Nature et faune : revue internationale pour la conservation de la nature en Afrique = Wildlife and nature : international journal on nature conservation in Africa
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Nature et faune : revue internationale pour la conservation de la nature en Afrique = Wildlife and nature : international journal on nature conservation in Africa

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FAUNENATURE &Volume Issue 123,Africa:Forest Mainpment ininto account?Is Wildiife talcenMUim BftFAO Regional Office for AfricaV-nS-Front Cover Photos,From Left:Top: FAO/FO-0964, Guinea fowl, Somalia, Susan Braatz; FAO/ CFU000393, Bee eaters Merops nubiens),(Zambia, Roberto Faidutti; FAO/FO -5569, Giraffe in West Africa, Niger, Marguerite France -Lanord;FAO/ FO-6256, Cedrus atlantica forest, Morocco, Gillian AllardBottom: FAO/ FO-6274, Bales of lichen, collected in cedar/oak forest, ready for shipment, for use in the perfumeindustry, Morocco, Gillian Allard; FAO/FO -0380, Acacia nilotica on the banks ofthe river Nile, Sudan,Christel Palmberg Lerche; FAO/FO -6339, Riverine vegetation, Tanzania, Gillian Allard;FAO/CFU000204, Peul shepherds set fire to a forest to create pasture. Central African Republic,Roberto FaiduttiFromBack Cover Photos, Left:Top: FAO/ CFU000280, View ofa primary forest, Uganda, Roberto Faidutti; FAO/ CFU000384, Foresterworking with villager to decide what species to plant, Mali, Roberto CFU000423,a Fai dutti; FAO/Acacia forest, Kenya, Roberto FaiduttiMiddle: FAO/CFU00023 , Mangrove forest near the mouth ofa river, Mozambique, Roberto Faidutti; FAO/1in Etosha Park, Namibia, MargueriteFO-5561, Zebras and giraffes France -Lanord; FAO/CFU000236,View ofa forest with waterfall, Guinea, Roberto Faidutt.*"Bottom: FAO/FO-0921, Ostrich in the Serengeti, Tanzania, Susan Braatz..n.l\\iAND ORGANISATION ORGANIZACIONFOODi« ^ jX-iV»NATIONS DE ...

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FAUNENATURE & Volume Issue 123, Africa:Forest Mainpment in into account?Is Wildiife talcen MUim Bft FAO Regional Office for Africa V- nS- Front Cover Photos,From Left: Top: FAO/FO-0964, Guinea fowl, Somalia, Susan Braatz; FAO/ CFU000393, Bee eaters Merops nubiens),( Zambia, Roberto Faidutti; FAO/FO -5569, Giraffe in West Africa, Niger, Marguerite France -Lanord; FAO/ FO-6256, Cedrus atlantica forest, Morocco, Gillian Allard Bottom: FAO/ FO-6274, Bales of lichen, collected in cedar/oak forest, ready for shipment, for use in the perfume industry, Morocco, Gillian Allard; FAO/FO -0380, Acacia nilotica on the banks ofthe river Nile, Sudan, Christel Palmberg Lerche; FAO/FO -6339, Riverine vegetation, Tanzania, Gillian Allard; FAO/CFU000204, Peul shepherds set fire to a forest to create pasture. Central African Republic, Roberto Faidutti FromBack Cover Photos, Left: Top: FAO/ CFU000280, View ofa primary forest, Uganda, Roberto Faidutti; FAO/ CFU000384, Forester working with villager to decide what species to plant, Mali, Roberto CFU000423,a Fai dutti; FAO/ Acacia forest, Kenya, Roberto Faidutti Middle: FAO/CFU00023 , Mangrove forest near the mouth ofa river, Mozambique, Roberto Faidutti; FAO/1 in Etosha Park, Namibia, MargueriteFO-5561, Zebras and giraffes France -Lanord; FAO/CFU000236, View ofa forest with waterfall, Guinea, Roberto Faidutt. *" Bottom: FAO/FO-0921, Ostrich in the Serengeti, Tanzania, Susan Braatz. .n.l\\iAND ORGANISATION ORGANIZACIONFOODi« ^ jX-iV»NATIONS DE LAS NACIONESAGRICULTURE DES aORGANIZATION UNIES POUR UNIDAS PARA —tij^ij L'ALIMENTATION LAAGRICULTURAOFTHE NATIONS ET L'AGRICULTURE Y LAALIMENTACIONUNITED Sa. -=>k-lt.l +233for Africa, Cables: Telex: 2139 Facsimile: +233 21 668427 Telephone: 21 675000Regional Office 7010930Accra - Ghana FOODAGRI ACCRAP. O. Box 1628. Your Réf.:Our Réf.: Accra, 12 January 2009 Dear Sir/Madam, our great pleasure to send you Vol. 23, Issue 1 of Nature & Favme magazine, an internationalIt is Regional Office for Africa. The magazine is anbilingual (English and French) publication of the FAO continents, containing articles and papersinformation source for a broad audience in Africa and other wildlife authorities, students etc. The aim of the journal is to disseminatefrom policy makers, researchers, (scientific and technical knowledge) and