Advances in solar ultraviolet spectroradiometry

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ISSN 1018-5593
URO Aí N
M M I S S Ι O N
SCIENCE
RESEARCH
DEVELOPMENT
Advances in
solar ultraviolet spectroradiometry
Air pollution research report 63
EUR 17768 EN European Commission
Air pollution research report 63
Advances in solar
ultraviolet spectroradiometry
Edited by
Ann R. Webb
Contract No EV5V-CT93-0353
Final report
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development
1997 EUR 17768 EN LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
responsible for the use which might be made of the following information
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int)
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1997
ISBN 92-828-0990-0
© European Communities, 1997
Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Belgium
PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER FOREWARD
Stratospheric ozone depletion due to the anthropogenic emissions of
chlorofiuorocarbons and other-depleting chemicals to the stratosphere causes the
increase of a biologically important part of the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation
reaching the earth's surface. This may constitute a great threat to the biosphere,
because it can cause damaging effects to human beings and to ecosystems.
The European Commission through various research projects in the frame of its R&D
Programmes STEP (1989-1992), ENVIRONMENT (1991-1994) and
ENVIRONMENT and CLIMATE (1994-1998) support research activities on
stratospheric ozone depletion and its major known consequence, the increase in the
fluxes on UV radiation at the earth's surface. The overall objective of this UV
radiation research was to produce practical recommendations for the deployment of an
integrated UV network throughout Europe. The recommendations are based on
comparison of different methods of measurement both between, and within,
instrument categories. Suitability of instruments, and the criteria for a network, are
judged by their ability to meet the requirements of the potential users of the data such
as atmospheric modellers, photobiologists and photochemists. In achieving this major
aim to other independent objectives, needed to allow an UV network based on a
number of different instruments, were met. One was the development of a calibration
system that can be used for all instruments, the second was the development of
computational means of normalizing the results from instruments with different
optical input geometries. Several intercomparison campaigns of UV spectro-
radiometers where funded and aimed at assessing the compatibility among
instruments and thus the establishment of an informal network for measuring the UV
irradiation field and its temporal and spatial variability in Europe. In that context, the
European Commission has defined a research strategy based on the existing
instrumentation in Europe, mainly for spectral measurements, and the related
radiometric capabilities.
As part of this strategy, the present final report of the project entitled "Calibration and
maintenance of standards for solar UV measurements (CAMSSUM)" describes
advances in solar UV spectroradiometry in Europe during 1994-1996. It includes the
results of this project and in particular, the laboratory intercomparison held in
Brussels in September 1994, the large field intercomparison held in Ispra (Italy) in
May 1995, the participation of six spectrophotometers in the Second European
Stratospheric Arctic and Mid-Latitudes Experiment (SESAME) in March 1995,
radiative transfer modeling developments and the deployment of the travelling lamp
system (TLS) for calibration of spectroradiometers.
The European Commission acknowledges gratefully the work of all scientists
involved in the project, especially, Dr. Ann Webb for the coordination, Dr. Didier
Gillotay for hosting the laboratory intercomparison in Brussels and Dr. Francesco
Cappellani for hosting the intercomparison at the Joint Research Center in Ispra.
Brussels, June 1997 Georgios Amanatidis
EC/DGXII/D1
-3-ADVANCES IN SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRORADIOMETRY
Editor: Ann R Webb"
Report of Contract EV5V-CT93-0353
Calibration and Maintenance of Standards for Solar UV Measurements (CAMSSUM)
Coordinator 01 Reading University (DMUR) GB
Contractors 02 Institute d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB) BE
03 British Antarctic Survey (BAS) GB
04 University of Innsbruck (TMPUT) AT
05 National Institute of Health and Environmental
lULvCUUIl
NL (RIVM)
06 University of Tromsö (UT) NO
07y of Thessaloniki (AUTO) GR
08 Fraunhofer Institute (IFU) DE
09 Universite de Science et Techniques de Lille (USTL) FR
10 Universität fur Bodenkultur Wien (BOKU) AT
11 Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) NL
Department of Physics Current Contact:
UMIST
P.O.Box 88
Sackville Street
Manchester, M60 1QD, GB PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS
Ann Webb (Coordinator)
UMIST
Manchester, United Kingdom
Didier Gillotay
IASB
Brussels, Belgium
Brian Gardiner
British Antarctic Survey
Cambridge, United Kingdom
Mario Blumthaler
Institut fur medizinisce Physik
University of Innsbruck, Austria
Henk Reinen
RIVM
BUthoven, Netherlands
Kjell Henriksen
Auroral Observatory
University of Tromsö, Norway
Christos Zerefos
Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics
University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Günther Seckmeyer
IFU
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Jacqueline Lenoble
laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique
Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, France
Helga Kromp-Kolb
Universität fur Bodenkultur
Vienna, Austria
Hennie Kelder
KNMI
De Bilt, Netherlands CONTENTS
Executive Summary 9
General Objectives 11
Specific Objectives 13
Results:
Chapter 1 Laboratory Intercomparison of B.G.Gardiner and P.J.Kirsch 19
Ultraviolet Soectroradiometers
Chapter 2 A Intercomparison Of Ultraviolet B.G.Gardiner and P.J.Kirsch 57
Spectroradiometers
Chapter 2B Methods for Intercomparing Instruments H. Slaper 153
Chapter 2C Differences in Absolute Irradiances G.Seckmeyer, A.R.Webb and
165
G. Bernhard
Chapter 3 Spectral Solar UV Measurements A.F.Bais 173
Within SESAME
Chapter 4A Radiative Transfer Modelling: J.Lenoble 183
Development Review
Chapter 4B Radiative Transfer Modelling: B.G.Gardiner and T.J.Martin 189
Problem Analysis
Chapter 5 Transportable Lamp System Activities D.Gillotay 207
During the CAMSSUM Contract
235
Conclusions
237
Publications