Transport and mixing in the Tropical Tropopause Layer [Elektronische Ressource] / von Carine Dorianne Homan

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2010TFranspderortHoman,andwissenscMixingGoinvtheFTGeropical/TWropersit?topauseamLaCarineyauseramDissertationhzuroErlangunghaftendesGeographieDoktorgradesJohannderolfgangNaturwissenscethe-UnivhafteninvrankfurtorgelegtMainboneiDoriannemMScFAmsterdamacrankfurthMainbD30ereicter:VhaelomnivFertalachhProf.bnivereic22-12-2010hDr.Geohmidt,wissenscFhaftenC./olk,GeographieWderderJohannhWProf.olfgangUlricGoScethe-UnivUersit?tersit?talsrankfurtDissertationDr.angenommen.MicDekVan:UProf.ersit?tDr.uppRobDatumertDisputation:P?tzGutacwInetheeend,willwt.ewhatwillwconservonlyeareonlyDioumwhatonlywweunderstand,loevunderstande,whatweetaughwillBabalov.ConFten.ts.Ov.erview3.2.31.1.In.tro.duction.3.1.1.The.T.ropical.T25ropyopause.La.y.erthe(TTL)......................MAESA.ts.3.1.....pro.......3.2.2....3.1.2.T.ransplyzerort.in.the.TTL..Measuremen.........................X,...T.l.AMMA/SCOUT-O3...........of.......v......6.1.2.1inmixinDiabatic.ascen.tacross...............Ozone.OZAN).................18.campaigns...............2.4.1........6.1.2.2.Con.v.ection2.4.2...............

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2010TFranspderortHoman,andwissenscMixingGoinvtheFTGeropical/TWropersit?topauseamLaCarineyauseramDissertationhzuroErlangunghaftendesGeographieDoktorgradesJohannderolfgangNaturwissenscethe-UnivhafteninvrankfurtorgelegtMainboneiDoriannemMScFAmsterdamacrankfurthMainbD30ereicter:VhaelomnivFertalachhProf.bnivereic22-12-2010hDr.Geohmidt,wissenscFhaftenC./olk,GeographieWderderJohannhWProf.olfgangUlricGoScethe-UnivUersit?tersit?talsrankfurtDissertationDr.angenommen.MicDekVan:UProf.ersit?tDr.uppRobDatumertDisputation:P?tzGutacwInetheeend,willwt.ewhatwillwconservonlyeareonlyDioumwhatonlywweunderstand,loevunderstande,whatweetaughwillBabalov.ConFten.ts.Ov.erview3.2.31.1.In.tro.duction.3.1.1.The.T.ropical.T25ropyopause.La.y.erthe(TTL)......................MAESA.ts.3.1.....pro.......3.2.2....3.1.2.T.ransplyzerort.in.the.TTL..Measuremen.........................X,...T.l.AMMA/SCOUT-O3...........of.......v......6.1.2.1inmixinDiabatic.ascen.tacross...............Ozone.OZAN).................18.campaigns...............2.4.1........6.1.2.2.Con.v.ection2.4.2...............TR.and.....30.measur.the.opause.during.campaign.tro...................3.2.transp........8.1.2.3.Stratospheric3.2.1isen.tropic.inmixin.g.in.to.the.TTL....isen.in.........tropic.subtropical.......3.38.1.2.4.Isen.tropic.mixing.across.the.subtropical.barrier..v.ast.Ana-.(F..................9.1.3.Use.of.tracer.measuremen.ts......2.4.t...............................18.SCOUT-O3..............9.1.3.1.V.ertical.tracer.proles........18.AMMA/SCOUT-O3.............................2.4.3.OCCINO.APE-THESEO.ASHOE........10.1.3.23Tracerracer-traceremencorrelationsin.tropica.trop.la.er.the.aircraft.31.In.duction................................11.2.Measuremen31tsAnalysis13main2.1ortThecessesM55-Geoph.ysica....................32.Con.ection.................................33.Stratospheric.tropic.g13to2.2TTLThe.High.A.ltitude.Gas.Analyzer.(HA41GAR)Isen.mixing.the.barrier.............43.Conclusions................16.2.3.The.Cry.ogenically.Op.erated.Laser.Dio.de.(COLD)47andthe3 2 2
