Effet sur l hydratation d une formulation infantile modèle (lactose ß-lactoglobuline, amidon) sur les chanchements d état et les interactions entre constituants, Effect of hydration of model-infant food (lactose, ß-lactoglobulin, starch) on state changes and interactions between components
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Effet sur l'hydratation d'une formulation infantile modèle (lactose ß-lactoglobuline, amidon) sur les chanchements d'état et les interactions entre constituants, Effect of hydration of model-infant food (lactose, ß-lactoglobulin, starch) on state changes and interactions between components

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174 pages
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Sous la direction de Stéphane Desobry
Thèse soutenue le 19 octobre 2006: INPL
Les propriétés de sorption d'eau, le brunissement non enzymatique et les changements de structure ont été déterminés pour le lactose, la ß-lactoglobuline (BLG), l'amidon gélatinisé ainsi que les aliments infantiles modèles conservés à différentes humidités relatives (HR) à 20 °C. La cristallisation du lactose dans les aliments infantiles modèles a été étudiée par la libération d’eau lors de la conservation. La cinétique de cristallisation du lactose a été étudiée à HR de 70 % montre que la cristallisation est retardée en ajoutant de la BLG et de l’amidon gélatinisé. Les interactions lactose-BLG et lactose-amidon ont un effet significatif sur la cinétique de cristallisation. Les résultats concernant la sorption d'eau, le brunissement non enzymatique et les changements de structure de ces composants peuvent être utilisés pour prédire des changements physico-chimiques pendant le séchage et le stockage des matériaux amorphes et pour déterminer les conditions de stockage optimales.
-Cristallisation du lactose
-Aliment infantile
-Cinétique de cristallisation
-Brunissement non-enzymatique
-Hydratation
-Spectroscopie infrarouge
Water sorption properties, non-enzymatic browning and structure changes were determined for lactose, ß-lactoglobulin (BLG), gelatinized starch and the model infant foods at various relative humidity (RH) and at 20 °C. Lactose crystallization in model infant foods was observed from time-dependent loss of sorbed water. Kinetic of lactose crystallization studied at 70 % RH, showed that BLG and gelatinized starch retarded lactose crystallization. Interactions between lactose-BLG and lactose-starch had significant effect on lactose crystallization kinetic. Data on water sorption, non-enzymatic browning and structure changes of these components can be used to predict changes during process and storage of amorphous carbohydrate materials and to determine storage conditions which maintain quality and desired properties and provide stability.
Source: http://www.theses.fr/2006INPL054N/document

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Publié par
Nombre de lectures 152
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 5 Mo

Extrait

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE LORRAINE
E cole N ationale Supérieure d‟A gronom ie et des Industries A lim entaires
Laboratoire de Science et Génie Alimentaires

THESE

Présentée devant l‟Institut N ational Polytechnique de Lorraine
Pour obtenir le grade de

D octeur de l’IN PL

Spécialité : Procédés Biotechnologiques et Alimentaires

Effet de l'hydratation d'une formulation infantile modèle
(lactose, β-lactoglobuline, amidon) sur les changements
d'état et les interactions entre constituants


Effect of hydration of model infant food (lactose, β-
lactoglobulin, starch) on state changes and interactions
between components

par

Ali NASIRPOUR


Soutenue publiquement le 19 Octobre 2006 devant la com m ission d‟exam en com posée de :

Président du jury :
M. Frédéric VILLIERAS Directeur de recherche, HDR. CNRS-INPL-ENSG
Rapporteurs :
M. Cyrille ANDRES Professeur, Université de Bourgogne
M. Bernard CUQ Professeur, ENSAM-Montpellier

Examinateurs :
M. Stéphane DESOBRY Professeur, INPL-ENSAIA (directeur de thèse)
M. François MORGAN Responsable R&D, Ingrédients Laitiers, Lactalis
M. Joël SCHER Professeur, INPL-ENSAIA (co-directeur de thèse)


Preface
Preface:

This study was carried out in the Laboratoire de Science et Genie Alimentaires (LSGA) of
E cole N ationale Supérieure d‟A gronom ie et des Industries A lim entaires (E N SA IA ), Institut
National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL).

First of all, I wish to thank Professor Joël Hardy for accepting me as PhD student in this
laboratory.

I owe special thanks to my supervisor, Professor Stephane Desobry. Without his critical and
detailed comments, discussions and research expertise, there could have been no guarantee of
the academic quality of this research project. I was so impressed by his tremendous ideas
throughout this work. Further, I would like to thank my co-supervisor Professor Joël Scher for
his great co-operation, help, and his enthusiasm.

I thank Professor Frederic Villieras, Profossor at CNRS of Nancy for being the chairperson of
jury in this thesis. I also wish to thank Professor Bernard Cuq, Professor at INRA of
Montpellier and Professor Cyrille Andres, Professor at ENSBANA of Dijon who accepted to
be reviewers. In addition, I thank Doctor François Morgan for being the jury member in this
thesis.

