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Intermodal transport: Osiris: Optimised system for an innovative rail integrated seaport connection
Transport policy
Land transport (road, rail)
Air and space transport
Environmental research

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Nombre de lectures 10
Langue English
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EUROPEAN
COMMISSION
Osiris
Optimised system for an innovative
rai! integrated seaport connection
RESEARCH FOR
SUSTAINABLE
MOBILITY TRANSPORT RESEARCH
FOURTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME
INTERMODAL TRANSPORT
DG VII — 77
Osiris
Optimised system for an innovative
rail integrated seaport connection
PTV Consult GmbH Beratende Verkehrsingenieure —
Intercontainer-lnterfrigo société coopérative — Netherlands
Economic Institute — Société nationale des chemins de fer belges
Bcargo — Kessel und Partner — SCI Verkehr Planungs- und
Beratungsgesellschaft mbH
CSEÁRCH FOR
USTAINABLC
ILITY 'he information contained in this publication does not necessarily reflect either the position or the views of the
■uropean Commission.
V great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
t can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
.uxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998
3BN 92-828-5116-8
D European Communities, 1998
Printed in Belgium CONTENTS
Contents I
Figures III
Tables IV
Executive summary 1
The Partnership 6
1. Introduction 7
2. Objectives of the project 9
3. Means used to achieve the objectives 10
4. Scientific and technical description of the project1
4.1. OSIRIS user requirements analysis
4.1.1. Methodology for the user requirements analysis2
4.1.2. Desk research on DG VII and DG XIII projects7
4.1.3. Interview results 18
4.1.4. Role of existing information and communication systems 26
4.1.5. Existing intermodal transport concepts 2
4.1.6. Feedback on OSIRIS: Workshop and bilateral discussions 30
4.2. Transport demand 3
4.2.1. Field of Research2
4.2.2. Available and current data and models used 34
4.2.3. Container hinterland transport of selected ports9
4.2.4. Forecast of container flows for the year 2000 4
4.2.5. Recommended relations for the OSIRIS concept8
4.2.6. Transport demand on possibleS pilot relations
4.2.7. Formulation of a scenario 50
4.3. Intermodal transport concept3
4.3.1. The leitmotif of the OSIRIS concept5
4.3.2. Realisation
4.3.3. OSIRIS: The pilot concept8
4.3.4. Transport chains and operational concept 6
4.3.5. Hinterland terminal 6
4.3.6. Transhipment versus shunting7
4.3.7. Concept feasibility
4.3.8. Summary and conclusion concerning the economy of OSIRIS 7
4.3.9. Aspects for transferability 71
4.4. Organisational concept and information flow3
4.4.1. Current Situation
4.4.2. Objective of Information and Communication Technologies in OSIRIS 75
4.4.3. Designing the l&C strategy and approach•Is iris
4.4.4. Information Requirements 80
4.5. Concept simulation and service definition 83
4.5.1.tn
4.5.2. Concepts and service definition for combined transport 92
5. Contribution on the conference rail#tec86
6. Conclusions and recommendations 10
Publications 10
Conferences
References7 siris -ü
FIGURES
Figure 4.1 Definition of user groups 12
Figure 4.2 User groups in the OSIRIS transport chain3
Figure 4.3 Field of research 3
Figure 4.4 Data available for determining the port-related flows 35
Figure 4.5 Pattern of transport models7
Figure 4.6 Mode share for seaport hinterland container flows 40
Figure 4.7 Container flows1995, all modes (in 1000 tons)
Figure 4.8r flows 1995, rail transport only (in 1000 tons)3
Figure 4.9 Container hinterland transports -1995 and 2000 (in mio. tons per year) 46
Figure 4.10 Difference of net loading of container flows 2000 -1995, all modes (in 1000
tons) 4
Figure 4.11 Scenario network including the pilot relations 50
Figure 4.12 Hierarchy in establishing intermodal rail transport (container input) 54
Figure 4.13 Problems in seaport hinterland transport and OSIRIS working steps
Figure 4.14 Principle of rail configuration 56
Figure 4.15 OSIRIS: Pilot concept8
Figure 4.16 Principle of the new hinterland concept9
Figure 4.17 OSIRIS parts and their actors 60
Figure 4.18 Complementary building blocks for OSIRIS offer1
Figure 4.19 Renewals of OSIRIS2
Figure 4.20 Layout of the seaport hub6
Figure 4.21 Layout of the "dry port" hub7
Figure 4.22 OSIRIS scenario relations 7
Figure 4.23 Economic challenge of the OSIRIS hinterland connection 71
Figure 4.24 Transferability of OSIRIS concept
Figure 4.25 Organisational layer in the OSIRIS l&C system
Figure 4.26 The concept of transport channels8
Figure 4.27 Set up of the ¡ntermodal 'Virtual information system' 79
Figure 4.28 Intermodal Transport Chain and Interface Concepts 80
Figure 4.29 Simulation procedure 84
Figure 4.30 Network geography of the basic scenario5 TABLES
Table 4.1 Breakdown of interviews by user group 18
Table 4.2 Overview of container transport volumes for selected ports, year 1995, in
1000t/year 39
Table 4.3 Composition of container flows on selected links 44
Table 4.4 Transport demand in year 2000 of the OSIRIS concept on selected
relations (in tons/year) 51
Table 4.5 Mode specific shift factors for transport volume on each relation in the
OSIRIS case in comparison to the basic case2
Table 4.6 Simulation overview: Basic simulation 88
IV Is ι r ι s
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
European seaports offer a number of modern, efficient and varied services. They can handle
all kinds of goods, bulk, break-bulk, unit loads, general cargo and also containers. For some
seaports, container transport plays a dominant role. Some of the main container ports have
a share of containerisation of more than 80% of all general cargo-handling.
