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Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation

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Seagrasses are unique plants; the only group of flowering plants to recolonise the sea. They occur on every continental margin, except Antarctica, and form ecosystems which have important roles in fisheries, fish nursery grounds, prawn fisheries, habitat diversity and sediment stabilisation. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research and information on all aspects of seagrass biology. However the compilation of all this work into one book has not been attempted previously. In this book experts in 26 areas of seagrass biology present their work in chapters which are state-of–the-art and designed to be useful to students and researchers alike. The book not only focuses on what has been discovered but what exciting areas are left to discover. The book is divided into sections on taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction, ecology, physiology, fisheries, management, conservation and landscape ecology. It is destined to become the chosen text on seagrasses for any marine biology course.

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Contents
Foreword
1
2
3
Taxonomy and Biogeography of Seagrasses C. den Hartog and John Kuo I. Introduction II. Key to the Angiosperm Families Containing True Marine Species III. Seagrasses: General Taxonomy IV. Biogeography V. Conclusion and Outlook References Appendix: A List of the Seagrass Species of the World
Seagrass Evolution, Ecology and Conservation: A Genetic Perspective Michelle Waycott, Gabriele Procaccini, Donald H. Les and Thorsten B. H. Reusch I. Introduction II. The Evolution of Seagrass Diversity III. Ecological and Reproductive Processes IV. Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References
Seagrass Morphology, Anatomy, and Ultrastructure J. Kuo and C. den Hartog I. Introduction II. General Morphology of Seagrasses—Size and Shape III. Vegetative Morphology and Anatomy IV. Reproductive Morphology and Anatomy V. Water Movement in Seagrass Leaves and Roots VI. Morphological, Anatomical and Ultrastructural Modifications in Relation to Environmental Conditions VII. Discussion and Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References
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xiii
1–23
1 2 3 16 18 19 22
25–50
25 26 35 44 45 45
51–87
51 52 52 69 81
82 83 83 83
vi
4
5
6
7
Sexual Reproduction of Seagrasses: Pollination in the Marine Context Josef Daniel Ackerman I. Introduction II. Defining Seagrasses III. Evolutionary Ecology IV. Morphological Patterns: Reproductive Organs V. Pollen VI. Reproductive Patterns VII. Pollination VIII. Post-Pollination: Pollen Tubes, Embryonic and Seedling Development IX. Evidence for Pollination Success X. Conclusions Acknowledgments References
Ecology of Seagrass Seeds and Dispersal Strategies Robert J. Orth, Matthew C. Harwell and Graeme J. Inglis I. Introduction II. Seeds and Seed Production III. Seed Banks, Dormancy, and Seed Germination IV. Seed Dispersal V. Seed Recruitment and Seedling Establishment VI. Seagrass Conservation and Restoration: Utility of Seeds VII. Conclusions and Emerging Paradigms Acknowledgments References
Contents
89–109
89 90 90 94 96 96 98 102 104 105 106 106
111–133
111 112 113 114 122 123 126 128 128
Seagrass Beds and Coastal Biogeochemistry 135–157 N´uriaMarb`a,MarianneHolmer,Esperan¸caGaciaandChristinaBarro´n I. Introduction135 II. Role of Particulates and Dissolved Material136 III. Mineralization of Organic Matter and Nutrient Cycling in Seagrass Sediments145 IV. Summary and Future Work/Outlook151 Acknowledgments153 References153
Carbon Flux in Seagrass Ecosystems Miguel A. Mateo, Just Cebria´ n, Kenneth Dunton, and Troy Mutchler I. Introduction II. Seagrass Production III. The Fate of Seagrass Production IV. Ecosystem Carbon Budgets and Carbon Sinks V. Summary and Future Work Acknowledgments References
159–192
159 160 164 179 185 186 186
Contents
8
9
10
Fluid Dynamics in Seagrass Ecology—from Molecules to Ecosystems Evamaria W. Koch, Joseph D. Ackerman, Jennifer Verduin and Michael van Keulen I. Introduction II. Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals III. Micro-Scale Processes at the Molecular Level (µm) IV. Processes at the Shoot Level (mm–cm) V. Processes at the Canopy Level (m) VI. Hydrodynamically-Mediated Processes at the Landscape Level (100–1000 m) VII. Hydrodynamic Processes at the Meso-Scale Level (>1,000 m) VIII. Summary and Outlook Acknowledgments References
