Experimental Research on Applicability of Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Quality Assurance Factors  3.2.1. Learner needs analysis  3.2.2. Resource analysis and applicability  3.2.3. Definition of learning objectives  3.2.4. Learning organization methods  3.2.5. Support provision  3.2.6. Evaluation strategy  3.2.7. Distance learning/ teaching curriculum improvement  3.2.8. Change in perception of the importance of individual quality assurance factors during the research: relative gain measurement results 3.3. Expert Evaluation of Applicability of Distance Learning/ Teaching Curriculum Quality Assurance Factors DISCUSSION
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CONCLUSIONSLITERATUREANNEXESThe Scope of the Dissertation The dissertation consists of the introduction, three chapters and subchapters, conclusions, Literature list of 218 literature resources. The work consists of 174 pages and 12 Annexes, 70 figures and 22 tables.
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INTRODUCTIONLifelong learning became a must skill in Europe and all over the World that are affected by rapid social, technological and economical changes in nowadays. The society is coming of age, and this brings more challenges and stronger emphasis on constant update of skills, knowledge and competences (EQF, Commission staff working document, 2005). Education services are aimed at competence development (Daukilas, 2004, Jucevičien, 2000, Lauackas, Pukelis, 2000, Lepait, 2000, Teresevičien, 2000, et al.) that becomes the target and guidelines for curriculum design, learning outcomes evaluation strategies, and that help different European countries and education institutions to reach the common agreement on recognition of learning outcomes and competences. Competence development is a segmented process that is aimed at consistent and complete training of citizens to prepare them for academic and professional activities. In other words, separate curriculum segments cannot ensure qualitative education services, as they are contextual elements of a complex and multifunctional process. Qualitative training and learning process is influenced by many factors that should be carefully examined during the curriculum design phases, as well as during the learning/ teaching process. Distance learning and teaching is the efficient means to implement strategic aims of the system of education: to create learning possibilities for all society members, to contribute to designing effective learning/ teaching process, as well as to ensure more flexile organization of learning activities. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education allows development of different learning and teaching scenarios and realizing learning/ teaching process virtually, using virtual learning environments.Distance learning/ teaching is spread all over Europe and is already spreading very rapidly in Lithuania. Rapid development of new technologies often brings the feeling of admiration and obsession, and technological resources start affecting curriculum design, when pedagogical goals and ideas are predominated by the use of modern technologies. While new distance learning/ teaching forms are getting more and more popular, they should be reviewed regularly applying a consistent quality evaluation methodology based on quality criteria and indicators, and distance learning/ teaching curriculum
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quality should be examined before each learning/ teaching process. It is a common practice to examine new distance learning/ teaching curriculum before the first learning/ teaching session, but the urgent questions remain: who assesses its quality and how often? Is curriculum quality assessed on a common basis, before each learning/ teaching process? Who assess the quality of the curriculum and how the assessment results affect dynamic improvement of learning/ teaching? There are some examples of quality assessment methodology prepared for distance learning/ teaching curriculum assessment in Lithuania on practical level (e.g. the Annex No. 3 to the Minutes of the meeting of the Board for Higher Education Distance Study Course Development Contest, prepared by the Ministry of Education and Sciences on September 10th, 2007). This methodology allows assessing distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality before accreditation procedure of a distance learning/ teaching course, i.e. before the first learning/ teaching process, however, such factors as analysis of other existing resources for realisation of curriculum online, effectiveness of chosen curriculum design and factors, influencing learning/ teaching process having the current design options, are not assessed at all. According to K.Pukelis (1998, p.135), curriculum designers do not evaluate the possibilities of classroom teachers (in other words, the factors influencing learning/ teaching process are not evaluated during the curriculum design process). This is not evaluated during curriculum quality assessment process, as assessment methodology does not include criteria or indicators that would provide the evidence that learning/ teaching process participants would be able to act autonomously and accept individual solutions during unexpected learning/ teaching situations. Another problem of existing quality assessment methodologies is that quality assessment criteria are not exhaustive, as it is very difficult, if not impossible, to describe assessment criteria for all individual learning/ teaching situations. There is the great need to include reflective evaluation, as well as metacognitive dimension criteria in quality assessment methodologies. Moreover, not all learning/ teaching process parties are active participants of the process of quality assessment, especially, teachers themselves. K.Pukelis and N.Pileičikien (2005) come to the conclusion that teacher didactic competences necessary to design learning/ teaching curriculum are not developed enough. Sh.Feimen  Niemser (1990) implies that teachers lack certain