trots.4.Inuence.of.b.oundary.l.a.y.erstandardsp.ollution,.conbv.ectiontimesand.the.sub.t.r.opicalknojet.on.the.TTLjeto.vver.Darwin.during.theinSCOUT-O3.aircraft.campaign349.4.1.In.tro.ductionDiscussion...6.y.....4.5.2.........Inuence.....70.er...............tra.TTL...........and.......5.3......4.9.4.2.Measuremen.ts....ok.abbreviati.Zusammenfassung.Curriculum...........................66.the...........Inuence.la.ollution.Indonesia.....4.6........50.4.3.Prev.ailing.meteorolog.y5.v.ort.bac.5.1.....................Measuremen.d..............................50.4.4.Results87.Conclusions...............and.A.List.103.Summary.A.ts.129...............64.Hector..............................51.4.4.1.V.ertical4.5.3prolesofofsubtropicalO.ten.,.CO,.CO.Con.and.N.vi....O..4.5.4.of.oundary.y.p.o.er...........73.Conclusions....51.4.4.2.T.racer-tracer.correlations........................81.Residence.and.ertical.nsp.rates.the.kground.83.In.duction......54.4.4.3.Bac.kw.ard.tra.jectories..................8.5.2.ts.metho.............................8558Results4.5.In.terpretation....................................5.4.and.............................96.Conclusions.Outlo64994.5.1CalibrationHorizon101talofisenonstropicBibliographinmixing107.117.121.c.wledgemen.127.Vitae..stratosphereOvaerosolserviewdiscussedTheoffuturet.devvelopmenIntrankfurtofthem,theunderstandingglobalaterclimatethedueevtocomputerincreasingforgreenhouseul-gasortconcenbuildstra-tropicaltionsregionisbstilinlenhardernstosppredict.proWhiletocomputeresimThulationsatwiAnalyzerthofincanteractivtheedeterminedclimate-ccampaignshemistryetmoed.delsiarestratoableBrewtoditionmakiseinhighwresolutiontalprederictionsofforlivfuturetheclimate,etheyTTLstillprohaandvhelpethightouncertainintiesEndueersittotheinsucieninstrumentinunderstandintraceg1999).ofasralifetimesdproiativtheire,ThistranspworttheandortctropicalhemicalextratropicalpropctranspessTTL,eelysphere.andbthe(1949),inaryteractionstratosphericbapetelywregion.eenofthesetheprovcesses.andEsphangeeciallylothegostratospheretranspandntheothertranspcortinproHocessesthebofetinwstilleenmeasurementheatroptoosphvereulationsandimprothecustratospherewlareosphstilltranspare-cthehallengetmospherictotalrepresenetofpropeloperlyAltitudeinGAR),mofordelshigh(Douglasmeasuremenetlival.,in20032000;;raceWMO,e2007;ofGettelmaneretlongeral.,of2009).transpHohwareevyer,proitonistropicalclearerformedthatGARestpcesseseciallyeentheseosphere,proandcessesareareivvingeryfundamenimpproortanthtkforatmosphericthedominatedradiativseAsarstnydercthehemicaloundbalancecon-offorthewatmospherev(Sorhindellliketsetal.,this1998).TheAnteractionexampleconisection,thestratospherictranspaortedrivofcirculationshort-livhorizonedexcnaturalwithandmidlatitudeawnstratospherethropvogenicthehalogenatedortcompozooundse,whicandh,shortifedtheyhemicalreacecieshtothestratosphere.lowwer,errelativstrato-rolessphere,thesewillcessesbtheeareounclear.xidizedsitutheretsprovideduusefulcolitestngimprohalogeneradicalssimwhicandhtocouldvdepleteourorrenzonekno(seeedgee.g.tropWMO,ere2007;stratosphereBridgemanort.eteal.,fore,2000).1999DepletedInstituteozoAnandevironmenlevScienceselsthmaUnivyyalterFthedevcirculationedinHightheGasstratosphere,(HAwhicanhtwillsimintaneousturnresolutionaectsituthetssurfacelongclimate.edEspgaseseciallythethe(Riediger,tropicsStrunk,areTagasesregionbofusedintracersterest,transpbwhenevecausetheirtheyarearethanatimescalessourcetheregioncessesforortingmsucucthathdistributionsofmainlythebairdynamics.endissertationteringjectthemainlystratospheret(e.g.oHoltonaircraftetpal.,with1995).HAHere,instrumentheDierentropicaltransptropproopauseblawytheertrop(TTL)theformsstratospherethethetransitionstratospherebstudietBywmeenrotheourconofvtalectivortelycessesdominatedntroepaosphereeyandforthe1radiativ2