Nutrients Dynamics in Seagrass Ecosystems JavierRomero,Kun-SeopLee,MartaP´erez,MiguelA.Mateo, and Teresa Alcoverro I. Introduction II. Nutrient Economy: Acquisition, Transport, and Storage III. Nutrient Fluxes in Seagrass Ecosystems IV. Nutrient Limitation and Nutrient Imbalances V. Conclusion and Future Goals Acknowledgments References
Oxygen Movement in Seagrasses Jens Borum, Kaj Sand-Jensen, Thomas Binzer, Ole Pedersen, and Tina Maria Greve I. General Introduction II. Measuring Oxygen Dynamics and Transport III. Oxygen Sources IV. Oxygen Sinks V. Internal Movement of Oxygen VI.In SituOxygen Variability in Seagrass VII. Anoxia and Seagrass Die-off VIII. Summary Acknowledgments References
vii
193–225
193 194 198 200 205
212 216 218 219 219
227–254
227 228 235 243 247 248 248
255–270
255 256 257 260 263 265 267 267 268 268
viii
11
12
13
14
Dynamics of Seagrass Stability and Change Carlos M. Duarte, James W. Fourqurean, Dorte Krause-Jensen, and Birgit Olesen I. Introduction II. Components of Seagrass Meadows: from Apical Meristems to Meadows III. Shoot Dynamics IV. Clones and Patch Dynamics V. Gap Dynamics VI. Dynamics of Seagrass Meadows at Different Time Scales VII. Prospect: Forecasting Seagrass Dynamics Acknowledgement References
Aquatic Optics: Basic Concepts for Understanding How Light Affects Seagrasses and Makes them Measurable from Space Richard C. Zimmerman and Arnold G. Dekker
I. Introduction II. A Primer on Hydrologic Optics III. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters References
Light and Photosynthesis in Seagrass Meadows Richard C. Zimmerman I. Introduction II. Radiation Transfer and Light Interception III. Canopy Architecture and Leaf Orientation IV. Leaf Optical Properties V. Radiative Transfer and Submerged Plant Canopies VI. Irradiance Distributions Within the Seagrass Canopy VII. Productivity and Carbon Balance in Submerged Plant Canopies VIII. Leaf Orientation, Canopy Density, and Self-Shading IX. Effects of Water Quality on Seagrass Productivity and Distribution X. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Seagrass Productivity XI. Effects of Epiphytes on Leaf Photosynthesis Acknowledgment References
Photosynthesis and Metabolism in Seagrasses at the Cellular Level Anthony W. D. Larkum, Edward A. Drew, and Peter J. Ralph I. Introduction II. Photosynthetic Adaptations to Marine Submergence III. The Diffusive Boundary Layer (DBL)
Contents
271–294
271
272 275 281 283 284 290 290 290
295–301
295 295 300 301
303–321
303 304 304 307 309 311 312 313 315 316 316 319 319
323–345
323 324 324
Contents
15
16
17
IV. Inorganic Carbon Uptake Mechanisms V. Rates of CiUptake VI. Photosynthetic Efficiency, Light-Harvesting and the Package Effect VII. Mechanisms of CO2Fixation, CAM, Photorespiration and Oxygen Cycles VIII. Fluorescence Studies IX. Leaf Anatomy, Oxygen Effects and Depth Limitations in Seagrasses X. Initial Photosynthetic Products in Seagrass Leaves XI. Translocation and Exudation XII. Storage and Utilisation XIII. Secondary Metabolites and Chemotaxonomy XIV. Summary Acknowledgements References
Remote Sensing of Seagrass Ecosystems: Use of Spaceborne and Airborne Sensors Arnold Dekker, Vittorio Brando, Janet Anstee, Suzanne Fyfe, Timothy Malthus and Evanthia Karpouzli I. Introduction II. Principles of Remote Sensing of Seagrass Ecosystems III. Optical Properties of the Overlying Water Column IV. Optically Deep and Shallow Waters: Physical Definitions V. Methodological Approaches to Assessing Seagrass Ecosystem Characteristics from Remote Sensing VI. Conclusions, Recommendations, and Outlook References
Zostera: Biology, Ecology, and Management Kenneth A. Moore and Frederick T. Short I. Introduction II. Comparative Biology III. Ecology IV. Management and Restoration V. Future Research Needs References
Biology of Posidonia Sylvie Gobert, Marion L. Cambridge, Branco Velimirov, G´erardPergent,GillesLepoint,Jean-MarieBouquegneau, Patrick Dauby, Christine Pergent-Martini, and Diana I. Walker I. Introduction II. Systematics III. Distribution of the Genus IV. Development of Meadows and Patches V. Biomass Dynamics and Production of the Plant
ix
325 326 328 329 330 337 338 338 339 340 341 342 342
347–359
347 350 351 353
355 357 358
361–386
361 361 370 372 378 378
387–408