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professional conceptual orientations, and application of theoretical research results is one of the least developed among them. If teachers aim at developing metacognitive competences among learners, they should first of all develop their own metacognitive competences and skills as reflective practitioners (Schon, 1994, Leclercq, 1993, et al.). Scientists suggest recommendations for traditional curriculum design abroad (Bruner, 1966, cited by Mizoguchi, Bourdeau, 2000, Gagne, 1985, Knowles, 1984, Ryden, 2007, Verpoorten, Leclercq, et al., 2006, and others), as well as in Lithuania (Jucevičien, 2000, Lauackas, 2001, Lauackas, Pukelis, 2000, Tersevičien, 2001, and others). Some of them already suggest models for distance learning/ teaching curriculum design (Verpoorten, Leclercq, et al., 2006). However, there is no evidence provided if authors of distance learning/ teaching curriculum use existing theoretical models and recommendations, and if they base their activities on scientific research and theories while designing distance learning/ teaching curriculum in Lithuania. Scientific problem of this research formulated as follows: distance learning/ is teaching curriculum design process is not based on theoretical and scientific recommendations, and distance learning/ teaching process needs are not estimated during curriculum design process, as well. The majority of factors directly influencing distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality are theoretically supported, but they are not evaluated and assessed during curriculum design by authors in Lithuania. There does not exist a scientifically supported methodology in Lithuania that could be applied during distance learning/ teaching curriculum design process to ensure reflective quality assurance from the beginning of design process, which would help the authors of the curriculum to assess the maximum number of factors influencing quality of distance learning/ teaching curriculum. Research object distance learning/ teaching quality assurance. The aim of the researchis to identify the factors influencing distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance and to measure their applicability in designing distance learning/ teaching curriculum and learning/ teaching organization process. Tasks of the research 1) To analyse distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance dimensions. 2) To design distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality reflective assurance model, identifying the main quality assurance factors.
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3) To clarify the perception of quality of distance learning/ teaching curriculum among teachers and learners and individual quality assurance factors by performing their experience and opinion analysis, identifying: a. how teachers and learners perceive their roles and responsibilities contributing to qualitative learning/ teaching process. b. opinion of teachers and learners about the importance of motivation and support for successful learning/ teaching process. c. of ICT in distance learning/ teaching designing.the use d. the reasons positively and negatively influencing teachers to use distance learning/ teaching methods, as well as learner satisfaction and teacher/ learner self-assessment experience, in the perspective of distance learning/ teaching quality assurance context. 4) To identify which factors influencing distance learning/ teaching quality are evaluated by teachers during distance learning/ teaching design process in Lithuania. 5) To determine the changes in the perception of the importance of the factors influencing distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance, after applicability of distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality reflective assurance model. 6) To evaluate applicability of distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality reflective assurance model during distance learning/ teaching curriculum expert evaluation. Research hypotheses: 1) Teachers designing distance learning/ teaching curriculum do not recognise and do not apply the majority of theoretically supported distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance factors directly influencing distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality and learning/ teaching process. 2) Applying distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality reflective assurance model during curriculum design, distance learning/ teaching curriculum would satisfy quality requirements for individual learning/ teaching situations, and a bigger number of distance learning/ teaching curriculum quality assurance
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