Education and social inequality interaction phenomenon: Lithuanian context ; Švietimo ir socialinės nelygybės sąveikos fenomenas: Lietuvos kontekstas
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Education and social inequality interaction phenomenon: Lithuanian context ; Švietimo ir socialinės nelygybės sąveikos fenomenas: Lietuvos kontekstas

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Inga MIKUTAVI ČIEN Ė EDUCATION AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY INTERACTION PHENOMENON: LITHUANIAN CONTEXT SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION SOCIAL SCIENCES, EDUCOLOGY (07 S) Kaunas, 2009 This dissertation was prepared at the Department of Education, Vytautas Magnus University, in 2004-2008. Scientific supervisor: Prof. habil. dr. K ęstutis Pukelis (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Social Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University: Chairman: Prof. habil. dr. Laima Sajien ė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Members: Prof. dr. Jonas Ruškus (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Prof. habil. dr. Arvydas Virgilijus Matulionis (Socialini ų tyrim ų institutas, Social sciences, sociology – 05 S) Prof. dr. Liudmila Rupšien ė (Klaip ėda University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Prof. dr. Nijol ė Ve čkien ė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Opponents: Prof. habil. dr. Gediminas Merkys (Kaunas University of Technology, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) . Rimantas Želvys (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) thThe public defence of the dissertation will be held at 10 a.m. on 22 May 2009 at the public session of the Council of Education Science trend. Adress: V. Donelai čio st. 52-322, LT-44244, Kaunas, Lithuania.

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY IngaMIKUTAVIČIEN
EDUCATION AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY INTERACTION PHENOMENON: LITHUANIAN CONTEXT
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION SOCIAL SCIENCES, EDUCOLOGY (07 S)
Kaunas, 2009
This dissertation was prepared at the Department of Education, Vytautas Magnus University, in 2004-2008. Scientific supervisor: Prof. habil. dr. Kęstutis Pukelis (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Social Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University: Chairman: Prof. habil. dr.Laima Sajien (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Members: Prof. dr.Jonas Rukus (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Prof. habil. dr.Arvydas Virgilijus Matulionis (Socialini tyriminstitutas, Social sciences, sociology  05 S) Prof. dr.Liudmila Rupien (Klaipda University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Prof. dr.NijoleVčkien Magnus University, Social sciences, (Vytautas Education - 07 S) Opponents: Prof. habil. dr.Gediminas Merkys University of Technology, (Kaunas Social sciences, Education - 07 S) Prof. habil. dr.Rimantas elvys (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social sciences, Education - 07 S) The public defence of the dissertation will be held at 10 a.m. on 22th 2009 at the May public session of the Council of Education Science trend. Adress: V. Donelaičio st. 52-322, LT-44244, Kaunas, Lithuania. The summary of dissertation is sent out on April 22, 2009. The dissertation is available at the Library of Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas and the National Library of Martynas Mavydas in Vilnius.
 
VYTAUTO DIDIOJO UNIVERSITETAS IngaMIKUTAVIČIEN
VIETIMO IR SOCIALINS NELYGYBS SĄVEIKOS FENOMENAS: LIETUVOS KONTEKSTAS
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07 S)
Kaunas, 2009
Disertacija rengta 2004 - 2008 metais Vytauto Didiojo universitete Mokslinis vadovas: Prof. habil. dr. Kęstutis Pukelis Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, (Vytauto edukologija - 07 S Disertacija ginama Vytauto Didiojo universiteto Socialini moksl edukologijos krypties taryboje: Pirmininkas: Prof. habil. dr.Laima Sajien(Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija - 07 S) Nariai: Prof. dr.Jonas Rukus (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija - 07 S) Prof. habil. dr.Arvydas Virgilijus Matulionis (Socialini tyriminstitutas, socialiniai mokslai, sociologija  05 S) Prof. dr.Liudmila Rupien(Klaipdos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija - 07 S) Prof. dr.NijoleVčkien Didiojo universitetas, socialiniai (Vytauto mokslai, edukologija - 07 S) Oponentai: Prof. habil. dr.Gediminas Merkys (Kauno technilogijos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija - 07 S) Prof. habil. dr.Rimantas elvys (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija - 07 S) Disertacija bus ginama vieame Vytauto Didiojo universiteto Socialini moksledukologijos krypties tarybos posdyje 2009 m. gegus 22 d. 10 val. Vytauto Didiojo universitete 322 auditorijoje. Adresas: K. Donelaičio g. 52, LT-44244, Kaunas, Lietuva. Disertacijos santrauka isiuntinta 2009 m. balandio mn. 22 d. Disertaciją galima perirti Vytauto Didiojo universiteto bibliotekoje ir Lietuvos nacionalinje M. Mavydo bibliotekoje.  
