Identification of the economic woods of the United States; including a discussion of the structural and physical properties of wood

Identification of the economic woods of the United States; including a discussion of the structural and physical properties of wood

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tHf'''W''OF SDVTESED ;AMUEU!i Identification THEOF theofWoodsEconomic StatesUnited theofdiscussionaIncluding PhysicalandStructural WoodofProperties BY/ M.F.M.A.,Record,Samuel J. UniversityYaleProducts,of ForestProfessor EDITIONSECOND ENLARGEDANDREVISED YORKNEW Inc.SONS,&WILEYJOHN LimitedHALL,&CHAPMANLondon: SAME AUTHORBY THE of Wood.Mechanical Properties tables.viii pages, 6 51 figures, 22+ 1()7 X 'A Cloth, $2.50net. Copyright, 1912, 1919 RecordBy Samuel J, 79374« Printed in U. S. A. Stanhope ipress H.GILSON COMPANYF. BOSTON, U.S.A. -29 6D RECEIVEO FACULTY OF Fei".^n'^ TOUNIVER^^^jIg,^^ PAGE Introduction o . . 1 PART I Structural and Physical Properties of Wood: General 5 Pith 7 Bark 8 Primary wood 11 Cambium 12 Secondary wood 12 Vessels 14 Tracheids 16 Wood fibres 18 Wood parenchyma 21 Rays 23 Resin ducts 29 Pits 31 Tyloses 35 medullaryPith flecks or spots 36 Trabeculae: Sanio's beams 38 "Ripple marks" 39 Growth rings 40 44Heartwood and sapwood 46Grain and texture 48Knots Density and weight 49 Water content of wood 52 ill CONTENTSIV PAGE Shrinkage, warping, and checking 56 Hygroscopicity 59 PermeabiUty 60 Conductivity 62 Resonance 62 Color 64 Gloss or lustre .......... 66 Scent or odor 67 Taste 69 Additional References 69 PART II Economic Woods of the United States 73Key to the References 109 Bibliography 119 127Appendix 147Index ... o « .... . ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE Cross section of Quercus alba (white oak) .

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tHf'''W''OF
SDVTESED
;AMUEU!iIdentification
THEOF
theofWoodsEconomic
StatesUnited
theofdiscussionaIncluding
PhysicalandStructural
WoodofProperties
BY/
M.F.M.A.,Record,Samuel
J.
UniversityYaleProducts,of ForestProfessor
EDITIONSECOND
ENLARGEDANDREVISED
YORKNEW
Inc.SONS,&WILEYJOHN
LimitedHALL,&CHAPMANLondon:SAME AUTHORBY THE
of Wood.Mechanical Properties
tables.viii pages, 6 51 figures, 22+ 1()7 X 'A
Cloth, $2.50net.
Copyright, 1912, 1919
RecordBy Samuel J,
79374«
Printed in U. S. A.
Stanhope ipress
H.GILSON COMPANYF.
BOSTON, U.S.A.
-29
6DRECEIVEO
FACULTY OF Fei".^n'^
TOUNIVER^^^jIg,^^
PAGE
Introduction o . . 1
PART I
Structural and Physical Properties of Wood:
General 5
Pith 7
Bark 8
Primary wood 11
Cambium 12
Secondary wood 12
Vessels 14
Tracheids 16
Wood fibres 18
Wood parenchyma 21
Rays 23
Resin ducts 29
Pits 31
Tyloses 35
medullaryPith flecks or spots 36
Trabeculae: Sanio's beams 38
"Ripple marks" 39
Growth rings 40
44Heartwood and sapwood
46Grain and texture
48Knots
Density and weight 49
Water content of wood 52
illCONTENTSIV
PAGE
Shrinkage, warping, and checking 56
Hygroscopicity 59
PermeabiUty 60
Conductivity 62
Resonance 62
Color 64
Gloss or lustre .......... 66
Scent or odor 67
Taste 69
Additional References 69
PART II
Economic Woods of the United States 73Key to the
References 109
Bibliography 119
127Appendix
147Index ... o « .... .ILLUSTRATIONS
PLATE
Cross section of Quercus alba (white oak) . Frontispiece
PLATES
Map of the United States showing natural forest regions I
Photomicrographs of wood sections.... . II-VI
TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. PAGE
1. Cross sections of stem of Quercus prinus (chestnut oak) . 6
2. Typical wood cells 19
3. Radial sections of heterogeneous raj^s ...... 24
4. Radial section of ray of Pinus strobus (white pine) . . . .25
5. Radial section of ray of Pinus cdulis (pinon pine) . .
. .26
6. Radial section of ray of Pinus resinosa (red pine) . . . .27
7. Radial section of ray of Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) . . .28
8. Cross sectionthrough portions of two growth rings of Pinus ponderosa
(western yellow pine) 30
9. Tangential section of fusiform ray of Pinus ponderosa (western yellow
pine) .31
10. Cross section of wounda area of Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) 32
11. Schematic representation of pits 33
12. Bars of Sanio in Pinus murrayana (lodgepole pine) . . . .38
13. Cross section through three entire growth rings of Quercus macrocarpa
(bur oak) 42
14. Cross section through one entire growth ring and parts of two others
of Qu£rcus macrocarpa (bur oak) . . . .
. .42
15. Effects of shrinkage 57TABLES
PAGENO.
in coniferous woodsI. Length of tracheids 17
wood fibres in dicotyledonous woodsII. Length of . . . .20
hundred and fifty trees of the United States arranged inIII. One the
the average specific gravity of their dry woodsorder of . 50
wood along different dimensions .IV. Shrinkage of . . .57
families and genera of Dicotyledons in the United States 129V. Important
of the trees of the United States . . 129VI. Numerical conspectus
VII. woods with vessel perforations exclusively or predomi-Indigenous
135nantly simple .
vessel perforations exclusively scalariform 136VIII. Indigenous woods with
with spiral markings in part or all of the vessels 138IX. woods
Nature pitting of vessel wall where in contact with ray paren-X. of
chyma 139
XI. Occurrence of tyloses and gum deposits in vessels of indigenous
woods 141
XII. Families with indigenous representatives exclusively diffuse-porous 143
XIII. Indigenous ring-porous woods .143
XIV. Nature of pitting in wood fibres of indigenous woods . . .144
XV. Kinds of rays in indigenovis dicotyledonous woods . . .145
XVI. Indigenous woods with . . . 146" ripple marks." , ,
vu