Safer Homes, Stronger Communities
408 pages
English

Safer Homes, Stronger Communities

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YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
408 pages
English
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication

Description

Best practices in post-disaster housing and community reconstruction are constantly evolving. The frequency and severity of disasters are increasing and technology is changing how reconstruction is done. Reconstruction projects must increasingly focus on the need to reduce future risks by ensuring that what is rebuilt is safer and more disaster-resilient than what was there before. The expanding role of communities in managing community reconstruction, with financial and technical assistance from government, is another way reconstruction is changing.
'Safer Homes, Stronger Communities' is a handbook that gives policy makers and project managers the information they need to plan and carry out housing and community reconstruction projects that empower communities affected by disasters and that reduce their vulnerability to future disasters.
The handbook includes nearly 100 case studies collected from global experts with recent experience in housing reconstruction that illustrate how the policies and practical approaches recommended in the handbook have been used on the ground. It also includes links to extensive technical information on the topics covered by the handbook and is complemented by a Web site for practitioners in the field (http://www.housingreconstruction.org).
Designed to provide immediate guidance in post-disaster reconstruction settings, 'Safer Homes, Stronger Communities' is a vital resource for policy makers and project managers, and for all practitioners involved in post-disaster housing and community reconstruction and disaster risk management.

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Publié par
Publié le 15 janvier 2010
Nombre de lectures 46
EAN13 9780821382684
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 16 Mo

Exrait

Safer Homes, Stronger Communities
A Handbook for Reconstructing after Natural Disasters
Abhas K. Jha
with
Jennifer Duyne Barenstein
Priscilla M. Phelps
Daniel Pittet
Stephen Sena
GFDRR
GLOGLOBAL FOBAL FAACILITY FOR DISASTERCILITY FORD ISASTER
REDUCTION AND RECOVERYSafer Homes, Stronger Communities Safer Homes, Stronger Communities
A Handbook for Reconstructing after Natural Disasters
Abhas K. Jha
with
Jennifer Duyne Barenstein
Priscilla M. Phelps
Daniel Pittet
Stephen Sena© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: http://www.worldbank.org
E-mail: feedback@wg
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 12 11 10 09

This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/
The World Bank. The indings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not
necessarily relect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they
represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries,
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any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the
endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
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the Ofice of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA;
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ISBN: 978-0-8213-8045-1
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8268-4
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8045-1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for.
ivCONTENTS
The Process of Response and Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
A Note to the Policy Maker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

