Novel carbon materials with hierarchical porosity: templating strategies and advanced characterization [Elektronische Ressource] / von Philipp Adelhelm
145 pages
English

Novel carbon materials with hierarchical porosity: templating strategies and advanced characterization [Elektronische Ressource] / von Philipp Adelhelm

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145 pages
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hender2007k-InstituteingereicfüronK(Dr.olloidysikundderGrenzäcersitäthenforscPhrerumungnat.)NohaftsdisziplinvelheCarbontMah-NaturwissenscterialsakultätwithotsdamHierarAchicalimPorctorosity:naturaliumTemplarer.tinginStraWissensctegiesPhandaliscAdChemievhancedanCharaMathematisccterizahaftlictionFDissertationUnivzurPErlangungvdesPhilippakdelhelmademiscotsdam,henMaiGradesMax-Plancdo Elektronisch veröffentlicht auf dem Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam: http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2007/1505/ urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-15053 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-15053] ..andtenConts.1.Inontromicroscopductionons7.234Analytical.Methoads.13carb2.1.Wide-Angle3X-raCarby.Scattering.(W.AXS)AXS).3.4...L...parameters...extraction.........deling.aluation133.12.1.1.W.AXS.pattern33of.graphitic.carbx-raon.and.non-graphiticWcarb.on..Stac.y.y.exture.h.......insertion.ts.materials.2.5.(EM)...........AXS.Non-graphitic.An.Dieren.Precursors.tro......15.2.1.2.A.dv.ancedCarbanalysiscarbof.W.AXS.patternsWidefromscatteringnon-graphitic.carb.on.-.WdelingAXSpatternsmo.deling......41.heigh.,.size.

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Publié par
Publié le 01 janvier 2007
Nombre de lectures 9
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 18 Mo

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FMax-PlancWissensck-Institutctorf?rhKPhilippolloidrer.undaliscGrenz?cMathematischenforscPhotsdam,ungnaturaliumNoinvelPhCarbonChemieMaanterialshaftlicwithUnivHierarvchicaldelhelmPorMaiosity:rerumTempla(Dr.tingnat.)StradertegieshaftsdisziplinandysikAdheveingereicancedtCharadercterizah-NaturwissensctionhenDissertationakult?tzurersit?tErlangungotsdamdesonakAademiscPhenimGrades2007do













































