Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on the Smoking-related Risk of Periodontal Disease: the Population-based Study SHIP

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Periodontitis is a bacterial inflammatory disease leading to attachment loss with the consequence of tooth loss. There exists a multifactorial risk pattern including bacterial challenge, smoking, age, sex, diabetes, socio-economic and genetic factors. Smoking has the highest impact on the course of the disease modulated by all the other factors. Here, we report the relationship between smoking and the polymorphisms of genetic polymorphisms inflicted in the pathogenesis. In a randomly selected population-based study, 1083 subjects were typed for the polymorphisms of the IL-1 genotype, Fcγ RIIIb receptor gene, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and related to their periodontal state. Smoking behavior was assessed including present and past quality and quantity of smoking. There is a significant dose-effect relationship between the exposure to tobacco smoke and the extent of periodontal disease assessed as attachment loss and tooth loss. Moreover, there are gene-environmental interactions as subjects bearing variant genotypes show an enhanced smoking-associated risk of the disease modulated by these genotypes. In non-smokers, the impact of these genetic polymorphisms is mostly negligible. This study provides support for the hypothesis that subjects bearing genetic variants of polymorphically expressed phenotypes are at an increased risk of periodontitis when smoking. Mostly, this may be accomplished via the influence of smoking-related impairment on defense mechanisms rather than on the pathogenic pathways.

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Publié le 01 janvier 2003
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TOBACCO INDUCED DISEASES
Vol. 1, No. 3: 197-206 (2003) ©PTID Society
Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on the Smoking-related Risk of Periodontal Disease: the Population-based Study SHIP 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 Meisel P, Heins G, Carlsson LE, Giebel J, John U, Schwahn C, Kocher T Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany 1 , 2 3 Department of Pharmacology Department of Immunology, Department of Anatomy, 4 5 Department of Epidemiology, Department of Periodontics ABSTRACT:Periodontitis is a bacterial inflammatory disease leading to attachment loss with the consequence of tooth loss. There exists a multifactorial risk pattern including bacte-rial challenge, smoking, age, sex, diabetes, socio-economic and genetic factors. Smoking has the highest impact on the course of the disease modulated by all the other factors. Here, we report the relationship between smoking and the polymorphisms of genetic polymorphisms inflicted in the pathogenesis. In a randomly selected population-based study, 1083 subjects were typed for the polymorphisms of the IL-1 genotype, FcγRIIIb receptor gene, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and related to their periodontal state. Smoking behavior was as-sessed including present and past quality and quantity of smoking. There is a significant dose-effect relationship between the exposure to tobacco smoke and the extent of periodontal disease assessed as attachment loss and tooth loss. Moreover, there are gene-environmental interactions as subjects bearing variant genotypes show an enhanced smoking-associated risk of the disease modulated by these genotypes. In non-smokers, the impact of these genetic polymorphisms is mostly negligible. This study provides support for the hypothesis that subjects bearing genetic variants of polymorphically expressed phenotypes are at an increased risk of periodontitis when smok-ing. Mostly, this may be accomplished via the influence of smoking-related impairment on defense mechanisms rather than on the pathogenic pathways. KEY WORDS: Smoking, periodontitis, risk factors, genetics, polymorphism
INTRODUCTIONare more likely to be affected by the sequelae of  periodontitis than others [3]. Whereas the infection is a Periodontitis is a very common inflammatory dis- necessary prerequisite for the development of ease caused by oral bacteria and leading to irreversible periodontitis, its course and severity depend on a attachment loss, bone destruction and eventually to number of inherited and environmental conditions. tooth loss. Approximately 30% of the adults in Europe Thus, periodontal diseases present a wide range of are affected, among them 5-15% with severe perio- clinical variability and severity. Both environmental dontal disease [1]. Similar figures were reported for the and genetic factors contribute to individual variations in U.S.A. [2]. An interest in risk assessment for dental the etiology of periodontal diseases [4]. This individual conditions came from the observation that some people susceptibility seems to be of major importance in deter-
________________________________________ Correspondence:P. Meisel, Department of Pharmacology, F.-Loeffler.Str.23d, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany Email: meiselp@uni.greifswald.de Fax: +49-3834-865631