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Prometheism in creative work of Jurgis Baltrušaitis and Giovanni Papini ; Prometėjizmas Jurgio Baltrušaičio ir Giovanni'o Papini'o kūryboje

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Ugnius Keturakis PROMETHEISM IN CREATIVE WORK OF JURGIS BALTRUŠAITIS AND GIOVANNI PAPINI Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Humanities, Philology (04 H) Kaunas, 2010 The doctoral dissertation was prepared at the Vytautas Magnus University from 2005 to 2010. Scientific supervisor: Doc. dr. Asija Kovtun (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H) The Dissertation will be defended before the Council of Philological Sciences of Vytautas Magnus University: Chairperson: Prof. dr. Irene Buckley (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H) Members: Prof. habil. dr. Tomas Sodeika (Kaunas University of Technology, Humanities, Philosophy – 01 H) Doc. dr. Jadvyga Kr ūminien ė (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H) Doc. dr. Gabija Bankauskait ė – Sereikien ė (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H) Oponents: Prof. habil .dr. Virginija Šlekien ė – Balsevi či ūt ė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H) Prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Bikul čius (Šiauliai University, Humanities, Philology – 04 H) This dissertattion will be defended at public meeting of the Council of Philological Sciences in the Marija Gimbutien ė hall (room 211) of Vytautas Magnus University Faculty of Humanities at 10:30 a.m. on May 31, 2010. Address: K. Donelai čio 52, LT – 44244 Kaunas, Lithuania.
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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY        Ugnius Keturakis  PROMETHEISM IN CREATIVE WORK OF JURGIS BALTRUAITIS AND GIOVANNI PAPINI    Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Humanities, Philology (04 H)              Kaunas, 2010
The doctoral dissertation was prepared at the Vytautas Magnus University from 2005 to 2010.  Scientific supervisor: Doc. dr. Asija Kovtun (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Philology  04 H)    The Dissertation will be defended before the Council of Philological Sciences of Vytautas Magnus University:  Chairperson: Prof. dr. Irene Buckley (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Philology  04 H)  Members:  Prof. habil. dr. Tomas Sodeika (Kaunas University of Technology, Humanities, Philosophy  01 H)  Doc. dr. Jadvyga Krūminienė(Vilnius University, Humanities, Philology  04 H)  Doc. dr. Gabija Bankauskaitė Sereikienė(Vilnius University, Humanities, Philology  04 H)  Oponents: Prof. habil .dr. Virginija lekienė Balsevičiūtė(Vilnius Pedagogical University, Humanities, Philology  04 H)  Prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Bikulčius (iauliai University, Humanities, Philology  04 H)  This dissertattion will be defended at public meeting of the Council of Philological Sciences in the Marija Gimbutienėhall (room 211) of Vytautas Magnus University Faculty of Humanities at 10:30 a.m. on May 31, 2010. Address: K. Donelaičio 52, LT  44244 Kaunas, Lithuania.  The summary of the doctoral dissertattion was sent out on April 30, 2010. Those interested may acquaint themselves with the doctoral dissertattion at the Lithuanian National Martynas Mavydas library and at the libraries of Vytautas Magnus University and the Institute of the Lithuanian Language.    
 
 
VYTAUTO DIDIOJO UNIVERSITETAS        Ugnius Keturakis  PROMETĖJIZMAS JURGIO BALTRUAIČIO IR GIOVANNIO PAPINIO KŪRYBOJE    Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Humanitariniai mokslai, filologija (04 H)              Kaunas, 2010
Disertacija rengta 2005  2010 metais Vytauto Didiojo universitete  Mokslinis vadovas: Doc. dr. Asija Kovtun (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)    Disertacija ginama Vytauto Didiojo universiteto Humanitariniųmokslųkrypties taryboje:  Pirmininkas: Prof. dr. Irena Buckley (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)  Nariai: Prof. habil. dr. (hp) Tomas Sodeika (Kauno technologijos universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija  01H)  Doc. dr. Jadvyga Krūminienė(Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)  Doc. dr. Gabija Bankauskaitė Sereikienė(Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)  Dr. Aurelija Mykolaitytė(Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)  Oponentai: Prof. habil .dr. Virginija lekienė Balsevičiūtė(Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)  Prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Bikulčius (iauliųuniversitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija  04 H)  Disertacija bus ginama vieame Humanitariniųmokslųkrypties tarybos posėdyje 2010 m. geguės 31 d. 10 val. 30 min. Vytauto Didiojo universiteto Humanitariniųmokslų fakultete, Marijos Gimbutienės auditorijoje (211 kab.). Adresas: K. Donelaičio g. 52, LT  44244 Kaunas, Lietuva  Disertacijos santrauka isiuntinėta 2010 m. balandio 30 d. Disertacijągalima periūrėti Lietuvos nacionalinėje Martyno Mavydo bibliotekoje, taip pat Vytauto Didiojo universiteto ir Lietuviųkalbos instituto bibliotekose.  
 
