Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the leopard Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Luambe National Park and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia [Elektronische Ressource] / Rena-Rebecca Ray. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät

Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the leopard Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Luambe National Park and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia [Elektronische Ressource] / Rena-Rebecca Ray. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät

-

Documents
218 pages
Lire
Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres

Description

Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the leopard Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Luambe National Park and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia By Rena-Rebecca Ray Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Sciene (Dr. rer. nat.) in Zoology of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn Bonn, August 2011 Erklärung Hiermit erkläre ich, dass ich diese Dissertation persönlich, selbständig und unter Offenlegung der erhaltenen Hilfen angefertigt habe und, dass diese Arbeit noch nicht anderweitig als Dissertation eingereicht wurde. Stellen der Arbeit, die anderen Werken dem Wortlaut oder Sinn entnommen wurden, sind unter Angabe der Quellen als Entlehnung kenntlich gemacht. Rena-Rebecca Ray Bonn, August 2011 This dissertation was supported by: Alexander Koenig Stiftung Luawata conservation Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the leopard Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Luambe National Park and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades (Dr. rer. nat.

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 01 janvier 2011
Nombre de lectures 30
Langue Deutsch
Signaler un problème


Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the
leopard Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Luambe National Park
and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia
















By
Rena-Rebecca Ray


Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Sciene (Dr. rer. nat.) in Zoology of the
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn

Bonn, August 2011

Erklärung

Hiermit erkläre ich, dass ich diese Dissertation persönlich, selbständig und unter Offenlegung der
erhaltenen Hilfen angefertigt habe und, dass diese Arbeit noch nicht anderweitig als Dissertation
eingereicht wurde. Stellen der Arbeit, die anderen Werken dem Wortlaut oder Sinn entnommen
wurden, sind unter Angabe der Quellen als Entlehnung kenntlich gemacht.



Rena-Rebecca Ray
Bonn, August 2011





This dissertation was supported by:


Alexander
Koenig Stiftung


Luawata
conservation










Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the
leopard Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the
Luambe National Park
and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia


Dissertation
zur
Erlangung des Doktorgrades (Dr. rer. nat.)
an der
Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der
Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn


Vorgelegt von

Rena-Rebecca Ray
aus
Düsseldorf


Bonn, August 2011








Angefertigt mit Genehmigung der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der
Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn


1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Böhme
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Horst Bleckmann
Tag der Promotion: 30.11.2011
Erscheinungsjahr: 2011









Table of contents



Table of contents

Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... I
Zusammenfassung ..................................................................................................................... III
Acknowledgement...................... V
Table of figures ........................ VIII
List of tables .............................................................................................................................. XI
List of Abbreviations ................. XII
1 General Introduction .................................................................. 1
1.1 The conservation status of leopards in Zambia and concern of this study .................... 1
1.2 The primary objectives of this study ............................................... 3
1.3 The Leopard - background .............................................................................................. 5
1.3.1 Description and taxonomy .................... 5
1.3.2 Distribution ........................................................................................................... 7
1.3.3 Life history ............. 9
1.3.4 Reproduction....... 10
1.3.5 Trophy hunting .................................................................................................... 10
1.4. The study area ............... 11
1.4.1 Zambia and its Geography .................................................................................. 11
1.4.2 The Luangwa Valley............................. 13
1.4.3 The Game Management Areas ........... 15
1.4.4 The Luambe National Park and the bordering GMA-Chanjuzi ........................... 16
1.4.5 Fauna ................................................................................................................... 19
1.4.7 Vegetation ........... 20
2 Population estimate of the leopard (Panthera pardus) in Luambe National Park and a
bordering Game Management Area in the Luangwa Valley of Zambia ....................... 21
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.1 Study area ........... 22
2.2 Methods ........................ 22
2.2.1 Camera trapping ................................................................................................. 22
2.2.2 Identification of single individuals ...... 26
2.2.3 Analyses of population estimates ....... 27
2.2.4 Calculating relative abundance indices of prey species and species of inter-
specific competition ............................................................................................ 28
2.2.5 Statistical methods .............................. 29



Table of contents


2.3 Results ........................................................................................................................... 30
2.3.1 Camera trapping and identification of individual leopards ................................ 30
2.3.2 Relative abundance indices (RAI) ........................................ 35
2.4 Discussion ...................................................................................... 38
2.4.1 Estimate of leopard population abundance and density by camera trapping ... 38
2.4.2 Relative Abundance Indices (RAI) and inter-specific competition ..................... 41
2.5 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 44
3 Home ranges, activity patterns and habitat preferences of leopards in an undisturbed
area (Luambe National Park) and a disturbed area (Game Management Area) in the
Luangwa Valley in Zambia ........................................................................................ 45
3.1 Introduction ................................................... 45
3.1.1 Study area ........................................................................... 46
3.2 Methods ........................ 51
3.2.1 Baiting and collaring of the leopards .. 51
3.2.2 Locations through VHF tracking .......................................................................... 53
3.2.3 Home ranges ....................................... 55
3.2.4 Activity pattern ... 56
3.2.5 Analysis of habitat use ........................................................................................ 57
3.2.5.1 Comparison of habitat availability and habitat use .............................. 58
3.2.6 Statistical methods 58
3.3 Results ........................................................................................................................... 59
3.3.1 Baiting and information collected during collaring procedure 59
3.3.2 Home ranges ....................................................................................................... 60
3.3.3 Home ranges in and outside the National Park .................. 62
3.3.4 Tendencies of certain factors in relation to home range size ............................ 65
3.3.5 Activity pattern ................................................................................................... 66
3.3.5.1 Comparison of mobility and immobility ............... 67
3.3.5.2 Activity pattern in the course of the day .............................................. 68
3.3.6 Habitat composition of the different leopard home ranges .............................. 72
3.3.7 Habitat availability versus habitat use ................................................................ 76
3.3.8 Habitat preferences according to JACOBS (1974) ................................................. 80
3.4 Discussion ...................................................................................... 84
3.4.1 Baiting and information collected during collaring procedure........................... 84
3.4.2 Home ranges in and outside the National Park .................................................. 85
3.4.3 Factors in relation to home range size ............................... 87
3.4.4 Activity pattern ................................................................................................... 88