 
INTRODUCTION Researches show that education connect in itself two contradictional elements: on the one hand, it is one of the most widely acknowledged social elevators helping to rise by the steps of social status (Blanden et al., 2005; 2007; DAddio, 2007; Nesbit, 2006; Leonavičius, 2005 et al.); on the other hand, education also has the function of mobility control. By carrying out the functions of evaluation, certification it solves human possibilities in labour market; besides, different levels of education create different value in this field (Lynch, Baker, 2005; Fischer et al., 1996; Merkys, 2008). Many researches (Moore, 2004; Blanden et al., 2005; Machin, 2004; Van der Werfhorst et al., 2003 et al.) revealed that correlations between education and social status of a man in different countries are different. They are different even in the same country, but in different periods. Besides, there is no uniform opinion, what indices should be selected for the evaluation of this connection. Their different compositions cause different results. Researches show that this phenomenon is being affected by many factors. It is impossible to separate education from the other factors influencing social mobility: family, personal talents, social nets, etc., macro factors, which sometimes may be more important than education. This means that the combination of these factors in particular place and on particular time produces different synergic effect. Thus the role of education with respect to social inequality is directly connected with social, economical and cultural specificity of the country. Even though Lithuania is the State, which belongs to EU, in which the obligations of the State to social justice, democratic education politic, equal possibilities in education are very strongly expressed and very intensely scientifically analyzed, there is the lack of more consistent scientific researches of this problem in Lithuania. There are in Lithuania insufficiently scientific researches, in which educational system would be evaluated with respect to external social profitableness and in which the state of education and tendencies of development would be evaluated with respect to such criteria as emancipational character of education, social justice, social integration and empowering, equal possibilities. There is a paradox that not university scientific, but the Ministry of Education and Science is more interested in the problems of social tasks of education; it realizes this interest by the politic of the ordered researches. Even though there are prepared and legalized educational laws, normative documents, describing the humanist, democratic education, there is still the break between the declaration of these ideas and realization both in macro and micro level. Pičalkiene (2008) notices that the teachers tend to react rather conservatively and stereotypically to the education of children from disadvantaged or risk families (especially asocial). Such children often are called sluggards, worthless and of second sort. Therefore, the problem of child is even more deepened and the perspective of his psychosocial development becomes complicated. In recent decades there were done many researches, which show that the environment of teaching and socialization traditions in Eastern Europe (including Lithuania) relatively are more authoritarian than these in the countries of Western democracies, where the traditions of humanist education are deeply rooted (Krope, Lorenz, 1993, Rukus, 2000; Gribačiauskas, Merkys, UeckienRukus, Maeikis, 2007). This environment is additional risk, 2002; factor obligating to look for the effective means, which would change the views of pedagogues and would create the conditions in the education institutions to form childs personality purposefully, basing upon humanistic foundations and to amortize the influence of family environment (negative). If the problematic of the child, who suffers
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isolation, in the context of school activity is recognized and solved on time, in such a case the school manifests itself as institution, which can significantly to soften the educational and social consequences of such situation (Pičalkiene, 2008). All these mentioned problems make more urgent namely the role of education science, analyzing the factors of educational system generating social inequality and looking for more effective political solutions, management of educational system, institutional solutions and the methods of pedagogical practice to decrease social inequality. The research studies in education field concerning the social issues of Lithuanian education system are mainly targeted on particular matters such as:relations between family socioeconomic background and childrens schooling experience(Buzaityt-Kaalynien, 2004; Buinskas et al., 2005; Juodaityt, 2002; Merkys, ydinait, 2007; Gailien, 2001; Vaitkevičius, 1995; Barkauskait, 2001; Gudynas et al, 2006; et al.),the disabled childrens school integration problems 2002, (Rukus, 2006; Galkien, 1999; Grincevičien, 2001 et al.),relations between learning opportunities and socioeconomic background (Povilinas, 2002; Grinevičien, 1999; Merkys, ydinait, 2007; Gudynas, 2001; Gruevskis, Okunevičit-suareveNenki, 2003 et al.),psychological, social