The Cost of Environmental Degradation
192 pages
English

The Cost of Environmental Degradation

YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
192 pages
English
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication

Description

How much is a cleaner environment worth? For policy makers, that question used to go largely unanswered. Many economic activities cause environmental degradation, entailing real costs to the economy and to people's welfare. Knowing the extent of these costs is crucial for identifying a country's main environmental priorities and allocating appropriate funds for environmental protection.
Over the past decade, the World Bank has initiated a systematic effort to measure the costs of environmental degradation in the Middle East and North Africa, shedding new light on their magnitude and on the need for policy changes. In many cases, these costs were found to be surprisingly large. 'The Cost of Environmental Degradation: Case Studies from the Middle East and North Africa' brings together the best case studies of this program and summarizes their policy impacts at the national and regional levels.
The case studies quantify monetarily the annual damage due to environmental degradation and express these estimates as percentages of the countries' gross domestic product. The studies use the most recent environmental valuation methods to estimate the economic costs resulting from air pollution, water degradation, deforestation, and land degradation. Uniquely, the book dedicates a case study to value the costs of environmental degradation resulting from an oil spill and demolition waste in times of conflict. The studies then illuminate the concrete implications on policy, investments, and institutions for the respective nations.
This book will be of interest to policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, and academic and research institutions.

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 16 juillet 2010
Nombre de lectures 21
EAN13 9780821383964
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Extrait

DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT
En vir onmen t
T he Cost of Environmental
Degradation
Case Studies from the Middle East
and North Africa
Lelia Croitoru
Maria Sarraf
EditorsThe Cost of Environmental DegradationThe Cost of Environmental
Degradation
Case Studies from the Middle East
and North Africa
Lelia Croitoru and Maria Sarraf
Editors© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
E-mail: feedback@worldbank.org
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 13 12 11 10
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the
governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
aries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply
any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the
endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this
work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will
normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly.
For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete
information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com.
All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax:
202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8318-6
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8396-4
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8318-6
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Croitoru, Lelia.
The cost of environmental degradation : case studies from the Middle East and North Africa /
Lelia Croitoru and Maria Sarraf.
p. cm.
ISBN 978-0-8213-8318-6 — ISBN 978-0-8213-8396-4 (electronic)
1. Environmental degradation—Middle East—Case studies. 2. Environmental degradation—
Africa, North—Case studies. 3. Middle East—Environmental conditions—Case studies. 4. Africa,
North—Environmental conditions—Case studies. I. Sarraf, Maria. II. Title.
GE160.M628C76 2010
363.700956—dc22
2010010933
Cover photo: Corbis
Cover design: Naylor Design, Washington, DC Contents
Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Abbreviations and Symbols xv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Lelia Croitoru and Maria Sarraf
Measuring the Cost of Environmental Degradation 2
The Cost of Environmental Degradation in
the Middle East and North Africa 4
Notes 8
References 9
Chapter 2 Water Degradation: The Case of Tunisia 11
Lelia Croitoru, Maria Sarraf, Fadhel Ghariani,
Mohamed Salah Matoussi, and Hamed
Daly-Hassen
Overview of the Water Sector 11
Methodology 13
vvi Contents
Cost of Water Degradation 15
Conclusions 28
Notes 29
References 32
Chapter 3 Air Pollution: The Case of Jordan 37
Lelia Croitoru, Raffaello Cervigni,
and Amer Jabarin
Overview of Air Pollution 37
Methodology 39
Cost of Air Pollution 41
Conclusions 46
Notes 48
References 50
Chapter 4 Deforestation and Forest Degradation:
The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran 53
Lelia Croitoru
Overview of the Forest Sector 53
Deforestation and Forest Degradation 55
Methodology 58
Costs of Deforestation and Forest Degradation 59
Conclusions 66
Notes 68
References 70
Chapter 5 Land Degradation: The Case of Morocco 75
Maria Sarraf and Abdeljaouad Jorio
Overview of Land Resources 75
Methodology 77
Cost of Cropland Degradation 79
Cost of Rangeland Degradation 81
Conclusions 82
Notes 85
References 86Contents vii
Chapter 6 Oil Spill and Waste due to Conflict:
The Case of Lebanon 89
Maria Sarraf, Lelia Croitoru, Mutasem El Fadel,
Karim El-Jisr, Erkki Ikäheimo, Erich Gundlach,
and Samia Al-Duaij
The Oil Spill 90
Demolition, Military, and Medical Waste 114
Conclusions 133
Notes 135
References 141
Chapter 7 Implications for Policies, Investments,
and Institutions 147
Sherif Arif
Overview 147
The COED’s Impact on Policy Making 149s Impact on Investments 152s Impact on Institutional
Strengthening 154
Notes 156
References 157
Index 161
Figures
1.1 Estimated COED in Selected Middle Eastern
and North African Countries 8
2.1 Fish Production in Most Polluted Areas vs. Rest
of Tunisia 20
2.2 Fish Production per Boat in Most Polluted Areas vs.
Rest of Tunisia 21
2.3 Annual Cost of Water Degradation in Tunisia 28
3.1 Estimated Damages from Air Pollution 46
3.2 Shares of Environmental Degradation Cost in Jordan,
by Category 47
4.1 Annual Costs of Deforestation and Forest Degradation
in the Islamic Republic of Iran, by Category 67viii Contents
4.2 Shares of Environmental Degradation Cost in the
Islamic Republic of Iran, by Category 67
5.1 Classes of Land Degradation Severity 78
5.2 Annual Cost of Cropland and Rangeland Degradation,
by Category 83
5.3 Shares of Environmental Degradation Cost in Morocco, 84
6.1 Oil Impact Areas, July 15 to August 2, 2006 91
6.2 Annual Degradation Cost Caused by the Oil Spill 113
6.3 Map of Cluster Bomb Strikes as of July 23, 2007 129
6.4 Impacts of the July–August 2006 Hostilities on Waste 132
6.5 Estimated COED in Lebanon, by Category, 2006 134
Tables
1.1 Comparative Data on Middle East and
North African Economies 4
2.1 Estimated Impacts of Water Degradation and
Valuation Methods 14
2.2 Cost of Replacing Dam Capacity 19
2.3 Tunisian Groundwater Resources and Their
Exploitation 25
2.4 Water Volume and Change in Groundwater Table,
by Region 26
2.5 Annual Costs to Pump Additional Water for Resources
Subject to Overexploitation in Tunisia 27
2.6 Replacement Cost of Wells, by Region and Nationally 27
3.1 Pollutant Emissions from Transportation and Industry
Sources, 2004 38
3.2 Estimated PM Concentration and Exposed 10
Population in Selected Urban Areas 41
3.3 Dose-Response Coefficients for Morbidity from
PMExposure 4410
3.4 Estimated Loss of DALYs from Health Effects of
Air Pollution 45
4.1 Characteristics of Forests in the Islamic Republic of
Iran, by Region 57
4.2 Methods to Estimate the Value of Forest Benefits 58
5.1 Severity of Cropland Degradation in Morocco 80
5.2 Estimated Cost of Degraded Cropland 81

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