scien-Ovaerviewduecthreehemistry-climatedata.coupling,wthissw5orkerwillerconthetributentomainongoingaseousedrtsultswithinttheortscienthticeciallycommcalunitfoycalledtoeobtainthemoreai(Sectionnsighatwhicin2.4.3).toththemeasuremenroleChapterofAMMA/SCOUT-O3thethedierenedtwilltranspportwillprotranspcessesection,takingtheplacelastinethetTTL.cItwillwillFtherebptionywhelpcatogvpresenalidateandandellimprodescriptionvcampaigns,edataglobalcomparisonc3hshoemistry-climateremoduringdelscampaignswithanalysesthewillgoalfromtooproandvidetmorecessesreliablethepredictionsterofresultsfutureSCOUT-O3atmoosAustraliaphericcuscompvositionandandconclimate.ofFirst,ollutioninuenceChapterjets.1,hapteraonshofoerticalrttheintracertrooduction2.3)isbgivexplained.enurthermore,ondescrithofetdenitionoandtropicalthempciharacteristicsnofisthetedtropical2.4.1trop2.4.2),opausewlaasyshorterof(Sectionprevious1.1),fromthehdierenaretfortransp(SectionortChaptersptorowillcesseswthateplasyobtainedatheroletinandthetictropicalthereof.trop3opaupresenseresultslatheycampaignerv(SectionAfrica1.2)discussanddierenthetranspuseproofobservtraceinrstracertoChap-study4thesediscusstranspoforteprocamcessesaign(Sectionv1.3).northernInandthefosecondespconhapter,erticaltheortaircraftmixingplatformto(Sectionv2.1)inuencesandlothepinstrumenandtsinthatofaresubtropicalusTheecdwillincusthethanalysesstudy(Ssloectionv2ascen.and2soandCO2Scloek.ctiaChapter2009).1stratosphere,InectivtrohangeductionTTL1.1authors.TheyTadiabatropicalexpTtoropgreatlyopaeusetextLavyperth(TTL)toAlthoughetheTTLtropash-outosphereourandasstraglobaltospconceptherehasare(19inseparabledeneintheaeldynamicalascensenseof(H1oouldsotenkariationidiabaticnstaketdehal.,try1985)scalestheyaectarewvozone-depletingeryeraldierenthetortancewith(FresptenecttroptoatheirbvoerticalTTLtranspscaleortoftimescalesasandeltheirwccanheemloieraturecaKlHigherprotialcesses.anInittheEarth'stropisosphdierencesereand,prothparcelsethelaplace.yitserinreactohingtofromtransitthewithsurfacecesses)upuxtostratosphereabvoutshort-liv18Hence,kmininathegatetropics,whictheitstemptheraturesydecreasesetwiththeheighears,t.aVlaerticalrathertranspopauseorteenisdierenthereforewdominatedandbdenedytheconthevcirculation.ectivleveconprooutocebasesTheses,maininewhicthehairmixinghofnonoairhomaItsaroundsestialtaklevesmostplaceolkinson.,votenerypshorteraturetimetempscales.parcelAbtainobroughvtoeThethetemptropsensitivosphere,empintotheinstratosphere,onlythetotempWiteracessestumoreandincreasesstratospherewithesheighAirteriencesduenaltoydrationthetheabsorptionpriorofensolarinradiationthebandytimeozone.(togetherThiswincreaseproofgreatlytemptheeratureinwiththeheighoftatermakapesandtheedstratospheresubstances.athevactserysevstablewlaysyaertoinstratospherethehatmosphere.enhancesVimperticalfortranspeortclimateprostemcessesueglistalerareal.,sloInwpastandydominatedthebofytropicalradiativopauseeyandrlargethanscaletropprosurfacecesses.bIndiscussedtheytropics,ttheHighbooundarydbHoskinset98)wtheeeninthecontropofospherelargeandtropicaltheTheystratospheretheiselnotmainavsharpebworder,thebutofaTTL.regionlevofoftransition,conwhereectivboutoothisproplevertiesanofparcelthereacconbvundiluted,ectivvelyrsdominatedotingtropt.osphereisandcatedthearadiativotenelytempcon1trolledelstratosphereatcan365b(Feetobservled.2000).ThpistialregionTheisotencalledtemptheisTeropicaleratureTairropwopauseatLaifyisertoricallyTtheropicalsurface.TpransitiontialLaeratureynotere(TTL).tIneraturethisdueregionvthesmainpressuretranspcanortcofdueairdiabaticbcesses.ethoutwproeeairnwillthevtrop3osphere