and pedagogical assistance in schools(Aliauskienet al., 2007 et al.,social aspects of learning achievements overvalue in schools(Merkys, ydinait, 2007 et al.), the causes of school nonattendance and drop-out (Rupien, 2000, 2002, 2004; Navasaitien, 2001; Rimkevičien, 2001; Derekevičius, 2000 et al.),pedagogical authoritarianismeM(sykr),the causes of limited participation in adults education(Teresevičienet al., Gedvilien 2004;et al., 2004 et al.),image of vocational schools(Sajien, Zaksait, 2007; Večkien, Masaityt, 2003 et al.),the social consequences of school diversification (Kačerauskien, 1998; Povilinas, 2002; Merkys, ydinait, 2007; Bdien, Zabulionis, 2006 et al.),the social consequences of the school network optimization 2005; Sapkauskien (Merkys,, Kardelis, 1998; Račkauskien, Kučinskas, 2002 et al.), gender stereotypes in education (idlauskien, Ivanauskien, 2007; Rukus, Kazlauskait, 2000; et al.),ethnical minorities education issues(Gudynas, 2001; Saugnien, 2002; Merkys et al., 2006; et al.) and others. There arent exhausted research possibilities of other sciences, such as sociology, economy, politology, public administration, biomedicine. Generalizing it is possible to mention that the researches carried out on the analyzed subject distinguish themselves with such limitations: a)time  there arent included the experiences of two or more generations; b)volume the collections of variables permit only partly to get acquainted with investigated phenomenon; c)depthourselves by the researches of micro we limited or macro level and analyzed different cross-sections. It is unclear what features are characteristic to the nowadays education in Lithuania with respect to intergenerational inheritance of social inequality. There is the lack of holistic-contextual approach including different levels of education and the forms of its organization. More clearly presented arguments and reasoning determined exactly thistheme of the dissertation. The research problem of dissertational research may be described by these questions, requiring the concrete scientific researches:  is the role of education overcoming factors in the intergenerationalWhat transmission of inequalities?  What concrete features (characteristics) of Lithuanian educational system sustain the intergenerational inheritance of social inequality?
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 What concrete features of Lithuanian educational system may be treated as decreasing the transmittance of the inequalities between generations?
The research objectinteraction of education and social inequality.The research subject features of educational system stimulating and / or reducing  social inequality. The aim of the research is to identify the features of Lithuanian educational system affecting social inequality in the direction to stimulation or reduction. The aim of the research was specified by these partial researchobjectives: 1. To reveal the theoretical conceptional standpoints to social inequality, especially taking into account intergenerational inheritance of social inequality; 2. the existing theoretical approaches and carried out empirical studies,Basing on to reveal the role of education in the processes of society stratification; 3. features of educational system, stimulating and reducingTo identify the concrete social inequality illustrating these features by the authentic factual material of Lithuanian educational practice; 4. By means of qualitative research to revealthe standpoint of various social groups representatives (politics, specialists, young adults originated from the lower stratum) to the role of education decreasing social inequality. Thetheoretical background of the research consists of: theory of structural functionalism, conflict theory, Bourdieu social reproduction theory, theories explaining the character of intergenerational inheritance of social inequality (theory of social deprivation, theory of poverty culture), social mobility theory, human capital theory, positional conflict theory, conception of equal possibilities, the concept of the external (contextual) and internal (in respect of educational system) factors generating social inequality in education. The methodological basis of the research consists of: teaching of the modern social sciences about the qualitative research, regulations of holistic paradigm, phenomenological standpoint (Maycut, Morehouse, 1994), the conception of contents qualitative analysis (Strauss, Corbin, 2001; aparnis, Merkys, 2000; ydinait, 2002) providing for the systematic execution of steps: exclusion of manifest categories basing on the key words, differentiation of the contents of categories into subcategories, identification of overlapping categories / subcategories, interpretation of the data of contents. Empirical basis, research process and methods Taking into account the complex character of the investigated phenomenon there was chosen the triangular research strategy, i. e. there were applied and combined various methods of research, used information of various nature (see Table 1). The identification and synthesis of the features of Lithuanian educational system supporting and / or decreasing social inequality took place in 4 stages (4 research):
