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eurostat
DIGEST OF STATISTICS
ON SOCIAL PROTECTION
IN EUROPE
Volume 6 — Maternity
3
D eurostat
STATISTISCHES AMT DER EUROPÄISCHEN GEMEINSCHAFTEN
STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
OFFICE STATISTIQUE DES COMMUNAUTÉS EUROPÉENNES
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Y. Franchet Y. Franchet
Generaldirektor Directeur général DIGEST OF STATISTICS
ON SOCIAL PROTECTION
IN EUROPE
Volume 6 — Maternity
Theme
Population and social conditions
Series
Studies and research
STATISTICAL DOCUMENT Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1995
ISBN 92-826-9135-7
© ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1995
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Spain CONTENTS
Part I INTRODUCTION
1. Objectives 6
2. Classifications
3. Method used to compile the Digest 8
4. Presentation of data
5.1 Maternity function: Content
5.2y: Definitions of types of benefit 9
Part II COUNTRY TABLES: BENEFIT EXPENDITURE
Belgium 14
Denmark6
Germany8
Greece 20
Spain2
France
Ireland7
Italy9
Luxembourg 31
Netherlands3
Portugal5
United Kingdom
Part III ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE TABLES
0. Remarks on the comparability of the data 44
1. Maternity in the context of social protection
2. Trends in benefit expenditure
3. Benefits per birth6
4. Maternity benefits
5. Flat rate payments8
6. Healthcare 49
7. Forthcoming work
8. Summary tables
8.1 Benefit expenditure by type -1991 50
8.2te in national currency at 1985 prices1
8.3 Benefite as % of GDP and by birth -19802
8.4t expenditure as % of GDP and by birth -19913
Part IV DESCRIPTIVE FORMS BY TYPE OF BENEFIT
Belgium 56
Denmark 6
Germany4
Greece7
Spain 71
France9
Ireland 8
Italy 90
Luxembourg2
Netherlands ,5
Portugal8
United Kingdom 10This study was carried out for Eurostat by Françoise Duchesne.
Eurostat would like to thank the Working Party on Social Protection Statistics and
the representatives of the Member States who have helped in compiling this
publication. PART I INTRODUCTION The classification and presentation of statistical At regular intervals Eurostat publishes' ' aggregated
data on current social protection expenditure' ' and results in the Digest are based on this ESSPROS
receipts, which are compiled and presented using the classification, subject to the following clarifications.
European ESSPROS methodology.(3) One
classification of the benefits is by "functions", in other a) Each volume of the Digest contains data for one of
words by risk covered. the functions. Volume VI covers maternity as
defined in point 5.1 of this introduction (only the
The Digest of Statistics on Social Protection in expenditure amounts are given in this volume).
Europe - of which this paper will represent Volume VI
devoted to the maternity function - provides more b) The data are presented by country (Part II), and
detailed data on the amounts paid out. summarized in the comparative tables (Part III).
c) They are classified in three groups of schemes:
1. Objectives - Basic
- Supplementary
- Means-tested welfare schemes.
The object of the Digest of Statistics on Social
Protection in Europe is to obtain, in respect of each These correspond to the ESSPROS groups.
function, a breakdown by type of benefit paid and the
corresponding numbers of beneficiaries. However, for As a reminder, and without repeating the full
this publication on the maternity function Eurostat definitions in the methodology, the basic schemes
considered only the total number of births. (paragraph 317) are those which, pursuant to laws or
regulations, provide for primary protection against
This breakdown by type of benefit, specific to each one or more risks.
function and identical for all Member States, should
enable more precise comparisons at European level The supplementary schemes, known as
(cf. Part III) and more detailed analyses at country complementary or supplementary in the ESSPROS
level (cf. Part II) to be undertaken concurrently, and methodology (paragraph 326), are schemes which
the two approaches to be combined. presuppose that, in the case in question, primary
benefits are being granted under a basic scheme.
The fact sheets which describe the main features of
national benefits (cf. Part IV) for a given function - i.e. The means-tested welfare schemes are known as
the agency which procures the benefits, the "schemes relating to other forms of social protection"
conditions governing eligibility and the method of in the ESSPROS methodology (paragraph 329). Only
calculating them - should be of great assistance in benefits specifically linked to maternity are classified
interpreting the data. under this heading. When these payments are made
as a last resort in accordance with rules which apply
to the entire population, they are classified under the Lastly, the collecting of data at two different levels,
General Neediness function.'5' i.e. the "agencies" or administrative units in the case
of ordinary ESSPROS statistics, and at the level of
national benefits in the case of data in the Digest, In the ESSPROS (paragraph 316) the first two groups
enables validity checks to be made by crosschecking. of schemes are subdivided into national, general,
special (further subdivided) and voluntary schemes.
So as not to overburden the tables, and since the
2. Classifications Digest is not meant to give an institutional analysis of
the schemes, these subdivisions have not been
included here.