Elektronisch veröffentlicht auf dem
Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam:
http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2007/1505/
urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-15053
[http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-15053] a3
.ts3.4.11onIn/tro.duction.7462.AnalyticalEvMetho.dsangle13.2.1terlaWide-Angle.X-ra.y.ScatteringMo(W33AXS)........of...la.in.....on.Electron....13292.1.1CarbWtAXSductionpattern.of.graphitic.carbonizationon.and.non-graphitic(Wcarb.on39.......t.L.Con.from.......Li.measuremen.on.26.y...........W.of.-.of.on.In..15.2.1.2.A.dv.anced.analysis.of3.2Wnon-graphiticAXS.patterns.from.non-graphitic3.3carbyon.-.W.AXS.moModelingAXS...........k.c.er.and.er.T.carb.pitc.Other....17.2.2.Raman.sp3ectroscopinsertionyextractionoftscarbcarbonmaterialsmaterials..2.5.microscop.(EM)..................20.2.33NitrogenAXSsorptiondeling.Non-graphitic.ons.An.aluation.Dieren.Carb.Precursors.3.1.tro.............................33.Carb22and2.3.1carbClassical.analysis..........34.Wide.x-ra.scattering.AXS)...............3.4.deling.W.patterns..23.2.3.2.A.dv.anced.analysis.-.Non-lo.cal41densitStacyheighfunctionalLthe-,oryy(NLDFT)size.a.in.y.spacingten41.3.4.2.exture.non-graphitic.on.mesophase.h.3.4.3.parameters.....................50252.4thesis3.5.Phenolic.resindecompas.carb/on.precursorNano.in.....tro.Nak...........Si.....83.Soft-templating..54.3.6ofComparison.with.Raman.sp5.4ectroscopviay......5.7.....on...........of.on56h3.7.Thermal.stabilit.y..for.orous.......87.......of.orous.............oration.thesis.extraction...material...5.7.2.5.858p3.8.SummarySummary.......Conclusion.........Syn.hical.orous.terials.Mesophase.5.1...............85.pro.syn.hical.monoliths......59.4.Syn.thesis.ofSpinoHierarc.hical.Macro-./.Mesop.orous.CarbtonhMono-oflithsonusing.Hard-templating.and.Mesophase.Pitc.h5.561analysis4.1.In.tro.duction....5.6.Si.the.cedure.insertion.ts.....5.7.1.........material.(MPPS-66-600-Si).w.ers.yrene.....109............61.4.2111Curren4t.state.of.researc.h.-.Nano.casting.of5mesopthesisorousHierarccarbMacro-onMesopmaterialsCarbusingMa-hard-templatingusing.and.Pitc.85.In.duction........................63.4.3.Syn5.2thesisanishiandcessanalysisthe.thesis.hierarc.p.silica...............................5.3.dal.osition66.4.3.1.W.AXS.analysis............88.Curren.state.researc.-.casting.mesop.carb.materials.soft-templating..............72.4.4.Li90insertionSyn/andextraction.measuremen.ts..................91.Incorp.of.nanoparticles.to75syn4.5proMacro-104/Lithiummesop/orousmeasuremencarb.on.monoliths.as.supp.ort104materialMPPSfor(MPPS-66-600)sup.ercapacitors..........105.MPPS.with.nanoparticles.108.Hollo.carb.nanob.from.olyst.............5.9......81.4.6.Summary....................6.113..tal7.Appsymendix.117.7.1.Exp.erimenytal.details....paten.A...y.........List.....7.5.tations...t.......sp...7.3..117.7.1.1.Syn.thesis.of.hierarc129hicalabbreviationsmacro-ols/.mesop.orous.carb.onofmonolithsandb.y.hard-templating132usingknomesophase.pitc.h...117.7.1.2.Syn134thesis5ofectroscophierarc.hical.macro-121/Instrumenmesopdetailsorous.carb.on.using.soft-templating.and.mesophase.pitc.h........7.4.of.and.b118.7.1.3.Li-insertion./.extraction.measuremen.ts....131.List.publications,.ts.presen......119.7.1.4.High7.6tempceraturewledgmentreatmen.t.(HTT).for.W.AXS.analysis.120.7.2.Results.from.W.AXS.moBibliographdeling137andRaman6aChapter(sp1asInsheetstroyductiontWithinhthewpnoterioopaque,dicmotable,ontheorksixththreeelemenwt,oncasarborton,aluminshoandwsthermosevateraldiamond,uniqueondedcformingharacteristics.makingisithonestacofimptheymostoneimpmaterialortanmaterial.twhereasonesincompara-intimesancienothertinsulation,timestoandt.moofdernandcdier-hemistryerties..hAsisthefourinhtegralthree-dimensionalpartcubicofgraphite,naturalonmatter,ondedcarb(sponformingma-aterialsThesesucallotrophinglyasdivwtheoorld.odiamonddtransparenandknocoalhardestwdoereelectricitrstcanusedinaswcomthanbustible,etterconstructingOnmaterialsgraphiteorforaselectricitpigmensoftt.eAfterdrytheisdiscostablevonerytempofandthecompletelyelemenentpropcInharactereacbcarbyatomthebfrenctohothersc3hemistybridization)Laavframewoisierofaroundsymmetry1780,Incarbeaconcarbbatomecamebtotodaothersy's2bacybridization)kbplanaroneinofhexagonalaking.wholetbrancohesinos-moshodernthecersithemistryin(OrganiccarbChemistry),wmainlyOndueside,toisitshighlyabundancetandandabilitwnythetonaturalbItondeswithconductitselfyanditothertranspatomsheatinanableplenatiful(morefashion.100Thebnaturethanofum).thethebside,ondingisbusedetthermalwconductseenycarbisonenoughatomsbisuseddeterminedablubricanyGraphitethetheelectronicdynamicallycongurationformandcarbgivatesderateriseeraturestopressuresallotropmeltses7of–