Today in Europe more than 30 million TEUs are handled, more than 15 million thereof in
Northern Europe. The majority of container transhipment is concentrated in ten seaports. In
1997, five European seaports were placed among the Top 20 in the world: Rotterdam, Ham­
burg, Antwerp, Felixstowe and Bremerhaven.
The most expansive kind of transport is (not only in Europe) the transport of general cargo in
containers. The annual growth is about 5 %.
The growth and importance of the container in maritime transport has been substantial in the
last twenty years. The European main ports have tried to meet market demands by building
container handling and storage facilities within the port.
Modern seaports have the ability to realise high-speed, economical and reliable cargo-
handling and to satisfy customer demand. The seaport capacity has grown and is - generally
- on a high level; but the demand has grown, too.
However, as the container transport volume will continue to increase, the links with the hin­
terland will become more and more a critical factor for economic success. And in particular,
the use of intermodal rail transport links can be more effective and efficient. The integration
and improvement of existing concepts and the set-up of new concepts is required.
Problems which lead to this situation are:
• high costs for rail transport especially for relations with transport volumes smaller than the
capacity of an entire direct block train
• lack of reliability of rail transport regarding transport times and transport guarantee
• high terminal costs
• lack ofl space
• high organisational effort needed to build up intermodal transport chains
• high shunting efforts for train formation
• missing connections for electronic data interchange between all actors
Moreover, the current modal split of transport will result in a classical bottleneck situation as
the road network capacity inside and outside the ports reaches saturation.
Hence, the project OSIRIS, a project sponsored by the CEC-DG VII in the Fourth Framework
programme is targeted to develop a new and efficient solution for the seaport-hinterland
connection by train. The idea is to solve the bottleneck situation and the storage problems at
the seaports and to increase the use of intermodal rail transport. The aim is to develop a
concept which offers a new type of hinterland connection by train. The idea is to condense
several new ideas such as hub concepts, private rail carriers or intermodal transport on
shorter distances but also existing solutions into a modified concept which takes both the
technical, the operational and the organisational sides of the problem into consideration.
Existing and proven concepts, systems or technologies are identified to learn from or to be
integrated into the OSIRIS concept. Problems and bottleneck situations are taken as a basis
to improve and to complete the concept idea. siris Hl
Technical approach and main results
The OSIRIS project started in January 1997 with a duration of 15 months. By its contents it
can be characterised as a feasibility study investigating the requirements and current situa­
tion on the transport market, the present and future transport demand in intermodal con­
tainer transport between seaports and hinterland and by designing a concept to improve
intermodal rail transport considering technical, operational as well as organisational aspects.
The main objective of WP 1 OSIRIS user requirements analysis' is to mirror the OSIRIS
concept idea against the market conditions, the opinions of transport specialists considering
future trends and developments. Existing and proven concepts, systems or technologies
have to be identified to learn from or to be integrated into the OSIRIS concept. About 30
personal interviews were conducted and additional information on information and communi­
cation as well as on ¡ntermodal transport concepts were analysed.
To achieve this global aim, this analysis comprises the identification of the requirements and
needs of the different relevant actors (user groups) which operate on the intermodal con­
tainer transport market. The idea is to get a detailed insight, on one hand, in the current or­
ganisational, operational and technical procedures and processes used to perform ¡ntermo­
dal transport from seaports to their hinterland destinations. On the other hand, general
problems, specific bottleneck situations and potential solutions have to be identified. This
analysis covers all the different intermodal transport chain segments, as there are the sea­
port, the hinterland transport and the hinterland terminal.
Very 'simple' but nevertheless realistic requirements from all user groups are based on the
three customer demands:
• quality and reliability of services,
• speed and efficiency of transport / throughput and
• a reasonable price.
In the end, everything can be broken down to these three aspects.
Market developments and tendencies which need to be considered for a new intermodal
transport concept are that only few relations can currently be run efficiently by direct or shut­
tle trains. But in contrary to the general opinion about the critical distance for train opera­
tions, some of the successfully operated rail relations are on short distances between 50 and
300 km. The operation of a rail shuttle is not only depending on the distance but the more on
the volumes, so on the frequency of the shuttles and on the costs. Different co-operation
initiatives were started in the recent past also between competitors to organise and operate
train shuttles more efficiently. Such alliances were formed, for example, between ICF, Hupac
and Cemat but also between port or rail terminal operators and rail transport operators. By
principle, the development of new shuttle train technology intended to be run on shorter dis­
tances and offering flexible and fast ¡ntermodal rail services is of specific interest for the
short distance rail transport operation within OSIRIS.
On the transport market changes take place in two segments, technology and organisation /
operation. These refer mainly to transport/transfer technologies and information & communi­
cation systems as well as to the question of privatisation of companies and to the co­
operation between different transport service providers. The aim of all these changes is to
achieve lower prices, first of all, and a better service quality as an important but separate
effect. In this respect, the OSIRIS project summarises many of the different ideas under one
'umbrella' currently being under investigation in practise.