I would like to thank the staff of the laboratory for their scientific discussion and enthusiasm.
Special thanks to Professor Michel Linder for his collaboration in mixture design and
statistical analysis.

I wish to thank Professor Bernard Cuq and Miss Virgine Landillon for their great
collaboration and work done on DVS.

I thank Mrs. Marie-Noëlle Maucourt for her help, her discussion during coffee breaks and Tik
Tak distributions and Mrs. Carole Jeandel for their help in experimental work, as well as her
availability.
Special thanks to Mrs. Anne Laplace-Chassard for her kindness and enthusiasm and more
especially for having been a real support in resolving administrative, logistic, and financial
problems.

1
Preface
I thank, Lynn, a very good friend, for her kindness, for improving my English language and
for interesting discussions we had, Elmira for her kindness, Kassem and Angelica for the
great time we had, especially during holidays in the south of France. I will never forget these
moments. I wish to thank Laetitia, Khaoula, Vincenzo, Charbel, Atman, Reine, Sandrine,
Suzana, Rawaa, Claire, Albarin, Céline, Mireille, Dimitra, Annis, Fanny, Leila, Lili, Elie,
Aboubakar, Hilair, Virginie, Michel, Ghozlène, Olivier and Valerie for their friendship and
enthusiasm.

I wish to express my greatest thanks to my family, who supported me during these last three
years.

Finally, I thank all the people who contributed to the fulfillment of my project.

Ali Nasirpour
August 2006

2
Contents
Contents :

Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................ 6
Glossaire .................................... 8
Résumé (en français) ................ 9
General introduction .............................................................................. 13
Chapter I: Literature Review 15
I.1 Introduction ..................................................... 16
I.2 Human and cow milk composition ................. 17
I.3 Infant foods formulations ................................................................ 20
I.3.1 Milk-based formulas ................................ 20
I.3.1.1 Casein-predominant formulas ........... 21
I.3.1.2 Whey-predominant formulas ............................................ 22
I.3.2 Soy protein-based formulas ..................................................... 22
I.3.3 Protein hydrolysate-based formulas ......... 23
I.3.4 Amino acid-based formula ....................................................... 23
I.4 Ingredients ................................ 24
I4.1 Carbohydrate ............................................. 24
I.4.1.1 Lactose .............................................. 24
I.4.1.2 Starch ................ 28
I.4.1.2.1 Starch granule structure ............. 30
I.4.1.3 Maltose and Maltodextrins ............................................... 30
I.4.2 Proteins .................................................................................... 31
I.4.2.1 Whey proteins ................................................................... 31
I.4.2.2 Human milk proteins and cow milk proteins 33
I.4.2.3 Protein hydrolysates .......................... 33
I.4.3 Fats ........................................................................................... 34
I.5 Stability of infant formulas ............................................................. 35
I.5.1 Proteins/polysaccharides interactions ...................................... 36
I.5.1.1 Effect of interactions on water adsorption behavior ......... 37
I.5.1.2 Effeceractions on bioavailability of micronutrients ............................... 38
I.5.2 Maillard browning reaction ...................................................................................... 39
I.5.2.1 Chemistry of Maillard reaction ......... 39
I.5.2.2 Maillard reaction in infant food ........................................................................ 41
I.5.2.3 Factors affecting Maillard reaction ... 42
I.5.2.4 Effect of Maillard reaction on nutritional quality ............. 43
I.5.2.5 Beneficial effect of Maillard reaction ............................................................... 44
I.5.2.6 Effect of Maillard reaction on functional properties ......................................... 44
I.5.3 Oxidation .................................................................................. 45
I.5.3.1 Factors affecting rate of oxidation .... 45
I.5.3.2 Effect of oxidation on nutritional quality .......................................................... 46
I.5.4 Mechanical and physico-chemical properties of infant foods ................................. 46
I.5.4.1 Collapse ............................................................................. 47
I.5.4.2 Stickiness and Caking ....................... 47
I.5.4.3 State diagram .... 48
I.5.4.4 Glass transition temperature ............................................. 49
I.6 Lactose crystallization during storage ............................................ 54
I.6.1 Crystallization Models ............................................................. 54
I.6.1.1 Avrami model ................................... 54

3
Contents
I.6.1.2 Hoffman equation ............................................................................................. 55
I.6.1.3 Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model .............................. 56
I.6.2 Crystalline forms of lactose ..................... 59
I.6.2.1 Crystallization process ...................... 59
I.7 Justification of the study ................................................................................................. 60
Chapter II: Materials and Methods ..................... 62
II.1 Characterization of the powder and formulations preparation ...... 63
II.1.1 Physicochemical properties determination ............................. 63
II.1.1.2 BLG purity ........................................................................................................... 64
II.2 Model infant formulation preparation 64
II.3 Characterization of amorphous lactose .......... 66
II.3.1 Water sorption ........ 66
II.3.2 Moisture sorption prediction of formulations ............................................................. 67
II.3.2.1 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 68
II.4 Evaluation of crystallization ...................... 68
II.4.1 Gravimetric methods ........................................................

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