A Note to the Project Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . xxi
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiii
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
Guiding Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
PART 1 Reconstruction Tasks and How to Undertake Them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 1 Assessing Damage and Defi ning Reconstruction Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 1 Early Recovery: The Context for Housing and Community Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Chapter 2 Assessing Damage and Setting Reconstruction Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Annex 1 How to Do It: Conducting a Post-Disaster Housing Sector Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
x 2 How to Do It: Assessing Per Housing Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chapter 3 Communication in Post-Disaster Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Annex 1 How to Do It: Conducting a Communication-Based Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
x 2 Culture and Other Contextual Factors in Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Chapter 4 Who Gets a House? The Social Dimension of Housing Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Annex 1 How to Do It: Considerations in Designing a Social Protection
System for Natural Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Annex 2 How to Do It: Conducting a Post-Disaster Social Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Chapter 5 To Relocate or Not to Relocate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Annex How to Do It: Developing a Post-Disaster Resettlement Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter 6 Reconstruction Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
vv Section 2 Planning Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Chapter 7 Land Use and Physical Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Annex 1 How to Do It: Undertaking a Comprehensive Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
x 2 How to Do It: Post-Disaster Planning Where Planning Law and
Institutional Capacity Are Weak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Chapter 8 Infrastructure and Services Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Chapter 9 Environmental Planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Annex 1 How to Do It: Developing a Disaster Debris Management Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
x 2 How to Do It: Carrying Out Environmental Impact Assessment and
Environmental Monitoring of Reconstruction Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Chapter 10 Housing Design and Construction Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Annex Adapting Vernacular Building Technologies: Some Good Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Chapter 11 Cultural Heritage Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Section 3 Project Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Chapter 12 Community Organizing and Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Annex 1 How to Do It: Establishing a Community Facilitation System
for Post-Disaster Housing and Community Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Annex 2 How to Do It: Developing a Community Participation Proile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Chapter 13 Institutional Options for Reconstruction Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Chapter 14 International, National, and Local Partnerships in Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Chapter 15 Mobilizing Financial Resources and Other Reconstruction Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Annex 1 How to Do It: Deciding Whether to Procure and Distribute
Reconstruction Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Annex 2 How to Do It: Establishing a Grievance Redressal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Chapter 16 Training Requirements in Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
PART 2 Monitoring and Information Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Chapter 17 Information and Communications Technology in Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Annex 1 How to Do It: A Primer on Acquiring Satellite Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
x 2 A Primer on GIS and GIS Data Sources . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Chapter 18 Monitoring and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Annex 1 How to Do It: Conducting an Impact Evaluation of a Reconstruction Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
x 2 How to Do It: Conducting a Social Audit of a Reconstruction Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Chapter 19 Mitigating the Risk of Corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Annex 1 How to Do It: Developing a Project Governance and Accountability Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . 295
x 2 How to Do It: Conducting a Corruption Risk Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Annex 3 How to Do It: Conducting a Construction Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
viPART 3 Information on World Bank Projects and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Chapter 20 World Bank Response to Crises and Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Annex Processing Steps for Emergency Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Chapter 21 Safeguard Policies for World Bank Reconstruction Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Annex Selected Safeguard Policy Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Chapter 22 Financial Management in World Bank Reconstruction Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Chapter 23 Procurement in World Bank Reconstruction Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

PART 4 Technical References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Disaster Types and Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Disaster Risk Management in Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Sources of Disaster Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Matrix of Disaster Project Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
viiThe Process of Response and Reconstruction
DISASTER EVENT
Initial Response (2 weeks)
Launch/Engage Define Establish Conduct Carry out Issue rapid
orchestrateagencies initial public initial outline appeal and coordination
emergencystrategymechanism communication assessment subsequent
responseappeals
Assessment and Policy Making (2 months)
Initiate/coordinate Define Announce Carry out Maintain
joint rapid and update reconstruction monitoring and detailed
damage reconstruction policy assessments feedback system
assessment policy
Reconstruction (2+ years)
Designate Designate Establish Establish Analyze Maintain
Institutional lead lead agencies local NGO/civil society institutional monitoring and
Strategy reconstruction in key sectors government coordination governance feedback systems
agency collaboration mechanism risks
See Chapters 1, 2, 13, 14
Issue financial Estimate Mobilize Define and Establish Maintain
appeals reconstruction financial implement financial monitoring and Financial
(recurrent) cost resources housing management feedback systemsStrategy
assistance scheme system
See Chapters 4, 15, 20, 22, 23
Design and Carry out Establish Establish Maintain Maintain
Community implement consultations community/ community effective monitoring and
Participation communication with affected NGO/CSO facilitation participation feedback systems
plan communities collaboration system
See Chapters 3, 12
Reconstruction Define Carry out Develop Plan and execute Maintain
begins and reconstruction land use and reconstruction relocation and monitoring and Reconstruction
continues approaches site planning training and infrastructure feedback systemsApproach
throughout and relocation exercises oversight reconstruction
requirements systems projects
See Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16
Establish system Establish Establish system Establish system Identify Maintain
for governance system for to ensure disaster for social risk safeguard policy monitoring and Risk
and corruption environmental risk reduction assessment framework feedback systemsManagement
risk management risk management in reconstruction to apply
See Chapters 9, 17, 18, 19, 21, DRM
RECONSTRUCTION COMPLETE
viii SAFER HOMES, STRONGER COMMUNITIES: A HANDBOOK FOR RECONSTRUCTING AFTER NATURAL DISASTERS

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