uInslightroeendeluctionmatempwitheraturesoabthatoprovereciatedthattiallevwelstudyincanuonlycoldbuneereacTTL,hedopause,bvyediabaticcascenwinttassoerciatedes).withordinateradiativell,eorprohcessesthesisorofmixing.opauseAsotheelsuppAparterdepthbTTL,oundaryycleofsolartheduringTTLBrewHightw.otropoeardtandtempHoskinsopause(1998)atusetraltheotencoldispisoinTTLtetropuppopauspropekm,atinuencesaroundo380tropKofpfromotenectivtialptevmpfromerature.nThtoeotingcoldareptoinvtthetropTheopausepisanddenedwhicasseasonaltheimpactlodwterestntemp(seeeratureandinCPTthenorth-southtemp1eraturecoldprotlve.tAbpohighervoteneNHthepcoldlongitude,poinointhetandtropNHolinesppause,tetempquaneratureortincreasesawiththeighthet,zerowhicashashibndersthco425nximatelyvtheyectivospeymotionselltoepoinenetrateIndeeplybroaderinTTLtoreacthelevstracontospoutohere.theGettelmantandabFasorstertaking(2002)levusemaavsimilarwdenitionhighestofvthevTTL.reacTheyindenethesethefor(absolute)arelapseinratealtitudeminimoum,andtheofaltitudeeattwhicahtthethesmallesthascedhangeariationsofandtemptropicaleratureawithremotealtitudeorealissobservtheed,ofandDobsonwhic1.2.1).hannismeanassotheciated16.9witheryconariabilitv1ection,wsatof1oin345-350eKporerature10-12thekm,atasDuringthethebiottomopauseofatthehigherTTL.aFthanorThethethetoptofariesthetheTTLcoldtheytropalso160cohoSouthoofseduringtheter,colderpequalointt(isentropotenoppaayuatmosphericse.cesses,Withusedthiserticaldenitionofthepressure.loatwleverofbradiativoundaryheatingofwthebutTTLtheiserdeterminedobndaryyeytroposeosphericKproapprocesses18.5(conasvargueection)tropandhericthemauppreacerwbaboundaryvisthedeterminedpbtyopause.stratothisspthehericdenitionradiativtheeisheatingsed,andhingatheremoteelrespmainonsevtoeconwvtilection.coldHooinwtropevorer,oine,thealllocesseswplaceerthepartelofftheiTTLcontheectivoutooutowupftherolevmomostershoofcontheectiondeepyconhvofecterest.tifromodierenndenitionssuthebsidesthereagainalsodueariationstotheradiativandeofcoTTLoling,vwhictimehspace.prevtopailsthebthecoldloinotropwhasthesingleso-calledcoherenlevcelthroughoutoftropicszerohnetbradiativlinketoheatingv(LZRH).inTherefore,radiationotheritsauthorson(e.congection.nFtoolkinsforcingetbal,win1999;aSinnsohwithubiertensicationandtheFerolkins,circulation2006Section)Thargueclimatologicalthatual-thiszonallevheigheofltropicalofiszerokm,radiativvelittleheatingvshouldybFiguree.usedshoasthethehangebasetheofpthetTTL,opaussinceheighonlyandairotenmassestempdetrainingofromerdeepyconandvdierenectionlatitudes.abNHotervcoldeothisnlevtropelis(atandanaaltitudtlyepoftiablouterature15.5inkm,summer.orheighabofoutcold360oinKtroppvotenwithtialwithtemploerature)estwillpreacthopausethearound4E,stratosphere.andRecenhighesttlyv,northernFAmericaueglistalereastetCenal.America(2009)thepropwinosedandavnewalongdenitiofopntialofemtheeratureupptroperPbtialoundarymoferaturethethereforeTTL,usefulprimarilytitmotivforatedgbtranspyprotheandlarge-scaleoftendynamicalasstructures.vTheycodeneinsteadtheheighbaseorofthe