INTRODUCTION In European culture the myth of Prometheus, which represents mind, spiritual power, heroic service to people, suffering for the sake of their happiness, a challenge for God and trust in human powers always retained its actuality by arising in the cultural self-consciousness during the periods of epochal crises. Prometheus is the symbol of human creativity and at the same time the symbol of suffering of the earthly existence, raising fundamental questions the answers to which were searched by ancient and Romanticist poets, and later  by symbolism: What is a mans position in creation? Can art change the world? What price does a man have to pay for progress? The significance of prometheism, as one of the fundamental concepts of European culture at the end of th the 19 century and the beginning of the 20thcentury for the world-view of the authors of this period, determined Baltruaitis and Papinis choice of this aspect in their creative work. In European culture the myth of Prometheus, which represents mind, spiritual power, heroic service to people, suffering for the sake of their happiness, a challenge for God and trust in human powers, was never completely buried in the past and always retained its actuality. The image of Prometheus is alive in the creative work of Michelangelo, Goethe, George Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ludwig van Beethoven, Richard Wagner, Alexander Scriabin. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20 centuryth in European century culture is the period of historical crisis when the truths of religion and morality were questioned, God died or at least alienated and a man found himself to be the architect of ones own life. Ancient mythology naturally became the primal view of the titanic mission which was accepted by European authors of the end of the 19thcentury and the beginning of the 20thcentury. This mythology was based on the figures of the legendary bard Orpheus and the great rebel against the Gods will Prometheus. One of the features that is typical to both characters and which attracted the imagination of poets of century junction was the role of the mediator between Heaven and Earth, God and man, body and soul. As the myths of Orpheus and Prometheus raise different aspects of this mission  Orpheus, pre-eminently, represents the divine power of art, whereas  Prometheus signifies the tragedy of liberating rebellion  in their works poets symbolists referred to both mythological figures.
 
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The world-view of Baltruaitis and Papinis creative work is based on the tradition of ancient dualism, according to which the world is separated into the earthly, or material and the divine, or ideal. It should be noted that interest in antiquity which is typical to the intellectual life of the period of the end of the 19th and the century beginning of the 20thof Christianity as a necessity for thecentury arises from the crisis man after the death of God to become the creator of the world himself, to take the place of God. Antiquity was treated as the origin of Christianity, thus the look back to idealistic philosophy, firstly  to Plato, and Greek mythology (figures of Orpheus, Prometheus as mediators between God and people) meant the attempt to revive the worn-out belief, to find the new connection with God. Continuing the research of the topics which started attracting scholars attention in the ninth decade of the 20thcentury and most of which were forbidden to investigate for the science of literature until that time, this dissertation discusses the origins of Lithuanian symbolism emphasizing the contours of complex cultural polylogue encompassing Russian, Italian and Lithuanian cultures. The letters written by Baltruaitis to Papini are for the first time presented to the scientific community. Using new factographic material  letters written in Italian by Baltruaitis to Papini 153 of which are stored in the Manuscripts Department of the National Library of Russia and in Giovanni Papinis archive in Fiesole  European genesis of Lithuanian symbolism is proven, when the new European tendencies of art have reached Lithuania through the Russian creative work by Baltruaitis. The scientific issue of the dissertation.On the grounds of the correspondence between Baltruaitis and Papini that is characterized by the world-view of prometheism this dissertation for the first time discloses the tradition of Lithuanian symbolism. This research also complements and expands the association of Lithuanian symbolism only to the Russian context which was settled in Lithuanian humanistics. Manifestations of prometheism in the creative work of Baltruaitis and Papini are not separated from the studies. With this dissertation the author attempts to ascertain what determined the differences of the expression and development of the promethean world-view in the cultural dialogue of these authors  why, in Papinis case, the promethean attitude brought Papini closer to fascism and what characteristics of Baltruaitis promethean viewpoint destined the fact that the poet did not conform to Bolshevik ideology. With
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this investigation the author also tries to highlight the European context of Lithuanian symbolism. The hypothesis of the research.Baltruaitis and Papinis viewpoint of creative work is common  prometheism, however, its ideological grounds are different: philosophical conceptions of Solovyovs God-man and Nietzsches superhuman. This hypothesis necessitated to include works of European researches and sources of European symbolism into the scope of investigation.  The object of the dissertation. Baltruaitis and Papinis epistolary inheritance, creative work of both authors, which was published at the end of the 19thcentury and at the beginning of the 20thcentury in Russian and Italian periodical press and collections of poetry and prose, are for the first time actualized and analysed in Lithuanian humanistics. With this dissertation the author attempts to investigate the texts which, according to their poetical principles, signify artistic searches of the period under investigation  the promethean world-view and aesthetic ideals. Theaimof the dissertation is to investigate the characteristics and differences of promethean viewpoint in Baltruaitis and Papinis creative work. The followingobjectiveshave been set: - to highlight prometheism as an aspect of symbolism and to characterize European origins of prometheism; - to trace the forms of poetics that should be treated as inheritance of prometheism in Baltruaitis and Papinis writings; - to demonstrate the development of aesthetic ideals of prometheism in the texts by Baltruaitis and Papini; - to discover the Lithuanian reflection of prometheism; - to analyse the connections between prometheism and the cyclicity of creation. Previous researches. Symbolism, which was for a long time was left out of consideration after its, as a way of art, end of existence, was newly actualized after World War II and now many fundamental works have been written on it. The main works that are necessary to mention are the following:The Symbolist Movement in the Literature of European Languages. Ed. Anna Balakian. Budapest: 1984. Akadémiai Kiadó; Pierrot, J., 1981.The Decadent Imagination. 1880-1900. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press; Pyman, A. 1994.A History of Russian Symbolism. 
 
