COST 332
208 pages
English
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COST 332

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Tout savoir sur nos offres
208 pages
English

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Transport and land-use policies: Resistance and hopes for co-ordination: Proceedings of the launching seminar of the Action COST 332, 24 to 25 October 1996, Barcelona, Spain
Environmental research
Transport policy

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Nombre de lectures 18
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 4 Mo

Exrait

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COST 332
Transport and
Land-use Policies European Cooperation
in the field of
Scientific and Technical
Research
COST 332
Transport and Land-use Policies :
Resistance and Hopes for Coordination
Proceedings of the Launching Seminar of the Action COST 332
24-25 October 1996. Barcelona, Spain
European Commission
Directorate General Transport LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of
the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information.
The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily
reflect the views of the European Commission.
A great deal of additional information on COST Transport is available on the World Wide
Web. It can be accessed through the CORDIS server (http://www.cordis.lu/cost-
transport/home.html)
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998
ISBN 92-828-3675-4
© European Communities 1998
Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction : From Analysing effects to Managing change
J.-M. Offner 5
Stakes and difficulties to co-ordination in public authorities initiatives:
thematic and disciplinary issues 9
- Interpretation of the bibliography upon the relationship between transports and land uses
L. Diappi, C. Morandi and al 11
- On the political geography of transportation and land use policy coordination
T. Hagerstrand, E. Clark9
- Creating networks - Towards a new paradigm of transport planning ?
S. Guy, S. Marvin 33
- Territory and Territorial Management as Means of Co-ordination of Public Policies
D. Joye, J. Ruegg and M. Bassand 4
- The idea of governance: an attempt at clarification
C. Lefèvre 6
The institutional mechanisms available for coordinating transport and national
and regional development: contrasts between national situations 7
- The situation in Austria
P. Freudensprung 75
- The situation in Denmark
C.W. Matthiessen 81
- The situation in Finland
K. Pakarinen7
- The situation in France
J.-M. Offner 9
- The situation in Italy
L. Diappi, C. Morandi et al 10
- The situation in Spain
R. Junyent
- The situation in Switzerland
D. Joye, V. Kaufmann 11
- Co-ordination between transport and planning: a panoramic survey of the institutional
arrangements at work in Europe - F. Margad7
Case studies 125
- The cross-border region of south Scandinavia (Denmark/Sweden): an European
perspective
C.W. Matthiessen
- The cross-border region of south Scandinavia: a local perspective
A. Tingvar 141
- The Delta Plan : an example of co-ordination between transport and
territorial planning policies
R. Junyent 15
- The "Delta Plan" for the Baix Llobregat in Barcelona (Spain)
R.Roger 16
- The agglomeration of Toulouse Highways dossier
C. Schreiner, M. Cohen5
- The "Gates of Rome" programme (Italy)
C. Sessa 177
Annexes: Memorandum of Understanding of the COST Action 332 189
COST Transport Overview 19INTRODUCTION
FROM ANALYSING EFFECTS TO MANAGING CHANGE
Jean Marc OFFNER
Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés
Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées
France
The objective of the inaugural COST Action 332 colloquium held in Barcelona on
24th and 25th October 1996 was to put together a common body of theoretical and
empirical references likely to facilitate the Group's work on "institutional means of
coordination between transport projects and regional planning" in the years to come.
This collective base is divided into three parts. Firstly, information by subject and by
discipline, on what is at stake, and the difficulties of coordinating public action, using
bibliographic analyses and the opinions of geographers, planners, political analysts
and sociologists, followed by an inventory of national situations with regard to
mechanisms for coordination between transport and planning, and finally, the
presentation of some of the case studies on which future COST Action 332 work will
be based.
1. COST Action 332: The Stakes
Before leaving the reader to examine these arguments, it may be useful to restate the
aims of the action. The common declaration of intent states that "the objective of the
action is to assess the innovative institutional methods of coordination between
transport projects and regional planning".
The more general question of the interaction between spatial organisation and trips
has been a recurring preoccupation in technical and political planning and transport
circles: forms of mobility and the environment, the architecture (structure) of the
networks and economic development, the role of the networks in the expansion of
geographical scales - these are all recent themes which have regenerated the basic
issue of the relationships between transport flows and territories.
There is, therefore, nothing new in all this. A century and a half ago, Ildephonse
Cerda, was a precursor in formulating ideas connecting space and movement. Ideas
have, however, evolved in recent years.
Scientific positions on the nature of the interaction between communication networks
and territories today tend to call into question the idea of a structuring effect which
postulated a cause and effect relationship between a new transport infrastructure and
