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Sustainability in Manufacturing

De
Population growth and increasing resource consumption are global challenges which have to be coped by sustainable development. Increasing the use productivity of resources by new cycle economical concepts supported by innovative technologies is significantly contributing to this ambitious goal. These challenges were accepted by several research institutions at the Technical University Berlin and lead to the establishment of the Collaborative Research Center (Sfb) 281 Dissassembly Factories for the Recovery of Resources in Product and Material Cycles funded by the German Research Foundation in 1995. Numerous scientific results are available after 12 years of research, which are discussed within this book: Management of industrial experience and education, technology innovation for products and processes of cycle economy are presented in a systemic frame of ecological, economical and socio-political criteria under the consideration of human necessities and limit natural resources. Methods and tools for a sustainable product development, planning methods for cycle economy, the presentation of concepts for product accompanying information systems and innovative disassembly technology are exemplarily to be distinguished. The book makes therefore a contribution to the increase of use productivity of resources. The challenges of sustainable manufacturing cannot be coped on a regional scale - but have to be addressed on a global level. For that reason, long lasting international cooperation's has been established within the Sfb 281 enriching the research work. International partners of TUB have contributed for the success of this book.
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Table of Contents
1 Introduction .......................................................................................... ...1 2 Global Framework................................................................................ ...7  2.1 Wealth Distribution and Use Productivity ................................... ...7  2.2 Education by Projects................................................................. ...11 2.3 Processes and Products.............................................................. ...14 2.4 Sustainable Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicle in China............ ...17 2.4.1 Recycling Industry.......................................................... ...18 2.4.2 Remanufacturing Activities............................................ ...22 2.4.3 Challenges....................................................................... ...28 3 Life Cycle Engineering and Management.............................................31 and Perspectives3.1 Status .................................................................31 3.1.1 History................................................................................33 3.1.2 Methodology.....................................................................35 and Social Aspects3.1.3 Economic ............................................42 and Tools3.1.4 Data ...................................................................44 Product Policy3.1.5 Integrated ...................................................45 of Industrial Activities3.1.6 Eco-Efîciency ...............................49 3.1.7 Conclusion.........................................................................58 3.2 Saving Resources by Reuse, Recycling, Recovery.......................68 3.2.1 Environmental Evaluation.................................................68 3.2.2 Application.........................................................................73 3.2.3 Conclusion.........................................................................75 3.3 Minimizing the Overall Environmental Impact............................78 3.3.1 Life Cycle Approach..........................................................79 Life Cycle Assessment3.3.2 Modular ..................................... ...82 3.3.3 Conclusion...................................................................... ...87 3.4 Assessment of Recyclability...................................................... ...90 Steps for Closed-loop Material Flows3.4.1 Process ............... ...90 3.4.2 Recyclability of a Product........92.......................................... 3.4.3 Approach.......9.....................................................................4 of Product Assessment3.4.4 Integration ...................................100
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3.5 3.6
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Efîcient Economic Organization................................................104 3.5.1 Basic Issues for an Efîcient Closed-Loop-Economy......105 3.5.2 Practical Implementation of Take-Back Schemes........ ...118 3.5.3 Conclusion.................................................................... ...125 Reverse Logistics........................................................................130 3.6.1 Redistribution Processes..................................................132 3.6.2 Cycle Economy and Disassembly....................................134 3.6.3 Network of Disassembly Factories in Europe.................136 3.6.4 Conclusion.......................................................................141 4 Product Development..........................................................................143 Design Guidelines.......................................................................143 4.1.1 Redesign of a Washing Machine Solenoid Valve............146 4.1.2 IT-based Design Support..................................................148 4.1.3 Feedback of Design-relevant Information.......................151 Connections.................................................................................156 4.2.1 Disconnecting-Supporting Connections..........................156 4.2.2 ParametersDetermining (Dis)connecting........................159 4.2.3 Classiîcation Scheme of Connection Principles.............162 4.2.4 Systematic Design of Connections..................................167 4.2.5 Conclusion.......................................................................168 Simulation Tools for Disassembly Design..................................170 4.3.1 Product Condition Model.................................................171 4.3.2 Virtual Disassembly.........................................................175 4.3.3 Enhancement of Service and Disposal.............................177 Product Life Cycle Planning and Tracking.............................. ...183 4.4.1 Information Technological Infrastructure..................... ...184 4.4.2 Implementation............................................................. ...186 4.4.3 Knowledge as a Process Driver.................................... ...190 Reference Model for Managing Product Development.......... ...193 4.5.1 Sustainability................................................................. ...193 4.5.2 Modeling....................................................................... ...196 4.5.3 Generic Model............................................................. ...199 4.5.4 Open Knowledge Support to Small Enterprises..............205 Cleaner Production......................................................................207 4.6.1 Methodology....................................................................208 4.6.2 Industrial Cases............................................................. ...211 4.6.3 Trends....21...........................................................................4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
