COST 333
384 pages
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COST 333


Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
384 pages


Development of new bituminous pavement design method
Land transport (road, rail)
Environmental research



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 51
EAN13 928286796
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 13 Mo


COST 333
Development of
New Bituminous
Pavement Design Method
Final Report of the Action European Cooperation
in the field of
Scientific and Technical
COST 333
Development of New Bituminous
Pavement Design Method
Final Report of the Action
European Commission
Directorate General Transport LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of
the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information.
The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily
reflect the views of the European Commission.
A great deal of additional information on COST Transport is available on the World Wide
Web. It can be accessed through the CORDIS server (
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999
ISBN 92-828-6796-X
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg 1999
Reproduction is authorised, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is
Printed in Belgium CONTENTS
Executive Summary 4
1. Introduction 7
2. Werkplan 11
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Scope
2.3 Methodology and tasks2
3. Terminology5
4. Requirements and Deterioration Mechanisms of the Main Pavement Components 17
4.1 Introduction 1
4.2s of the main pavement components 18
4.3 Deterioration mechanisms 21
4.4 Conclusions
4.5 Recommendations6
4.6 References7
5. Review of Pavement Design Methods 3
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Flexible and composite design methods
5.3 Design applied to existing pavements 40
5.4 Conclusions2
5.5 Recommendations3
5.6 References 44
6. Assessment of Traffic Data Requirements5
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Traffic data used in official pavement design methods 47
6.3 Full traffic available today 51
6.4 Improved traffic characterisation: Future requirements 5
6.5 Conclusions8
6.6 Recommendations9
6.7 References 60
7. Climate 75
7.1 introduction
7.2 Overview of the situation in Europe (Practice and research) 7
7.3 Detailed analysis of methods and models linked to climatic effects 8
7.4 Conclusions 86
7.5 Recommendations7
7.6 Bibliography
8. Soils and Granular Materials 95
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Physical properties
8.3 Mechanicals (constitutive laws)
8.4 Performance properties (Deterioration models) 10
8.5 Variations and variability 109 8.6 Conclusions 111
8.7 Recommendations2
8.8 References3
9. Bituminous and Hydraulically Bound Materials 115
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Constituent materials6
9.3 Hydraulically bound materials 130
9.4 Bituminous mixtures7
9.5 Rehabilitation of existing structures 164
9.6 Conclusions
9.7 Recommendations
9.8 References 16
10. Models for Pavement Design 173
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Response models
10.3 Deterioration models6
10.4 Overall incremental procedure 180
10.5 Inventory of advanced pavement design models2
10.6 Conclusions
10.7 Recommendations4
10.8 References
11. Full-scale Pavement Testing5
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Characteristics of the pavement 18
11.3 Equipment and instrumentation6
11.4 Experimentation 191
11.5 Short Term Scientific Missions (STSM)
11.6 Fatigue analysis contract9
11.7 Conclusions
11.8 References 200
ANNEX 11 .A: Fatigue Tests Analysis Contract 20
12. Main Recommendations for Further Development 223
13. Outline Harmonised Design Method6
13.1 Introduction 22
13.2 Framework for a fundamental design method
13.3 Staged development of a harmonised design method8
13.4 Stage 1: Hamionisation based on best current practice 230
13.5 Key points 232
14. Benefits to Different Users4
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Benefits to road policy makers
14.3s to road administration engineers 235
14.4 Benefits to industry
14.5s to research institutions and universities
14.6 Benefits to road users and environment6 15. Dissemination Plan 237
15.1 Overview
15.2 Individually targeted report recipients
15.3 Wider dissemination
A MOU Technical Annex 240
Β COST 333 Management Committee Members6
C. Request for Extension to COST 333: Development of New Bituminous
Pavement Design Method9
D. COST Transport Overview 255
E. FEHRL Overview7
F. AMADEUS : Advanced Models for Analytical Design of European Pavement
G. Glossary of Terms used in Pavement Design 261
H. Review of Pavement Design Methods 278
I. Bibliography 366
J. Acknowledgements 372 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Many billions of EUROs are spent on road construction and maintenance each year, and road
transport is the primary method of mobility for European citizens and products. There is a
continuing requirement for more efficient methods of pavement design, aimed at producing
solutions which are less disruptive to the environment and to the road user, as well as being more
economic and of a higher quality than those in present use. This applies, not only to the design of
new infrastructures, but also to the rehabilitation of the existing ones.
Although based on the same basic principles, current European pavement design methods are
quite different from each other, and the need for industry to cross borders calls for harmonisation
of pavement design methods. In summary, there is a gap between the actual situation with
respect to pavement design, and the ideal harmonised European pavement design method, which
will take into account actual traffic loads and climatic conditions throughout Europe, as well as
new materials and new types of pavement structures.
In order to promote European co-operation in this field, the Forum of European National
Highway Research Laboratories (FEHRL) included a project on pavement design in its Strategic
European Road Research Programme (SERRP). A proposal for an Action on pavement design
was consequently submitted to COST Transport, and a Technical Sub-Committee was set up in
early 1995, in order to prepare a work plan. COST Action 333 (Development of New
Bituminous Pavement Design Method) was formally initiated in March 1996 and, during its
period of operation a number of additional countries and organisations joined the Action. At the