Table of contents


3.4.4.1 Comparison of mobility and immobility ............................................... 88
3.4.4.2 Activity pattern in the course of the day .............. 89
3.4.5 Habitat composition of the different leopard home ranges and comparison of
availability and use .............................................................................................. 91
3.4.6 Habitat preferences ............................ 93
3.5 Summary ....................................................... 94
4 The leopard’s prey spectrum and preferences in the Luambe National Park and the
surrounding Game Management Areas (GMA’s) ....................................................... 95
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................... 95
4.2 Methods ........................ 98
4.2.1. Collecting of feces ............................................................................................... 98
4.2.2 Analyses of feces 101
4.2.3 Analysis of prey choice and comparisons between study areas ...................... 103
4.2.4 Statistical analyses ............................................................................................ 104
4.3 Results ......................................................... 105
4.3.1 Leopard prey spectrum at the study sites ........................ 105
4.3.2 Comparison of biomass in the study sites LNP and GMA-A, -C and -D ............ 106
4.3.3 Comparison of leopards prey selection across sites ......................................... 110
4.3.4 Preference for prey body mass ......................................... 112
4.3.5 Comparison of biomass consumption between the areas LNP and GMA-A .... 114
4.3.6 Is the leopard in competition with trophy hunting? ........................................ 115
4.4 Discussion .................................................................................... 119
4.4.1 Leopard prey spectrum at the study sites and comparison of prey selection
across sites ........................................................................................................ 119
4.4.2 Body mass of preferred prey ............ 121
4.4.3 Biomass abundant and consumed at the study sites LNP and GMA-A ............ 122
4.4.4 The leopard in competition with trophy hunting ............................................. 123
4.5 Summary ..................................................................................... 124
5 The possible impact of trophy hunting on the leopard (Panthera pardus) in Zambia,
especially in a selected region in the Luangwa Valley ............................................... 125
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................. 125
5.1.1 Investigation area.............................................................. 128
5.2 Methods ...................... 129
5.3 Results ......................................................................................... 130
5.3.1 Quotas of leopards between 2004 and 2010 ................................................... 130
5.3.1.1 Density of males and hunting intensity .............. 133




Table of contents


5.3.2 Quotas of the main leopard prey species from 2004 to 2008 .......................... 136
5.3.3 Leopards prey choice and the choice of trophy hunters .................................. 137
5.3.4 Relative abundance indices and the quotas of leopard in comparison with its
competitors ....................................................................... 139
5.3.5 Measurements of leopard skeletons ................................ 140
5.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 142
5.4.1 The signs of an impact of trophy hunting ......................... 142
5.4.2 Final conclusions ............................................................................................... 146
5.5. Summary ..................................................... 147
6 General Discussion .................................. 148
6.1 Critic of the methods ................................................................... 148
6.1.1 Camera traps ..... 148
6.1.2 Determination of telemetrical data .................................. 149
6.1.3 Baiting and trapping of leopards ...................................... 150
6.2 Estimate of leopard population size and density ........................ 151
6.3 Home ranges inside and outside the National Park .................................................... 155
6.3.1 Activity pattern................................................................. 157
6.3.2 Habitat availability versus habitat use, and preferences . 158
6.4. Leopard prey spectrum at the study sites................................... 160
6.5 The role of trophy hunting and its impact on the leopard population in the study ........
area .............................................................................................. 164
7 Synthesis and Recommendations ........................................... 167
8 References ............................................. 170
Appendix ................................................................................................. 188



Abstract

Abstract


Ecology and population status and the impact of trophy hunting of the leopard
Panthera pardus (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Luambe National Park
and surrounding Game Management Areas in Zambia

by
Rena-Rebecca Ray

(August, 2011)

Academic dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Science (Dr. rer. nat.) in Zoology at the
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

In this study that was carried out in Zambia, population size and density, diet, activity
pattern and habitat use of leopards (Panthera pardus) were studied in Luambe National Park
(LNP) and a bordering Game Management Area (GMA-A) where trophy hunting takes place.
It was further aimed to find out if an impact of trophy hunting exists in this region.
By camera trap pictures individual leopards were identified. Capture and recapture
models were used to analyze the leopard population abundance and the density in both the
study sites. Two female and three male leopards were radio tracked to determine their
activity pattern and habitat use. 416 fecal samples of leopards collected inside LNP were
analyzed to investigate prey spectrum of leopards and biomass consumed by leopards.
Offtake quotas of leopards from 2004 to 2010 were analyzed in order to get an insight
of the hunting pressure on leopards.
Population estimates resulted in 12 individuals for LNP 2008 and 10 for GMA-A. The
selected part inside the GMA-A which is smaller in area, reflected a population density
estimate of 4.79 ± 1.16 per 100 km², higher than that recorded in the National Park at 3.36 ±
0.64.
This result could be influenced by one or two factors. The area in the GMA that was
selected for the study is considered to be congested due to surrounding environmental and
habitat pressures. Furthermore, the higher density within this relative small sized area could
I