ESSPROS classifies social protection benefits as
follows:(4) d) Since the types of benefit considered in this
Digest are specific to each function, they differ
- by country from the types of benefit in the ESSPROS
- by function (or social "risk") (paragraph 605), which are common to all the
functions and therefore more general (see - by scheme (or grouping of administrative units
classification plan on the next page). referred to as agencies)
- by type of benefit (general types, identical for all
functions). DIGEST - VOL. VI: MATERNITY ESSPROS
SCHEMES SCHEMES
Basic Basic
. National
. General
. Special
- statutory
- other occupational
- for victims of political events
or natural disasters
- other special
. Voluntary
Supplementary Complementary or supplementary
. National
. General
. Special
- statutory
- other occupational
- for victims of political events
or natural disasters
- other special
. Voluntary
Relating to other forms of social protection Means-tested
TYPES OF BENEFIT TYPES OF BENEFIT
(specific to the maternity function) (same for all functions)
Cash benefits Cash benefits
. Earnings maintenance . Earning maintenance
- long-term periodic - by employer
- short-term periodic - by social security institution
- paid once only . Daily allowances
. To compensate for special expenditure - paid by employer
- long-term periodic - paid by social security institution
- short-termc . Flat-rate payment
- paid once only . Other cash benefits
. Other
- long-term periodic
- short termc
- paid once only
Benefits in kind Benefits in kind
. Reimbursement . In-patient care
- medical care . Out-patient care
- social assistance . Pharmaceutical products
- other reimbursement . Laboratory tests and other examinations
. Directly provided benefits . Other benefits in kind
- medical care
- social assistance
- other reimbursement This change reflects the attempt to obtain uniform 1980-1991 (Part II). These tables give the amounts of
classifications for all countries in the most appropriate the benefits expressed in national currency.
way for providing an analysis by function from one
country to another. The "types" in the Digest and in Part III contains an analysis of the data on the basis
the ESSPROS differ therefore not in concept but in of summary tables. It gives an overview of trends in,
the level at which the benefits enjoyed by the and structure of, expenditure on the maternity
household are presented. These types are generic, function in the European Union and in each Member
e.g. earnings maintenance by the social security State.
institution, and combine national benefits covering the
same risks under a law or a specific regulation. Part IV contains descriptive forms giving the main
characteristics of national types of benefit for the
maternity function. It shows the agency which The various types of benefit and their definitions are
procures the benefits, the conditions for eligibility' ' listed in point 5.2 of this introduction. The national
and the method of calculating the benefits. types of benefit are given, in the descriptive forms
(Part IV).
To facilitate comparisons of the structures, the tables
It can be concluded from the above that the Digest list all the types of benefit, even if no data are
uses the ESSPROS methodology but groups the available. A colon ":" indicates that the data are not
benefits differently under the various schemes and available and a hyphen "-" indicates that they do not
types. exist in the Member State in question.
It must be emphasized that the data for the Federal
Republic of Germany refer to the situation prior to 3 3. Method used to compile the Digest
October 1990. Statistics on the former GDR are not
yet available.
Eurostat requested an expert from each country to
supply, in respect of each function for the period
1980-1991, detailed data regarding the amounts of 5.1. Maternity function: Content
benefit paid, accompanied by the relevant descriptive
forms.
The "maternity" function includes all benefits linked to
the expenditure resulting from the conception and From an analysis of this raw material, Eurostat
birth of children (both live births and stillbirths) and compiled an initial classification of types of benefit
benefits of the same kind granted for either abortion common to all the countries. The national benefits
or adoption. were then broken down in accordance with this
classification. The breakdowns of data were revised
and the data and descriptive forms supplemented. The following are classifed under this function:
This work was carried out in close cooperation with a. benefits (in some cases the continuation of
the Member States. The link with the ESSPROS data income) intended to compensate( in whole or in
was maintained throughout the project. As a result of part, the loss of income resulting when a woman
this work, some corrections will be made to the stops work owing to pregnancy and childbirth;
ESSPROS data.
b. special benefits granted either during pregnancy
The present volume has undoubtedly benefited from or after the birth if they are linked to that event
the experience gained in producing the volumes (e.g. expenditure on ante- or post-natal medical
already published. examinations);
They are to be updated and improved at a later date. c. flat-rate payments made at the time of the birth;
The volumes on the remaining functions are in
preparation. d. medical care dispensed
- to the future mother during pregnancy,
- at the time of the delivery,
4. Presentation of data - to the mother and child between the time of the
delivery and the time they leave the hospital when
the care is given in the hospital or for an
This introduction, containing definitions of the equivalent period (around a week in the majority of
maternity function and the types of benefits specific to cases) when the child is delivered at home;
it, is followed by country tables for the period - other forms of social assistance for future
mothers or mothers who have just given birth.