localised spatial change (land prices, commercial activity, industrial localisation, etc.).
The revised vision of this interaction has proved to be both more modest and more
ambitious. More modest, because henceforth, a systemic schema of change must be
adopted in which the development of the transport offer is only one factor of
transformation among others and is even dependent upon other variables such as
lifestyles and industrial organisation. But it is also more ambitious because interaction
must now be managed, and change piloted, on the basis of subsisting possibilities, without waiting, as a passive observer, for the "structuring effects" to do - or more
precisely, not to do - their work.
Moreover, the final report (1996) of COST Action 317 on the socio-economic effects
of the Channel Tunnel concluded in the following terms:
"growth and employment do not automatically follow the building and
bringing into sen'ice of a new transport infrastructure. The effects are
most often tenuous, only appearing after a considerable period of time and
cannot always be imputed with certainty to the transport investment. The
effects are most often dependent on the potential (economic, tourist and
human) of the areas serviced and in the end, such effects depend largely
on the accompanying measures taken by the local authorities".
The aim is therefore no longer to analyse interaction after the event, but to draw up ad
hoc organisational measures to control this interaction throughout the process of
implementation of transport projects.
From a scientific point of view, we are leaving behind a study of the "demand", in
order to examine the "offer", the institutional, methodological and professional
practices which implicitly or explicitly govern coordination between the sectorial
interventions made in the course of regional action, and, lastly, its coherence.
This approach, which requires the skills of the geographer-planner, the sociologist
and the political scientist, is not greatly in evidence in the scientific transport
community, which is, to a great extent, dominated by the arguments of economists
and engineers. In view of the economic and political cost of the incoherence -
constantly decried - of public policies in transport and planning, scientific
mobilisation is nonetheless indispensable.
At the heart of the work of COST Action 332, lies, to sum up, the question of how to
obtain coherence between transport and planning projects: sectorial coherence
between technico-administrative and technico-political sectors; regionale n the various geographical levels and temporal coherence between the different
time-scales of the administrative and planning procedures.
2. A European Problem
How better to adopt this approach than by examining a certain number of case studies
in the light of the theoretical contributions made by the scientific disciplines
concerned by the idea of coordination?
Each national delegation is thus responsible for one or two case studies, consisting of
particularly relevant examples of instruments of public action used in coordinating
planning and transport decisions. The nature of these "instruments" is very varied:
institutions, procedures, methods, etc.
Since highly specific national particularities exist, the international dimension might
seem superfluous in view of the difficulties involved in making comparisons. But the
diversity of the contexts is, in itself, a guarantee of creativity in terms of the
elaboration of these coordination tools, which are the products of professional cultures, the law, and very many real-life situations. The multiplication of subjects for
study should enable the means of assessing their effectiveness to be refined, since the
working group must construct an analytical grid which is valid for all the case-studies.
Moreover, the opening-up of Europe is likely to lead to partial transfers or hybrids of
national models. This can be seen in the regulation of public services, in particular.
The bringing into service of transeuropean infrastructures and competition between
transport companies is contributing to the progressive Europeanisation of
organisational behaviours.
3. An Ambitious Work Schedule
The acts of this colloquium contain all the ingredients which make up the work
schedule of COST Action 332: case studies, placed in their national context; a
confrontation with theoretical ideas (on governance, political networks, the
effectiveness of public management, the evaluation of public policies, etc.) and the
traditional, but nonetheless necessary, preliminary bibliographical analysis.
The relationship between the theoretical and the empirical will naturally involve the
elaboration of cross-disciplinary issues, which will give meaning to the case studies,
over and above their specificities.
Lastly, depending on methodological and financial feasibility, an opinion poll is
envisaged among the elected political representatives and engineers concerned. The
aim of this would be to understand how the representations that players have of their
own field of operations facilitate or hinder the implementation of coordination
instruments. Because public action is not merely the use of management tools. It must
work in a ready-made "world", formatted by existing cognitive schemas which need
to be understood.
This introduction cannot be concluded without the expression of our warmest thanks
to the various local and regional public authorities who lent their support to the event
and to the Escola Técnica Superior d'Enginyers de Camins, Canals i Ports in
Barcelona, which thanks to Professor Rosa Junyent, hosted this inaugural colloquium
in Barcelona and Catalonia.