In-between fixation and movement [Elektronische Ressource] : on the generation of microsaccades and what they convey about saccade generation / by Martin Rolfs
183 pages
English

In-between fixation and movement [Elektronische Ressource] : on the generation of microsaccades and what they convey about saccade generation / by Martin Rolfs

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183 pages
English
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I-B F M:OG MWTCASPbyMartinRolfsA thesis submitted to the Faculty of Hu-man Sciences at the University of Potsdam(Department of Psychology, CognitivePsychology) in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the degree of Doctor ofPhilosophy.1st reviewer: Prof. Dr. ReinholdKliegl2nd reviewer: Prof. Dr. Ralf EngbertDayof submission: January10, 2007Dayof oral defense: May23, 2007This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 Germany License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/de/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. Elektronisch veröffentlicht auf dem Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam: http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2007/1458/ urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-14581 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-14581] To my family and dear friends.AcknowledgementsItisaveryprivilegetobescientificallyeducatedwithinthisteamofresearchersinPotsdam;Inevertook that for granted! I wish to express my sincere thanks to Reinhold Kliegl, a distinguishedmentor and proficient supervisor, who taught me a lot and helped me finding my feet in theadventureofscience.

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Publié par
Publié le 01 janvier 2007
Nombre de lectures 12
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 3 Mo

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I-B F M:
OG M
WTCASP
by
MartinRolfs
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Hu-
man Sciences at the University of Potsdam
(Department of Psychology, Cognitive
Psychology) in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
1st reviewer: Prof. Dr. ReinholdKliegl
2nd reviewer: Prof. Dr. Ralf Engbert
Dayof submission: January10, 2007
Dayof oral defense: May23, 2007This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share
Alike 2.0 Germany License. To view a copy of this license, visit
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/de/ or send a letter to Creative
Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.










