end of the Action, 20 countries signed the Memorandum of Understanding and were
participating in the Action.
The main objective of COST Action 333 is to contribute to the development of a coherent, cost-
effective and harmonised European pavement design method, which will take into account
vehicle loading, climatic conditions and the use of new materials. This project focuses on
bituminous pavements (flexible and composite) while concrete pavements are studied in another
SERRP project (CON-PAV).
The Technical Sub-committee defined a detailed work programme, which focused on
information gathering, identification of requirements and selection of design elements. This
having been achieved, it is now possible to begin the task of developing the design elements and
producing a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised pavement design method that can be
applied throughout Europe. Chapter 13 (Outline Harmonised Design Method) describes the way
in which this can be achieved.
The initial work programme of COST 333 was divided in two main tasks. The first task,
corresponding to information gathering, addressed the terminology associated with pavement
design, and reviewed established pavement design methods together with the requirements and
deterioration mechanisms of the main pavement components. In the second task, the
requirements for a new improved Europeant design method were established, in terms
of traffic characterisation, climatic conditions, materials and models.
The COST Action was originally scheduled to end in March 1998. However, the support for the
Action exceeded expectations, with 20 countries participating and the possibility of undertaking
a dedicated trials programme in an accelerated pavement testing facility in Switzerland. Support
from industrial representative organisations v/as also provided during the course of the Action,
via the participation of EUROBITUME and the European Asphalt Pavement Association
(EAPA). Therefore, the Technical Committee on Transport approved a one year extension to take
advantage of this extensive pool of knowledge and expertise, as well as the results from the trials
in Switzerland. In addition, the role of design models in dealing with pavement rehabilitation
was added to the initial work programme.
As an initial output from COST 333, a glossary of terms associated with pavement design in
English, French, Gemían and Spanish was prepared, which was continuously updated during the
course of the Action, as the work in other tasks progressed.
The review of the requirements and deterioration mechanisms of the main pavement components
has demonstrated that there are discrepancies between the perceived modes of pavement
deterioration and those observed in recent or on-going pavement studies, and the modes of
pavement deterioration on which current pavement design methods are based.
From the review of current design methods, it was concluded that most countries use analytical
design methods, which are very similar in concept, but with different treatments of the inputs,
such as traffic, climate, material characteristics, etc. Even though similar approaches are used,
the thickness of pavements designed using the same input can vary significantly from country to
The results obtained during the information gathering stage stressed the need for the
development of a new, improved European pavement design method. The new method should be
able to better predict pavement performance by taking into consideration the material and
structural changes that occur during the service life of the pavement (ageing, seasonal variation
of material behaviour, unevenness).
In the second part of the Action, the requirements for a new improved pavement design method
were established. This task addressed the various elements of a comprehensive pavement design
procedure (i.e., traffic loads, climatic effects, materials and models). The work on material
characteristics was subdivided into two sub-tasks, which addressed two main types of materials
included in pavement structures (soils and unbound granular materials and bituminous and
cement treated materials). Recommendations were produced which indicated the ways in which
each of these elements should be taken into consideration in an ideal pavement design method.
Recognising that a number of issues related to pavement design still need further research and
development before they can be incoiporated into a fundamental design method, a pragmatic
approach was used in the selection of design elements for a new harmonised pavement design
method. A modular approach is proposed in which the design method is developed in stages.
This will enable the design method to be easily updated when significant new developments
emerge. The proposed methodology will be essentially an incremental procedure that will be
used to calculate the deterioration in the various elements of the pavement structure due to each
traffic/climatic cycle, during the whole life of the pavement. This procedure will enable changes
which occur in a pavement structure during service to be taken into account explicitly, and it will
also be suitable for whole life-cycle cost analysis of new and existing pavement structures. The
proposed approach will be suitable for use in the study of maintenance and rehabilitation
alternatives for existing pavements, as well as addressing the construction of new pavements.
This is of particular importance, at this stage, as many EU countries are reducing the number of
new road projects, while this is not the case for many Central and Eastern European Counties
During the course of COST Action 333 a complementary programme was initiated by a
consortium of 15 research organisations, among the ones taking part in the Action. This project,
named AMADEUS (Advanced Models for Analytical Design of EUropean pavement Structures)
is funded by the European Commission in the frame of the 4th Framework Transport Research
and Technological Development (RTD) Programme. The main objective of the AMADEUS project is to evaluate existing advanced analytical pavement design models and provide guidance
for its use and further development. Although AMADEUS was not completed at the end of
COST 333 activities, the interim results obtained in the project have supported part of the work
performed in the Action, namely the sub-task addressing pavement design models.