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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Prometheism in the context of European and Lithuanian symbolism did not attract scientists attention. Prometheism was not investigated in West European literaturology. As an idea, this conception arose in a work by Nikolai Berdyaev Philosophy of Free Spirit (Философия свободного духа, 1927  1928), later this conception was taken up by Maceina who wrote an article Promethean Tragedy of Culture (1932), a study The Problem of Prometheism  (1938), in 1940 his writing The Collapse of Bourgeoisie was published in which, according to the philosopher, three ideas of European culture, on which life focuses, are accentuated: bourgeois, Christian and promethean. However, during the Soviet period Lithuanian literaturology skipped this topic. In this paper the conception of prometheism in Baltruaitis creative work is analysed for the first time, on the grounds of his letters to Papini. This allows taking a brand new look at Baltruaitis writings and viewpoint. Particular notices about artistic searches and separate aspects of promethean viewpoint of the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th can be century found in studies by Viktorija Daujotytė dedicated to Baltruaitis creative inheritance: Jurgis Baltruaitis (1974), Юргис лтБашарутйси:монографический очерк(1983). However, Lithuanian humanistics still lacks generalising researches which analyse the meaning of prometheism as one of the aspects of symbolism in Lithuanian literature. The expressions of promethean style in Baltruaitis and Papinis creative work have not been analysed. Vytautas Kavolis investigated the myth of Prometheus in the context of analysis of civilisations claiming that it is (...) a basic model of human moral evolution (Kavolis 1993, 364); Algis Mickūreferred to this myth discussing the establishment ofnas political community indicating that (...) in this classic Greek mythology the conception of personal responsibility for ones own actions is developed (Mickūnas 2007, 364). In the above mentioned works the promethean style is not named, however, a number of features of this style are discussed. In 1998 a study A Journey to the Beginning of Time: Indian Idealism, Vydūnas, Krėvė by Regimantas Tamoaitis was published, in 1998 an article Prometheism in the Creation of Peer-writers by Virginija Balsevičiūtė was published in a magazine Filologija (Philology), in 2005 an article Promethean Viewpoint in the prose by Jonas Biliūnas by Mindaugas Kvietkauskas was published in a magazine Metai (The Years).
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Scientific novelty and actuality of the research. 1. Origins of prometheism of Lithuanian symbolism have been analysed, a distinctive interpretation of prometheism has been carried out and basic directions of modern researches of symbolism have been discussed. 2. Theory and practice of prometheism, which offers basically new horizons of Lithuanian symbolism and generally researches of Lithuanian literature, has been actualized. 3. Expressions of prometheism in Baltruaitis and Papinis creative work have been investigated, sociocultural aspects and peculiarities of development of this world-view have been disclosed. 4. Differences of Baltruaitis and Papinis prometheism, which determined the relations of both authors with totalitarian regime established in Russia and Italy at the beginning of the 20thcentury, have been analysed. 5. In this dissertation the author discusses aesthetic categories of Lithuanian symbolism which by now attracted little attention, the theory of promethean world-view is raised and explored, Baltruaitis epistolary inheritance that has not yet been investigated up to our days is added to the scientific knowledge. Terms. discussing culture, art and literature of the end of the 19 Whileth century and the beginning of the 20ththe same term of prometheism is applied, century although in literaturology of other countries  Russia and Italy  the conception of orphism is generally used. Such a choice was determined by the fact that the term of prometheism, introduced by Antanas Maceina, settled in Lithuanian philosophical works and studies of literature. Methods of research. While comparing Baltruaitis and Papinis texts and searching for connections of Russian, Italian and Lithuanian cultures comparative method, disclosing typological matches, similarities and differences, is employed. This method enables perceiving the individuality of the investigated works and cultures, authentic way and forms of development which reveal co-European cultural searches of the period under investigation. Discussing the expressions of Baltruaitis and Papinis creation the following principles are also applied: hermeneutical principles suggested by Friedrich Schleiermacher, Wilhelm Dilthey, Hans Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricouer,
 