Elektronisch veröffentlicht auf dem
Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam:
http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2007/1458/
urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-14581
[http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-14581] To my family and dear friends.Acknowledgements
ItisaveryprivilegetobescientificallyeducatedwithinthisteamofresearchersinPotsdam;Inever
took that for granted! I wish to express my sincere thanks to Reinhold Kliegl, a distinguished
mentor and proficient supervisor, who taught me a lot and helped me finding my feet in the
adventureofscience. Hefillswithenthusiasmina15-minutesmeetingandconvertsdissatisfaction
to optimism. I also appreciated the supervision of Ralf Engbert, to whom I take off my hat for
his true success, being an excellent researcher and a loving family man at the same time. For
sure, this is what I want to get at. I thank Eike “open ear” Richter for his infinite patience in
answering the never-ending stream of my questions concerning science, life, and science life to
the best of his greatknowledge. He certainly increasedmy confidence (intervals). I am indebted
to Hans Trukenbrod, a great and supporting friend, who, as a peer, reviewed one of the close-
to-final versions of this thesis work. I’m sure this thesis was a pleasure to him (as his will be to
me)! Many thanks to Jochen Laubrockwho with his interest often encouraged me to think about
my experiments and their results from a slightly different perspective. He was also a competent
collaboratoronsomeoftheworkpresentedhere. IenjoyedallthediscussionswithHannesNoack
who was able to show me that I am actually on the sunny side of microsaccade research(he will
understandwhatImean). WithallmyheartIthankClaudiaandJesperwhoboremissingmeday
by day over the last months and tolerated innumerable night sessions after some short hours of
familytime. Thishasbeentoughforallofus. Thanksforsupportandunderstandingthroughall
that time to Franzi, MOne, Michael, and all the others! I also wish to thank my 141 participants
who performed 47.985 usable trials in the experiments reported here, unaware of generating a
total of 157.985 microsaccades. This may appear a big number, but believe me, it is not. More
than200hoursoftestingpassedbyandIwasdelightedbyeachofthesetinymovements. Finally,
I thank to our student assistants and Petra Gruttner¨ for carefullycollecting these datasets!
iTableofContents
Acknowledgements i
TableofContents v
Listof Figures vii
Listof Tables viii
Introduction 1
1 Threetypesoffixationaleyemovements 3
1.1 Drift.............................................. 5
1.2 Microtremor......... 6
1.3 Microsacades........................................ 7
2 Isthereapurposetomicrosaccadesandotherfixationaleyemovements? 9
2.1 Preventionofperceptualfading.............................. 9
2.2 Controloffixationposition............ 19
2.3 Visualacuityandscanningofsmalregions....................... 23
2.4 Covertshiftsofatention.................. 27
2.5 Furtherpotentialfunctionsoffixationaleyemovements................ 30
2.6 Summaryofthefunctionsofmicrosaccades........... 32
3 Ontherelationbetweenmicrosaccadesandsaccades 35
3.1 Overviewoftheneuralbasisofsacadegeneration.................. 37
3.2 A neurophysiological perspectiveon microsaccade
generation.......................................... 41
3.3 Afieldmodelofmicrosacadegeneration........ 44
3.4 Behavioralpredictionsofthecommon-fieldmodel................... 46
4 Ontheimplementationofmicrosaccadicinhibition 49
4.1 Methods........................................... 52
4.1.1 Participants......... 52
4.1.2 Experimentalsetupandeye-movementrecording............... 52
4.1.3 Procedure.............................. 53
4.1.4 Stimuli.................... 56
4.1.5 Datapreparation.................................. 56
4.1.6 Dataanalysis............ 57
4.2 Results........................................ 58
4.2.1 Performanceinthetask.......... 58
4.2.2 Microsacaderate.................................. 60
iiiiv TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.2.3 Microsacadeamplitude.............................. 63
4.2.4 Microsacadesandperformancemeasures... 64
4.3 Discusion.......................................... 67
4.3.1 On the processesunderlying microsaccadicinhibition . . . . . 68
4.3.2 Relationtosaccadicinhibition.......................... 70
4.3.3 Enhancedperformanceafterirelevantvisualstimuli..... 72
5 Approachingtheinteractionsofmicrosaccadesandsaccades 75
5.1 Methods........................................... 77
5.1.1 Participants......... 77
5.1.2 Experimentalsetupandeye-movementrecording............... 77
5.1.3 Procedure.......................... 77
5.1.4 Stimuli.................... 78
5.1.5 Datapreparation...................... 79
5.1.6 Dataanalysis.................... 80
5.2 Results................................ 80
5.2.1 Sacadicreactiontime................... 80
5.2.2 Microsacaderate...................... 80
5.2.3 Microsaccadeamplitude.................. 81
5.2.4 Microsacadesandsacadicresponselatencies..... 82
5.3 Discusion.......................................... 85
5.3.1 Shorteningofsacadelatenciesfolowingmicrosacades... 87
5.3.2 Prolongationofsacadelatenciesfolowingmicrosacades.......... 89
6 Microsaccadesinthecourseof saccadepreparation 91
6.1 Microsaccadesandreflexivesaccades:Thegaptask.................. 92
6.1.0.1 Temporalpreparationbyfixationaldisengagementinthe gaptask 92
6.1.0.2 Spatialpreparationbylocalizedreadinesinthegaptask..... 94
6.1.1 Methods................................... 96
6.1.1.1 Participants............ 96
6.1.1.2 Experimentalsetupandeye-movementrecording..... 96
6.1.1.3 Procedure............................. 97
6.1.1.4 Stimuli.............. 98
6.1.1.5 Datapreparation......................... 98
6.1.1.6 Dataanalysis............... 98
6.1.2 Results................................ 99
6.1.2.1 Performanceinthetask......... 99
6.1.2.2 Microsacaderate........................ 99
6.1.2.3 Microsacadeamplitude........101
6.1.2.4 Microsaccaderatesandsaccadicresponselatencies.....103
6.1.2.5 Microsaccade-inducedchangesinsaccadicresponse latencies . . . 105
6.1.3 Discusion......................................107
6.1.3.1 Fixationaldisengagementandmicrosacades....108
6.1.3.2 Localizedmotorpreparationandmicrosacades..........109
6.1.3.3 Translationoffixation-relatedactivityintomicrosacades.109
6.1.3.4 Relationship betweenmicrosaccadesandthe gap effect......111
6.2 Microsaccadesandvoluntarysaccades:Theanti-saccadetask........112
6.2.1 Fixational-relatedactivitydiffersbetweenpro-andanti-saccadetasks . . . 113
6.2.2 Motor-preparationactivityinthepro-andtheanti-sacadetasks......114
6.2.3 Methods...................................115
6.2.3.1 Participants............115
6.2.3.2 Experimentalsetupandeye-movementrecording.....115TABLE OF CONTENTS v
6.2.3.3 Procedure.................................115
6.2.3.4 Stimuli..........116
6.2.3.5 Datapreparation.............................117
6.2.3.6 Dataanalysis...........118
6.2.4 Results....................................118
6.2.4.1 Performanceinthetask.........118
6.2.4.2 Microsacaderate............................118
6.2.4.3 Microsacadeamplitude........121
6.2.4.4 Relationship betweenmicrosaccadesand saccadicresponses . . . 122
6.2.4.5 Microsacade-targetcongruency....................125
6.2.5 Discusion......................128
6.2.5.1 Microsaccadestatisticsduringfixationaldisengagementbeforepro-
andanti-sacades............................128
6.2.5.2 Differencesinmicrosaccadestatistics beforepro-andanti-saccades 131
6.2.5.3 Microsaccadedirectionratherweaklyrevealedmotor-preparation
signals...................................133
6.3 Effectsofpracticeinthepro-andanti-sacadetasks......134
6.3.1 Methods.......................................135
6.3.1.1 Participants........135
6.3.1.2 Experimentalsetupandeye-movementrecording.........135
6.3.1.3 Procedure.............................135
6.3.1.4 Stimuli..............136
6.3.1.5 Datapreparation.........................137
6.3.1.6 Dataanalysis...............137
6.3.2 Results................................138
6.3.2.1 Performanceinthetask.............138
6.3.2.2 Overalmicrosacaderate...................139
6

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