used1C4000DierenChaptertodC.carbDiamondfoams,onlyturallyformsandwhenprophighinsulation,temp)eraturee,isedaccompaniedhighbexample,yliquidshighonpressurebandwithcanOtherbmateriale(foundisin(b)natureoonlyosites)bourecausearethetentransformationstateinonstoharmfulgraphiteumanismadekineticallyashindered.shells.Theexcellencarbtooneighfamilyandwareasorextendedcases,btheymi-famousthesediscoanvcarberiesFinontheb80'sorandere90'senoflivlastoncenwithtury:onCarbandonananotubFesatedandwidelyfullerenes.vBothtaminatesallotroptheesoarebsuppnaturalosedsuctoobnebvshoerymecusefulandforcomfuturewapplicationsand[14].inFindustryoronexample,forcarbgasonelectronanotubInesisexhibitstructureonelevofarbtheostructurhighestdeterminesYerties.oung'sviousmoFigureduliformsev(a)er(c)measured.(d)FAmorphousullerenes,8moleculeswders,thaters,arefabricsshapcompedwlikdescribeandsoteredccerdailyballs,e.arearbsuppmaterialsosedsolidsactaascarbcarriersconfortsmallstruc-moleculesin[5,non-graphitic6]..Otherorex-activoticcarbformsareofusedcarbremoonelikconefromcarboronhnanofoamb-dythecansolidewithfromthecarblosourceswhestwdensitoyorevuterCar-reponortedersiswsupptosedhanicaltoertiesbresistanceecorrosionferromagneticbined[8]lo-wortcarbareone.g.nano-onionsautomobile[9]aeronauticalw.erecarbalsomaterialsdiscousedvthermaleredforduringstoragetheaslastdey[10].ears.allFigureit1.1theshoonwsondierenmoleculartelformscofonthecrelemenetthatcarballon.propBesidesIttheseobformsthatofexactcarb1.1:on,tplenofton:yDiamond,cGraphite,arbC60onullerene,materialsNanotub(e.g.(e)incarbform[7].ofp–
heated1.0onFigureh1.2:reductivSc(e.g.hematicseriesillustrationcarbofarbtheofcarbwhereasonthismicrostructuretialofobtainednon-asgraphiticbcarbprecursorson.thanknoFigurewledgelimitedofthethestaccarbappliedontmicrostructureAXSisonshighlyheatdesirableorganicinoorderantoprotune,thegraphitepropatertiesillustrationofisaevcarby)onthematerialmoforeralcertainersitiesapplications.withinOnemofotimecusevofregardingthisthewoforkNon-graphiticwbasytotuseprecursorsasucwide-angleorx-rad)yatmosphere,scatteringpuremoresiduedelcalled(W).AXScarbmoindel)theybtlyyeraturesRC.ulandtheandcarbSmarslwnyThe[11]tecasspaneadvabancedontecWhniqueallotoofobtainparameters,vperytheprecisedorinformationmaterial.abork,outwthethecarbaonsamples.microstructureofofonnon-pgrinaphiticWcpatternarbcarbons.materials.Brieycarb,cannon-graphiticecarbbonssimpleconsisttreatmenofofsmallongraphene(e.g.stacmatterks,husuallysucroseinwtheonanometerunderrange.eTheyieldingaalmostvcar-erageondimensions(aofcessthesecstaconizationksIdeally(latheyonertransformsizetoandifstacareksucienheighlongt)tempdeterminehigherthe2000SectiondegreeAnofofordermicrostructureinnon-graphitictheonmaterial.shoFinor1.2.example,standardsmallaluationstachniquesksRamanofectroscophighgivponlyolydispinformationersitoutycarbgivmicrostructure,etheriseAXStodelawsvdeterminationerysevdisorderedstructuralcarbsuconasmaterial,olydispwhereasoflargegraphenestacksksstressesofthesmallWithinpwolydisptheer-delsitasyforincreaserstthetodegreelargerinoforder.TheSucaluationhdierendierencescarbcanprecursorsbtheireotenclearlyuseseen9in† >
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aroundnewetnon-graphiticacarbortationonmacrmaterialssystemiswithdiscussedaroundinoChap-50terhemical3tak.theInarea.particular,wherethemmmicrostructurecomparablyoforescarbtheon(dmaterialscderivmobileedetfromthemesophaseandpitchofis/studiedisinardsdetail,hessinceoresthisacarbmonaprecursorAisdiameterkno(dwn(dformicritsaccessiblegodesirableoIdeallydtranspcarbhierarconizationthebandehaplaceviorterfaceandeenformationClearlyofuptakaxygenwtotalell-devineloptracedmaincarbtooninnermicrostructurenally(i.e.inlargesmalldimensionsaroundofdiametertheareagraphene-stacwithinks).dimensionsPumanorous.MaterialsdenesPtooresas:areorfound50evorerywhere2inandnatureorandaareareacrucialspaceformantheprodevtheelopmenoundstinofalonglife.pAsreactoneterfaceexample,eentreesphase.transpesortatwinaterbandwmineralslungthroughair.p,orestotaltoeevoenincreasesthethetheirlungoutermostairparts.terfaceOneThecanheaimaginethethattranspitrouteiswusefulthetolung,haitvbranceosevtoeral300.000.000hpugeoftransp0.2ortinroutescreatingfromsurfacewhicofh70smaller80ones2brancthehsmalloofinhtobmoredydistanIUPtCareas.pSucaccordinghtheiradhierthesisaropchicesalsynpnm)ormesopousesstructur1e-isnm),alsoChapterofop2es).ideafoundnminThetheofhlarge,umansurfacebinosmalldyis.forTheylunghemicaliscesses.a,widelycbranccomphedareportedorousaorganphasewherethethehicalexcorehangeandofatoinxygenbandwcarbmobileonsoliddio10xide

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