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5 Processes and Tools for Disassembly............................................... ...217 5.1 Non-Detachable Connections12......................................................7 5.1.1 Drilling.......................................................................... ...219 5.1.2 Shearing and Splitting................21.2..................................... Techniques5.1.3 Jet ............................................................... ...223 Hybrid Tools5.1.4 Cryotechnical .............................................231 5.1.5 Inductive Heating and Thermal Removal.......................233 5.2 Detachable Connections..............................................................237 5.2.1 Working Principles...........................................................238 5.2.2 Disassembly Tool Kit.......................................................249 5.3 Clamping Systems......................................................................254 – Parallel Kinematic with 12 Axes5.3.1 Dodekapod ...............256 of Parallel Structured Clamping Systems5.3.2 Deployment ...263 5.4 Cleaning Technologies................................................................268 5.4.1 Challenges........................................................................268 5.4.2 Blasting............................................................................270 5.4.3 Brushing........................................................................ ...283 Cleaning Centre5.4.4 Flexible .............................................. ...283 5.4.5 Laser Assisted Dry Ice Blasting.................................... ...286 5.5 Hybrid Disassembly System.................................................... ...290 5.5.1 Requirements................................................................ ...290 Variants5.5.2 Layout ............................................................. ...291 and Facilities5.5.3 Equipment ............................................... ...294 Process5.5.4 Unscrewing ...................................................... ...296 5.5.5 Adaptation to Different Products....................................301 and Control5.5.6 Information ..................................................307 5.5.7 Conclusion.......................................................................311 6 Planning for Remanufacturing and Recycling....................................313 6.1 Facility Planning........................................................................313 6.1.1 Product and Process Analysis.........................................315 Classiîcation6.1.2 Product ......................................................319 6.1.3 Dimensioning...................................................................321 6.1.4 Structuring........................................................................325 and Simulation6.1.5 Modelling ................................................327 6.1.6 Conclusion.......................................................................329 6.2 Program Planning........................................................................331 6.2.1 Optimisation Model.........................................................331
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6.2.2 Flat Screen Monitor Remanufacturing............................332 6.2.3 Model Implementation and Application..........................337 6.2.4 Conclusion.......................................................................340 7 Enabling for Sustainability in Engineering.........................................343 Maintenance Essential for Life Cycle Management...................344 7.1.1 Life Cycle Perspective.....................................................345 7.1.....................................................................2 Framework ...347 7.1.3 Information Loop.............................................................350 7.1.4Conclusion .......................................................................352 Intelligent Maintenance Systems...............................................354 ® 7.2.1 Watchdog AgentTechnique ...........................................357 7.2.2 Responsive Maintenance.................................................360 7.2.3 Hierarchical Architecture................................................362 Life Cycle Unit – Concept and Application................................366 7.3.1 Architecture and Implementation....................................369 7.3.2 Integration in Different Products.....................................373 7.3.3 Conclusion.......................................................................377 Miniaturized Life Cycle Units....................................................379 7.4.1 Sustainment of Microsystems..........................................379 7.4.2 Modular Microsystems....................................................380 7.4.3 The eGrain Concept.........................................................383 7.4.4 Monitoring Electronic Assemblies...................................385 Modularity for Ease of Remanufacturing...................................390 7.5.1 Remanufacturing..............................................................391 7.5.2 Modularity........................................................................393 7.5.3 Module Conîgurator........................................................396 7.5.4 Case Study – Modular Mobile Phone Kit........................408 Competence Management in Education for Sustainability.........413 7.6.1 Competence Market Chain..............................................414 7.6.2 Outcome Orientation........................................................415 7.6.3 Reference Model..............................................................416 7.6.4 Conclusion.......................................................................417 8 Roadmap..............................................................................................419
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6
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