Gender and Macroeconomic Policy
188 pages

Gender and Macroeconomic Policy


YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
188 pages
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication


Mainstream economic analysis has traditionally overlooked gender. The individual-the basic category of analysis-was regarded as genderless. Neither gender discrimination nor segmentation and segregation within the labor market or within the household was present. Contributions from development theory, new household economics (NHE), labor economics, and feminist analysis have done much to change this. Focusing on gender equality-by which we mean equality in opportunity, inputs, and outcome-has yielded important insights for the growth and development of an economy. But we are still at the cusp. While there have been huge improvements in recognizing gender as an analytical category at the microeconomic level, the macroeconomic implications of gender equality remain undeveloped. Engendering macroeconomics is an important and valid research and policy area. Over the past three decades, economic development has generally affected women differently than men in the developing world. At the same time, gender relations have affected macroeconomic outcomes. This volume examines the research and policy implications of engendering macroeconomic policy.



Publié par
Publié le 05 janvier 2011
Nombre de lectures 38
EAN13 9780821374351
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo


Human Development
Gender and
Macroeconomic Policy
Raj Nallari and Breda GriffithGender and Macroeconomic PolicyGender and
Macroeconomic Policy
Raj Nallari and Breda Griffith© 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the
governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
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endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
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All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
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ISBN: 978-0-8213-7434-4
eISBN: 978-0-8213-7435-1
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7434-4
Cover illustration: Faces Blue, Geoffrey Ernest Katantazi Mukasa, mixed media collage on paper,
14 5/8'' × 15 7/8''/World Bank art collection.
Cover design: Quantum Think
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Nallari, Raj, 1955-
Gender and macroeconomic policy/Raj Nallari, Breda Griffith.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8213-7434-4 — ISBN 978-0-8213-7435-1 (electronic)
1. Women—Economic conditions. 2. Sexual division of labor. 3. Sex discrimination against
women—Economic aspects. 4. Income distribution—Sex differences. 5. Economic policy.
6. Macroeconomics. I. Griffith, Breda. II. World Bank. III. Title.
HQ1381.N35 2010
Preface xi
About the Authors xiii
Abbreviations xv
Introduction 1
Chapter 1 Gender in an Economic Context 5
Gender as a Category of Analysis 6
Gender Inequalities 7
Conclusion 16
Notes 17
Bibliography 18
Chapter 2 Measuring Gender Inequalities 21
Why Measure Gender? 22
Gender Statistics 26
Gender Databases 28
Engendering Macroeconomic Models 35
Conclusion 36
vvi Contents
Annex A: Calculating the Gender-Related
Development Index (GDI) for Thailand 39
Annex B: Calculating the Gender
Empowerment Measure (GEM) for
República Bolivariana de Venezuela 42
Annex C: Databases of Common Gender
Indicators 44
Notes 45
Bibliography 46
Chapter 3 Gender and Macroeconomic Aggregates 49
The Household and Macroeconomic
Aggregates 49
Gender Inequalities and Consumption 51
Gender Inequalities and Savings 58
Conclusion 60
Notes 60
Bibliography 61
Chapter 4 Gender and Economic Growth 65
Statistical Relationships 65
Theoretical Considerations 68
Empirical Studies 74
Economic Growth and Gender Inequality 79
Conclusion 80
Notes 81
Bibliography 82
Chapter 5 Gender and the Labor Market 87
Gender Inequality and the Labor Market 88
Labor Force Participation Rates 90
Education 93
Unemployment Rates 96
Wage Rates 99
Employment by Sector 101
Status of Employment 104
Conclusion 107
Notes 107
Bibliography 108Contents vii
Chapter 6 Globalization, Gender Relations,
and the Labor Market 111
Globalization and Gender Relations 111
Policy Responses to the Crisis 120
Conclusion 120
Notes 121
Bibliography 121
Chapter 7 Gender and Finance 125
Access to Credit 126
Who Is Providing Finance? 129
Conclusion 134
Notes 134
Bibliography 135
Chapter 8 Gender Budgeting 139
Why and How 140
Country Examples 145
Conclusion 150
Notes 150
Bibliography 151
Chapter 9 Conclusion 153
Index 157
1.1 Gender Inequalities and Women 9
8.1 Types of Gender-Sensitive Government Expenditures 141
8.2 Analytical and Technical Tools of Gender-Responsive
Government Budgeting 144
1.1 Male to Female Enrollment Ratio among
Poorer and Richer Children 6–14 Years 9
1.2 Selected Measures of Gender Equality,
by Country Income Level, 1970–95 10viii Contents
1.3 Primary School Attendance by Girls and Boys,
by Income and Geographic Area, 2001–08 11
1.4 Girls’ versus Boys’ School Enrollment in
Developing Regions, 1991 and 2008 12
1.5 Percentage of Employers in Total Employment,
by Sex and Region, 2009 13
1.6 Average Actual and Counterfactual Annual Growth
in Per Capita GNP, by Region, 1960–92 14
1.7 Number of Girls per 100 Boys Enrolled
in Tertiary Institutions, 1991 and 2008 15
2.1 Gender Equality, Domains of Choice, and
Economic Performance: A Framework 22
2.2 Calculating the Human Development Index 30
2.3 Input and Output Variables Affecting the Economic
Role of Women 34
2.4 Indexes of Discrimination against Women,
by Region 35
3.1 Unitary and Collective Models of Gender Dynamic
at the Household Level 51
3.2 Percentage of Women in Selected Countries
Reporting That Their Husbands Alone Make
Decisions Regarding Their Health 52
3.3 Percentage of WHusbands Alone Make
Decisions on Daily Household Expenditures 53
4.1 Gender-Related Development Index and
Gender Empowerment Measure versus
Per Capita Gross Domestic Product in
Selected Countries, 2002 67
4.2 Attainment of at Least Secondary Education
and Per Capita Income 75
5.1 Female Share of International Migrants, 1995,
2000, and 2005 90
5.2 Male and Female Labor Force Participation
Rates, by Region, 1996 and 2006 91
5.3 Literacy Rates among Youth (15–24 Years), by Region,
1990 and 2005 94
5.4 Progress in Girls’ Enrollment Rates, by Region,
1990–2005 95

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