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I stage. Evaluation of the purposefulness of the Lithuanian educational system  therewere applied two research methods:analysis of political documents (laws, secondary acts, conceptual education documents)  in order to reveal the purposefulness of Lithuanian educational policy andsecondary data analysis basing on the results of the researches there was illustrated the state of Lithuanian educational system in the context of the corresponding political decisions; II stage. Semi structured interview by national politics and experts it was attained to reveal the standpoint to the role of education and to identify (to specify and / or to explain) the main features of education as activity of social institution and possibilities to decrease the causes of intergenerational inheritance of social inequality from the point of view of politics and experts. Research volume  15 participants of research: members of Seym and Government, also representatives of NSO and professional unions, working in the fields of social questions, labour market and education. In order the specter of standpoints with respect to the analysed problem was as wide as possible, the respondents were chosen taking into account the political dependency, sector of activity and the level of responsibility. III stage. Focus groups intervieworder to reveal the main features of educational in institution activity and possibilities to decrease the causes of intergenerational inheritance of social inequality from the point of view of local authority representatives and persons directly working with people suffering social discrimination. There was carried out the interview with four homogenic focus groups. Respondents represented the different fields of activity:1 focus group (N=4) was formed out of the local politicians and comprised of the members of x district municipality and different parties;2 focus group (N=4) was comprised out of local NSO (NSO, professional unions, representatives of local community and Catholic Crurch);3 focus group(N=4) was comprised out of the heads of executing institutions (director of the main school, director of childrens home, head of x municipality social guardianship departmens, assistand director of gymnasium);4 focus group(N=9) was formed out of workers, who have in their work direct contacts with poor people, who inherited low status of their family and limited possibilities (teachers of gymnasium, secondary school, professional school, educator of childrens home, social pedagogues, etc.)IV stage. In-depth interviewwith young adults (24-29 years old)originated from low status families was used to find out their experience of social mobility and their perceptions of education role in the process of transition from school to higher education and labor market.
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Table 1 The matrix of information sources / investi ated ones, research methods and indicators INFORMATION METHOD OFINDICATORS  SOURCES RESEARCH    Anal sis basis is com r se of: LAWS,  icadu einy  onal sstem facpsce tote udacitciso ialquneitalsrotne tare nioncehe cf tht oTl naerntreh itwnretxe ei dna la FACTOLOGAnal sis of ; ontitsilarebiLocra Demcial/ So;s  itnoual ter MATERIAL IOColitical  la c, ssSoalcie dninhtdnea rerelationcit in cutaoi;nw ti hde cl ehT fo sleveticadu es salonn taet:m lsoianmatistec), THE FULFILLEdocuments;institutional and relational of education realit ; RESEARCHE  analysis ofIn  secondary dataf  odselfit trnamioht ezi ecterharach c whiisne,snoeht mid uingedsh dretiishtre eewreeicn eorld exext of wthe cont  educational ith ect res to social ineoliutiacliatly-: s stem w    structural mana emental-administrativeideolo ical, , , educational, cult.u r  a l   The roblem of the intereionneraal tinheritance of social ine ualit and its conce tion how this roblem is understood, what are the main factors, influencin inter enerational inheritance of social ine ualit in Lithuania   IndividualThe methods and ossibilities of solution of the APNODL IETIXCPIEARNTS semi-ow hnd ahow itlbor eht evlos ce oitannheral iulai enicla fos rhee ole?nc t,noit ni e foacudterenerem of inniehirattaoian lulai en    ti.y oseeacralcisof us ehted / trontieerraneonti structured OF LNEAVTEILO NAinterviewThe ossibilities and limitations of Lithuanian educational (N=15 )em siollvtine atuh el niociasstserteif  oemblronerational inheritance of  .  The efficienc the a of educational lied rams ro and means solvin the roblem of inter enerational inheritance of social ine ualit ; their connections with the means of labour market and social protection policy.    Phenomenon of soc a ne ualit and its revalence in x location;   inter enerational inheritance of social theCauses stimulatin Foc ine ualit in in es x location a ecial attention to the role of LOCALrouus i;wetvrnieducation ; in POLITICAL ANeacude fo elor ehTn/ roitusno stutinstial ition cos fo ecnatireh; tliuaeinl ianietgersad cel inionaeratren SOCIALvi nette national ro rams a i ned to WORKERS f 41/=2Nspuorg ) ucon iossoilibieitna sti d siall takin int ocaocnu tdecutaceseytase ecrereninteoianretaehir lnidgssultaoi nTehe avocal andof the l tance of nseociualli i connections with the means of labour market and social protection.    YOUNG ADULTStutions) IN osrea sni dnitsnfoinalrmet ns fof lo e l /roamhe rTill atSDe sceo accounkin intht t e 24-29In-depthDIFFERENT LIFE PERIO a ORIGINATED bio ra hicae oo lShc:s tcro ce; rienexetacu noidnaiofal stinutit FROM LOWinterview Poces morf nissao  tolhosc arndhiher school / nuvireisyt ; ias fnm rohosct loal oruobram STATUS(N=20 )  ket;P s FAMILIES ratiSeaor mnof tn,saerenend iif lntdesre / emaf lanonoit  . yliaerc  Scientific noveltyof the dissertational project manifests in these points: - Basing on a) the existing theoretical standpoints; b) independently carried out analysis of Lithuanian educational system; c) independently carried out empirical research there were identified dimensions of Lithuanian educational system and concrete features stimulating and (or) reducing social inequality;
 