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principles of wider cultural horizon, disclosure of world-view systems, immanence of text perception and interpretation proposed by Antanas Maceina. Results of the research.Milestones of European symbolism of the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century have been indicated and the meaning of prometheism as fundamental category of symbolism has been determined. It has been explored that the origins of Lithuanian symbolism do not only date back to Russian symbolism but through it they are connected with the broader co-European context. It has been established that one of the fundamental categories of Baltruaitis and Papinis viewpoint is prometheism, its political aspect characteristic to both authors has been analysed. It has been determined that Baltruaitis promethean viewpoint is based on the philosophy of Solovyov according to which God-man is the synthesis of humanity and divinity; whereas Papinis promethean viewpoint refers to Nietzsches idea of superhuman as an absolute category, a man who became God. The connection of Papinis identity metamorphoses and prometheism viewpoint has been investigated; it has been demonstrated that prometheism influenced the twists of Baltruaitis intellectual biography and the changes of his relation with Lithuanity. The connections of Baltruaitis and Papinis prometheism with the political attitude of authors has been analysed, it has been established that the differences of this attitude were determined by diverse philosophical fundamentals of Russian and Italian prometheism. Structure of the paper.dissertation consists of introduction and three  The chapters in which the expression of prometheism in European culture, world-view peculiarities in Russian and Italian cultures as well as in Baltruaitis and Papinis creative work are discussed. These chapters are divided into several sub-chapters. At the end of the paper conclusions are presented, sources and literary references are provided.  I. Idea of Prometheism. 1) Origins of titanic mission.In the second half of the 19thcentury positivism in Europe reached the culmination of its power: science and technologies seemed to have triumphed outright, positivists announced art and religion a relic. One of the main reasons which determined the feeling of recession hovering in Europe at the end of the 19thcentury and at the beginning of the 20thcentury was the crisis of belief: the world lost its datum-point in the eyes of Europeans. The reason of this crisis of belief was the
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establishment of positivism and scientism, new discoveries and hypotheses of geology, astronomy and palaeontology. These factors kept destroying the traditional interpretation of the origin of the world proposed by the Bible that existed by then. It was impossible to believe the same way as people believed up to that time, but thinkers and authors were not satisfied with the image of the world that became the combination of only material and physical powers. Rejecting positivistic world-view, as an alternative they announced belief to be supernatural world. Revival of idealism was a try to disengage from the image of the world proposed by positivists where a man was trapped in the prison of relentless laws, only in the physical dimension of human existence declaring only the things that can be investigated, observed and tangible. People rediscovered the world of emotions and feelings as an opposition to deterministic conceptions of consciousness by raising the conception of spirit which, traditionally, is inevitably related to the sphere of religion. A mans role in the world, the connection with God and the limit of the possibilities of spiritual growth was the fundamental question of symbolism. Therefore it is not a coincidence that at the end of the 19thcentury and at the beginning of the 20th century the ideas of God-man and superhuman emerge in the thought of European philosophy. The most distinguished theoretician of superhuman was a German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, and the most eminent academic of God-man was a Russian philosopher Vladimir Solovyov. In Nietzsches philosophy superhuman is an absolute category, it is a human who became God, whereas Solovyovs God-man is the synthesis of humanity and divinity. The essential difference between the philosophical conceptions of Nietzsches and Solovyovs perfect human being is the fact that superhuman rejects morality and compassion for other people, whereas God-man retains it. Prometheism is an essential constituent of the world-view of the symbolist movement. It rises from the conceptions of a perfect human being  the superhuman and the God-man  existing at the end of the 19th and the century beginning of the 20thcentury in European culture. 2) Actualization of the myth of Prometheus.At the end of the 19thcentury and the beginning of the 20thcentury an image of a hero able to restore, as per feeling of the authors of that period, the lost connection between the Earth and Heaven. This image is commonly impersonated by the figures of Orpheus and Prometheus. Due to the settled
 
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