Solar radiation data from satellite images

Solar radiation data from satellite images

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Solar Energy R&D
in the European Community
Series F Volume 4
Solar Radiation Data
Solar Radiation Data
from Satellite Images
Determination of Solar Radiation
at Ground Level from Images of the
Earth Transmitted by
Meteorological Satellites
D. REIDEL PUBLISHING COMPANY
for the Commission of the European Communities Solar Radiation Data from Satellite Images Solar Energy R&D in the European Community
Series F:
Solar Radiation Data
Volume 4
Publicatipn arrangements: T. C. Jones CS
Solar Energy R&D zòfóà
in the European Community
Series F Volume 4
SolarRadiation Data
Solar Radiation Data
from Satellite Images
Determination of Solar Radiation
at Ground Level from Images of the
Earth Transmitted by
Meteorological Satellites
by
W. Grüter, H. Guillara, W. Moser, ¿2. ¿2 L
J.M.Monget,W.Palz,E.Raschke,NJ^_r>eC. IAJ^
R. E. Reinhardt, P. SchwarzmanriTand"­—~~ ­ /"^ —
LWald ! PARLENT ■ . ■­·
i fs'. C.
~Ί -~-
D. Reidel Publishing Compot**° '3 f^
A MEMBER OF THE KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS CROUP H0|
Dordrecht / Boston / Lancaster / Tokyo
for the Commission of the European Communities Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
ΠΕ
Main entry under title:
Solar radiation data from satellite images.
(Solar energy R & D in the European Community. Series F, Solar
radiation data; v. 4)
Bibliography: p.
1. Solar radiation­Observations. 2. Solar radiation­Remote
sensing. 3. Astronautics in meteorology. I. Griiter, W. II. Com­
mission of the European Communities. III. Series.
QC911.8.S65 1986 551.5'271 86­478
ISBN 90­277­2204­8
Publication arrangements by
Commission of the European Communities
Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation, Luxembourg
EUR 10375
© 1986 ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the
Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.
Published by D. Reidel Publishing Company
P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Holland
Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
190 Old Derby Street, Hingham, MA 02043, U.S.A.
In all other countries, sold and distributed
by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Holland
All Rights Reserved
No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording or by any information storage and retrieval system,
without written permission from the copyright owner.
Printed in The Netherlands Contents
Preface vii
PART I : SOLAR RADIATION 1
1.1 Solar radiation
1.1.1 General information and definitions
1.1.2 Astronomical factors 5
1.1.3 Solar radiation on the ground
1.2 Measurements of solar radiation 8
1.2.1 Classical methods
1.2.2 Empiricals
1.2.3 The potential usefulness of remote sensing data 11
PART II : METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES 14
2.1 Description 1
2.1.1 The geostationary satellite system
2.1.2 The NOAA satellites5
2.2 Interpretation of satellite imagery 18
2.2.1 Emission and reflection processes
2.2.2 Images in the infrared and solar range9
2.3 Bibliographical study on estimates of solar radiation from
satellite data 22
2.3.1 Statistical methods
2.3.2 Physical methods3
PART III: DETERMINATION OF SOLAR RADIATION FROM SATELLITE
IMAGES (ACTION 4.3 OF PROJECT F) 30
3.1 Introduction 3
3.2 Method of Moser and Raschke (Colognp)
3.2.1 The model1
3.2.2 Principles of the method3
3.2.3 Utilisation of satellite data 34
3.2.4 Comparisons with ground truth measurements5
3.2.5 Maps of global radiation 42 3.3 The method of Reinhardt et al. (Stuttgart) 52
3.3.1 Introduction 5
3.3.2 Strategy and algorithms to estimate global irradiation 53
3.3.3 Results9
3.3.4 Conclusions 6
3.4 Method of Monget et al. (Sophia-Antipolis) 63
3.4.1 Introduction ~"
3.4.2 Construction of the ground albedo map4
3.4.3 Evaluation of the cloud cover index7
3.4.4 Statistical relationship between cloud cover index and
ground-measured transmission factor8
3.4.5 Determination of hourly global irradiation 70
3.4.6 Conclusions 7
PART FOUR: COMPARISON OF THE THREE METHODS4
4.1 Different approaches to satellite processing 7
4.2 General background and rules of the intercompari son5
4.2.1 Ground truth requirements 7
4.2.2 Selection of a common test period and data9
4.3 Goal of intercomparison between methods
4.3.1 Background of method objectives 82
4.3.2 Intercomparison scheme
4.3.3 Form of presentation of final results3
4.3.4 Content of final report on intercomparison4
4.4 Deviation between satellite-derived and ground-based radiation
data 8
4.4.1 Reconstruction of hourly values
4.4.2n of daily sums 85
4.5 Hardware configurations (as of 1982)
4.5.1 Cologne 8
4.5.2 Sophia - Antipolis6
4.5.3 Stuttgart
4.5.4 Image displays
4.5.5 Intercomparison7
4.6n of computational time 8
4.7 Conclusions8
PART FIVE : GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 95
References 9