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 By means of qualitative research there were revealed the standpoints of various social -groups representatives (politics, specialists, young adults originated from the lower stratum) to the role of education and possibilities to decrease social inequality; - There was revealed the conditional backwardness of the education science in the country analyzing social questions of education, external environment of educational system and the influence of education on the other social systems; - There were named the specific perspective themes and trends of educational researches. These themes and trends provide for the wider and deeper analysis of social questions in the context of educational system and practice. Theoretical significanceof the research manifests itself in these points: - the theoretical images existing in social sciences about the interaction of education and social inequality are culturally specified and concrete namely under the conditions of Lithuanian educational system; - there was created working taxonomy of the features of Lithuanian educational system stimulating and reducing social inequality; - the concrete dissertational material and conclusions supplement (expand) the system of expert knowledge about Lithuanian education and its connections with social inequality. Practical significance and application perspectives the study are connected with of these points: - dissertational material, established facts, created working taxonomy of the features of education may be applied improving social and educational politics of the country, preparing the specific strategic documents on the corresponding questions, juridical acts, etc.; - dissertational material may be useful preparing new important modulus of studies in the studies of the first and second level of social sciences. For the research carried out in this dissertation the studies carried out within the EU 6th Framework international project Policy Responses Overcoming Factors in the Intergenerational Inheritance of Inequalities (PROFIT coordinator  University of Lodz, Poland; national coordinator  Center for quality of studies, Vytautas Magnus University, 2004-2007) was very useful. The author of this study took part in preparing and implementing the all projects researches.
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INTRODUCTION 1. Interaction of education and social inequality: theoretical substantiation 1.2 Social inequality as the object of interdisciplinal researches 1.2.1 Theoretical interpretation of social inequality conception 1.2.2 Factors generating intergenerational inheritance of social inequality: interdisciplinal standpoint 1.3 Dialectic of educational system and social inequality interaction 1.3.1 The role of education with respect to social inequality 1.3.2 The synergy of social inequality micro and macro factors in the context of educational system 1.3.3 Features of educational system reproducing social inequality 1.3.3 Features of educational system reducing social inequality 2. Methodology and methodic of the research of education and social inequality interaction 2.1 General scheme of research design 2.2evaluation of the purposefulness of the Lithuanian educationalThe methodic of system 2.3 The methodic of the research of the standpoint of various social groups representatives (politics, specialists, young adults originated from the lower stratum) to the role of education with respect to social inequality 3. The results of the research of education and social inequality interaction 3.1 The possibilities of Lithuanian educational system to reduce social inequality 3.1.1 The changes in Lithuanian education in 19902007 and the social question: the review of political solutions and researches 3.1.2 The expression of ideologically contradictional tendencies in Lithuanian educational system and educational practice 3.2 The top level politicians and experts attitudes towards the role of education in the processes of intergenerational inheritance of inequality 3.3 The local authority representatives attitudes towards the role of education in the processes of intergenerational inheritance of inequality 3.4 The role of formal and informal nets (individual, institutional, systematic variable) in the context of social mobility: the results and discussion of the research of individual cases 3.5 Generalization of the research results obtained by various methods and in the different objective groups 4 Conclusions, generalizations, discussion Literature Appendixes
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