promote the exchange of experiences on wildlife,information protected areamanagement and the sustainable use and conservation of natural resources in Africa. Subscription is free and canbe obtained by sending an e-mail to: Nature-faune@fao.org . Any suggestions, comments or contributions of any kind can also be sent to this email address. of themagazine can be downloaded from the Nature& Faune website:Past issues http://www.fao.org/world/regional/raf/workprog/forestry/magaziiieen.htm The theme for the next issue is "Success stories in management of wildlife and nature in Africa". The "Call for submission" and the "Guidelines for Authors" can be downloaded from the website above. Withkmd EdiitorTht Nature & Faune Magazine FAO Regional Office for Africa Forestry Departmental Group PO Box GP 1628; Accra, Ghana Nature-Faune@fao.org Ada.Ndesoatanga@fao.org 7010943Fax: (+233-21) . ({/ Nature& Faune Vol. 23, Issue 1 :Û Forest Management in Africa: Is wildlife taken into account? Editor: Foday Bojang Assistant Editor: Ada Ndeso-Atanga FAO Regional Office for Africa nature-faune@fao.org http://www.fao.org/world/regional/raf/workprog/forestry/magazine_en.htm FOODANDAGRICULTUREORGANIZATIONOFTHEUNITEDNATIONS Accra, Ghana 2008 BOARDOFREVIEWERS El HadjiM.Sène, ResourcesManagement&DryZoneForestry SpecialistForest SenegalDakar, Palmberg-LercheChristel ForestGeneticist Rome, Italy DouglasWilliamson Wildlife specialist England,UnitedKingdom Alan Rodgers forestry/wildlifeConservationpractitioner- Nairobi, Kenya. Jean DjiguiKEITA Forestmanagement specialist Bamako, Mali DebonnetGuy Programme specialistNaturalHeritage Paris,France KaiWollscheid GameandWildlife specialist Budakeszi,Hungary Advisers: Fernando Salinas,AtseYapi,RenéCzudek implytheexpression ofThe designationsemployedandthepresentation ofmaterial in thisinformationproductdo not whatsoever part oftheFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning theany opinion on the ofdevelopment status ofanycountry, territory, city or areaor of its authorities, orconcerningthe delimitationlegalor itsfrontiersorboundaries. views ofthe FoodThe views expressed in this publication are those ofthe author(s) anddo not necessarily reflect the andAgriculture Organization oftheUnitedNations. for educational or otherAll rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders providednon-commercial purposes commercialfullyacknowledged. Reproduction ofmaterial in this informationproduct for resaleorotherthesource is permissionpurposes isprohibitedwithoutwritten ofthecopyright holders. PublishingPolicyand Support Branch,Applications for such permission shouldbe addressed to the Chief, Electronic Division, Viale delleTermedi Caracalla,00153Rome, Italyorbye-mailtocopyright@fao.org.Communication FAO, ©FAG 2008 Nature & Faune Vol. 23, Issue 1 1 Table ofContent iiiEditorial RobertNasi Announcements vi Message to Readers vii News ixThematic Special feature 2 with Regional ApproachSTEWARD: Rethinking West African Forest IVIanagement a Shelley W. Saxen, ScottBode, Diane Russell Articles concessions developed on the fringes of 5Sustainable management ofmammals in forest ProtectedAreas in the Congo basin Didier Bastin and CorinneMaréchal managementUsing landscape approaches to improve the integration ofwildlife in forest 10 plans Nathalie Van VlietandRobertNasi Managing Production Forests for Biodiversity 16 ZacharieNzooh Dongmo, Leonard Usongo, andEduardoMansurJeffSayer ~Sustainable Forest Management: The Experience ofthe Tayna Nature Reserve 22 in the Democratic Republic ofCongo Jacques Vagheni Kakule Estimated Minimum andMaximum Sustainable Exploitation Values for Derby Eland and 27 other BigGame in Benoue National Park, Cameroon Evaristus Gehard Wiegleb.Tsi Angwafo, Ajaga Nji, Mpoame Mbida and Conservation and sustainable use ofwildlife-based resources through the framework ofthe 32 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): The Bushmeat Crisis Tim Christophersen andRobertNasi Traditional Fisheries ofRainforest Rivers in the Campo-Ma'anArea ofSouthern 40 Cameroon Randall E. Brummett, Jacqueline L. Youaleu, Ann-Marie Tian andMireilleN M. Kenmengne Using GIS to assess the status and conservation considerations oflarge mammals in 43 the Itombwe MassifConservation Landscape, Democratic Republic ofCongo LeonardK. Mubalama, GuyMbayma Atalia, Guylain Mitamba andBenjamin Wilondja Ongoingstudyonthe integrationofbiodiversity in forestconcessions inCentralAfrica 5 OudaraSouvannavong,AlainBilland,Jean-ClaudeNguinguiriandJérômeFournier ImpactofAUanblackianutharvestingonwildlife: Is theecosystem atrisk? 