378 388 388 391 391
x
18
19
20
VI. Reproduction VII. Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen VIII. Food Webs IX. Species Status and Anthropogenic Impact X. Summary References
The Biology ofThalassia: Paradigms and Recent Advances in Research Brigitta I. van Tussenbroek, Jan A. Vonk, Johan Stapel, Paul L. A. Erftemeijer, Jack J. Middelburg, and Jay C. Zieman I. Introduction II. Basic Environmental Requirements III. Historical Development in Research IV.Thalassia–Sediment Interactions V. Nutrient Dynamics VI. Plant Development VII. Population Dynamics VIII. Community Ecology IX. Conclusions Acknowledgments References
Epiphytes of Seagrasses Michael A. Borowitzka, Paul S. Lavery, and Mike van Keulen I. Introduction II. The Role of the Epiphytic Organisms III. Distribution and Abundance of Epiphytic Organisms IV. Factors Affecting Distribution and Abundance V. Conclusions References
Contents
393 395 397 400 401 401
409–439
409 410 411 412 412 416 422 423 430 431 431
441–461
441 441 443 450 456 456
The Central Role of Grazing in Seagrass Ecology 463–501 John F. Valentine and J. Emmett Duffy I. Introduction463 II. Philosophy of the Review465 III. An Evolutionary Perspective on Seagrasses and their Grazers466 IV. The Modern Seagrass Community Interaction Web467 V. Direct Grazing on Seagrasses468 VI. Indirect Effects of Grazing on Seagrass Communities: A Delicate Balance481 VII. Bottom-Up and Top-Down Control in Seagrass Communities485 VIII. Alternate Stable States in Seagrass Ecosystems?488 IX. Questions and Recommendations for Future Research489 X. Summary491 Acknowledgments492 References492
Contents
21
22
23
24
Seagrasses, Fish, and Fisheries Bronwyn M. Gillanders I. Introduction II. Use of Seagrass Beds by Fish Species III. Comparison of Abundance, Diversity, Growth, and Survival of Fish in Seagrass Habitats, with Other Nearshore Habitats IV. Spatial Scales—Factors Influencing Abundance of Fish in Seagrass Beds V. Temporal Scales— Factors Influencing Abundance of Fish in Seagrass Beds VI. Links Between Seagrass and Fisheries VII. Conservation and Management Issues VIII. Future Research Directions Acknowledgments References
xi
503–536
503 503
505
509
516 517 524 527 530 530
Predation in Seagrass Beds 537–550 Kenneth L. Heck and Robert J. Orth I. Introduction537 II. Effects of Seagrasses on Predator–Prey Interactions in Ecological Time537 III. Effects of Seagrass on Predator–Prey Interactions in Evolutionary Time545 IV. Summary546 References547
Decline and Recovery of Seagrass Ecosystems—The Dynamics of Change Diana I. Walker, Gary A. Kendrick, and Arthur J. McComb I. Introduction II. Changes in Seagrass Distributions III. Loss of Seagrass Beds IV. Case Study 1: Why did We Lose Seagrasses in Cockburn Sound Whereas Seagrass Area has Expanded on Neighbouring Parmelia and Success Banks? V. Case Study 2: Florida Bay VI. Species-Specific Recruitment and Growth Characteristics VII. Can Seagrass Management be Proactive? References
551–565
551 551 552
556 560 560 562 562
Human Impacts on Seagrasses: Eutrophication, Sedimentation and Contamination 567–593 Peter J. Ralph, David Tomasko, Kenneth Moore, Stephanie Seddon, andCatrion`aM.O.Macinnis-Ng I. Introduction567 II. Anthropogenic Stressors568 III. Management of Anthropogenic Pollutants584 IV. Recommended Research Directions586 V. Summary587 References587
xii
25
26
Seagrass Conservation Biology: An Interdisciplinary Science for Protection of the Seagrass Biome W. Judson Kenworthy, Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, RobertG.Coles,G´erardPergentandChristinePergent-Martini I. Introduction II. The State of Seagrass Science Relative to Conservation Biology III. Seagrasses Conservation Biology: An Approach for the Future IV. Science-Based Protection Approaches V. Implementing Conservation Tools: Two Examples VI. Summary and Outlook Acknowledgments References
Seagrass Ecology: New Contributions from a Landscape Perspective Susan S. Bell, Mark S. Fonseca, and Nathaniel B. Stafford I. Introduction II. The Landscape Approach III. Historical Overview IV. Terrestrial vs. Marine Landscapes V. Landscape Dynamics VI. Boundaries and Seagrass Landscapes VII. Conceptual and Methodological Improvements VIII. Future Directions IX. Summary Acknowledgments References
Epilogue
Index
Contents
595–623
595
604
605 610 612 617 617 617
625–645
625 626 629 635 636 638 639 640 641 641 641
647
649
http://www.springer.com/9781402029424