57 Samuel NyameKofi Nature & Faune Vol. Issue23, 1 i Country Focus: Morocco 59 A virtual conversation withDr Moulay YoussefAlaoui FAO Activities Commission 18th East16th African Forestry and Wildlife and Near Forestry Commission Khartoum, Sudan, 18-21 February 2008 62 65Links Next IssueTheme and Deadline for 66 Authors, Subscription and Correspondence 66Guidelines for 1Nature & Faune Vol. 23, Issue Editorial Wildlife in forest management inAfrica Robert Nasi' Importance of wildlife for the maintenance offunctional forest ecosystems are disruptive processesHuman activities in tropical forests and can trigger numerous, yet not completelyunderstood,mechanisms or effectswhich will in turn alter, in amore or less significantway, the overall fiinction, structureandcompositionofthe ecosystem. Plantregeneration (loss ofpollinators, dispersersand predators), foodwebs (lossoftoppredators oroftheirprey), andplant diversityseed seed in herbivory patterns, increased pests) are amongst the various processes dependent upon the(change presence of wild fauna. Some species or fiinctional groups matter more than others in maintaining ecosystem processes and integrity. "Keystone species", "ecosystem engineers" ororganisms with high importance values" refer to species whose loss has disproportionate impact on the"community a reductionecosystemwhencompared to the lossofother species. Conventionalwisdompredicts that the orextirpationofthese animals willresult indramaticchanges to the ecosystems. The importance ofconsidering these keystone species in forest management is illustratedby the many examples. Large cats' extirpation triggers an uncontrolled growth ofthe prey population which in turn dramatically increasesbrowsingorgrazing intensityto thepointwhere forestregenerationcanbe totally prevented. Elephants have a tremendous role in modifying vegetation structure and composition through their feeding habits (differential herbivory, dispersal) andmovements in the forest (killingseed a large number of small trees). Wild pigs (Sus spp., Potamochoerus sp, etc.) and some antelopes are among the most active seed predators.A significant change in their population densities will have a major effect on seedling survival and forest regeneration. Many key forest tree species such as Milicia offruitexcelsa (Iroko) are disappearing or are not regenerating properlybecause the role bat, {Eidolom helvum), inseeddispersal, survival,andgerminationhasnotbeenconsideredin forestmanagement. Importance ofwildlife for the livelihoods of local people Wildlife has important livelihood aspects and serves multiple roles. Wildlife products are often major items ofconsumption or display and have high medicinal and spiritual values inmanyhuman cultures. Bushmeat and other wildlife products offer anumber ofbenefits to forest dwelling populations. These are easilytradedresources: transportablewith highvalue/weight ratioandeasilypreserved atlow cost.a It often represents both theprimary source ofanimal proteinand the main cash-earning commodity for the inhabitants ofthehumid forestregions ofthe tropics. Cash income from the saleofwildlifeproducts can be highly variable, even when the same resource category is considered. While those destined for international markets fetch much higher prices breeding pair ofLear'sMacaw is(a worth around $100,000 on the black market) than locally consumed goods and the unit value ofwild meat is low, the returnsfromhunting are generallyhigherthanaverage localwages.Themaintenanceofhealthy wildlife populations is therefore essential for local livelihoods and cultures. Themain threat to wildlife isgenerallypoachingoroverhunting,both inhumidanddryAfiica. Ifcurrent levelsofhuntingpersist inCentralAfiica,bushmeatproteinsupplies will falldramaticallyand a significantnumberofforestmammals willbecome extinct in lessthan50years. However, ifbushmeat harvests are reduced to a supposedly sustainable level, millions ofpeople will be seriously affectedby the immediate loss ofwild protein supply in a region where poverty and malnutrition are already rife. This is exacerbated the fact that wildlifeby is fiirther impacted by the industrial exfractive sector ' Centerfor InternationalForestryResearch (CIFOR), P.O. Box 0113BOCBD Bogor 16000, Indonesia. Courrier électronique : r.nasi(3),csiar.org Nature & Faune Vol. 23, Issue 1 iii (logging, mining, and oil-drilling, primarily)because in the courseoftheir activities, companies directly destroy critical habitat, disturb movement patterns and alter behaviour of local wildlife; as well as facilitate hunting by building roads and/or providing hunters with transportation. Theindirectly ofcamps with better living standards than surrounding villages creates an immigrationestablishment flux and increases demand for protein, while as industrial activities stimulate the local economy, increasedincome allows hunters to takeadvantageofnew technologieswhich allow foramore efficient harvest (e.g. cartridges, guns, snare wires, outboard motors and headlamps). Research has shown that infrastructures threeper capita harvest rates in local communities adjacent to logging are to six times higherthan incommunitiesremotefromsuch areas. need toconsiderwildlife in forestmanagementinAfricaThe forestmanagement plansFor timber concessions,we must incorporate wildlife concerns into that until now have only focused on timber. Such integrated timber and wildlife plans should include: wildlife regulations in company policy; conservation education for logging company communities; an agreed system of law enforcement to be carried out by locallyemployees and local recruited staff; developmentofalternativeprotein supplies (e.g. fish farms); andan intensiveprogramof socio-economic and ecological monitoring. The private sector will benefit from a decrease in theft of to the increased law enforcement, an enhanced corporate image, and improvedcompany property due the managementopportunities for timber certification. The local communities will benefit because programme supports their traditional land tenure system and provides a range of employment opportunities. Wildlife conservation will benefitfrom areduction in threats, fromsomeoftheprotection from this protection extending beyond the boundaries ofcosts being borne by the private sector, and "protected areas". Wildlife can also the main reason or objective to manage a forest area as illustrated for hunting inbe African Republic (zones cynégétiquesBurkina Faso (zones d'intérêt cynégétique villageoises), Central approachesvillageoises) or for both hunting and tourism in Zimbabwe (Campfire program). These (community based management of trophy hunting, selling game meat harvesting wildlife products, resources that plants, animals and people benefit.sightseeing tourism...) aim at managing natural so resources in aThey provide legal ways for communities to raise money by using local, wildlife sustainablewayandconservingthe forests. Rather restricting rights dwellers toengage inamarketeconomyinvolving wildlife, thethan the offorest decisions to consume or conserveanswer lies in fostering these rights, in accepting the premise that arewildlife should ultimately rest with people directly dependent on this wildlife. Only iflocal people granted the righttomakeresource-related decisions, willtheyembrace the responsibility to sustainthese resources. Implications forBennett, E.L. and Robinson, J.G. 2000. Hunting of Wildlife in Tropical Forests. BankBiodiversity and Forest Peoples. Biodiversity Series, Impact Studies, Paper no 76, The World EnvironmentDepartment,WashingtonD.C. developmentpolicy: issues andBrown, D., Williams,A. 2003. The case forbushmeat as acomponentof 148-1challenges. International ForestryReview 55.5(2): Nasi, R. 2007. Bushmeat: The Price of a Wild Trade. Viewpoint, Spore 130, August 2007, online http://spore.cta.int/sporel30/pdf/sporel30_en_viewpoint.pdf(also available inFrenchand Spanish) Wilkie, D., Bennett, E., Tutin, C, van Toi, G., and Christophersen, T. (2008).Nasi, R., Brown, D., theConventiononConservationanduse wildlife-basedresources: thebushmeat crisis. Secretariatofof ivNature & Faune Vol. 23, Issue 1
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