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COST 219

512 pages
Issues in telecommunication and disability
Information technology and telecommunications
Social protection and social security
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Commission of the European Communities
Issues in
and Disability
Edited by Stephen von Tetzchner
COST 219 13845 EN $
Commission of the European Communities
and sciences
COST 219
Issues in Telecommunication and Disability
Edited by
Stephen von Tetzchner
Norwegian Telecom Research Department
nTelecommunications, Information Industries $tl rø!fcp IW.-Λ.
1991 *-. c EUR 13845 EN Published by the
Commission of the European Communities
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
L-2920 Luxembourg
Legal Notice
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting
on behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made
of the following information.
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Layout, typesetting and paste-up: Bodil Sunde and Torgeir Ulshagen, Oslo
Cover: Harald Gulli
Graphics and computer drawings: Jon von Tetzchner Stephenson
Photo acknowledgements:
British Telecommunications pic 342
Bernt Eide 318
Nestor Peixoto Noya 300, 303, 386, 409
Royal National Institute of the Blind 420
SEL/Alcatel 302
Swedish Telecom 301
UTT/Perälä 383
Other Illustrations have their sources quoted in the captions.
Where no source is quoted, the responsibility rests with the author(s)
or their institution(s).
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1991
ISBN 92-826-3128-1
Catalogue number: CD-NA-13845-EN-C
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1991
Printed in France Foreword
In the field of telecommunications and informatics, new services and facilities are
being established at a rapid rate. This rapid development has often taken place with
little or no awareness of the needs of a significant group of consumers; those people
who have disabilities that prevent or make difficult the use of the telephone.
In order to ensure that the needs of disabled people were properly formulated
and made aware to the European telecommunications industry, regulatory authori­
ties and others, the COST 219 project was set up.
COST is the European organisation for Cooperation in the Field of Scientific
and Technical Research and has a significant interest in telecommunications as
well as other areas, such as transport, new materials, forestry and social technology.
The COST 219 project is entitled: 'Future Telecommunication and Teleinforma-
tics Facilities for Disabled People'. The signatories to this project agreed to co­
operate in order to promote research into the field of telecommunications and
teleinformatics with the aim of proposing solutions to problems related to the
needs of disabled people in gaining access to telecommunication and teleinforma­
tics services.
The project started in September 1986 and was terminated in September 1991.
By March 1991, the signatories of Cost 219 were: Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Fin­
land, France, (the Federal republic of) Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. In addi­
tion, there has been active participation from Belgium, Greece and Yugoslavia.
A request for a five year continuation of the activity after this date has already
been granted by the COST Senior Officials Committee.
COST 219 has exchanged information and influenced different research bodies,
such as the European Community projects 'Research into Advanced Communica­
tion Equipment in Europe' (RACE) and 'Technology for the Socio-Economie Inte­
gration of Disabled and Elderly People' (TIDE), and the standardisation body, Eu­
ropean Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). Close relations and involve­
ment with user organisations have been central to the work, both on the internatio­
nal and national level, often through national COST 219 reference committees.
Results of the project's five years of work have been presented at various con­
ferences and publications. This book, however, gives a coherent presentation of
the most relevant issues that have been discussed during the project period.
It is the hope of the Management Committee of COST 219 that this book will sti­
mulate further developments and improvements in telecommunications and tele-
informatics for people with disabilities, as well as being a practical reference to the
work carried out in this field over the last five years.
I would like to add to that my personal thanks to our editor, Stephen von
Tetzchner, as well as to all authors who have made it possible to produce this book.
Jan Ekberg
Chairman of COST 219 Managment Committee Contents
1 Introduction 1
Stephen von Tetzchner
Disability and Telecommunications
2 Recent Advances in Telecommunication Services and Systems 8
Constantine Stephanidis, Klaus Fellbaum, Gerhard Klause and Mike
3 Speech, Hearing andn 13
Klaus Fellbaum
4 Telecommunication Behaviour 26
Stephen von Tetzchner and Knut Nordby
5 Impairment, Disability, and Handicap 39
John Frederiksen, Mike Martin, Leonor Moniz Pereira, Ramón Puig de la
Bellacasa and Stephen von Tetzchner
6 Statistics 48
John Frederiksen
7 People with Special Needs as a Market 55
Mike Martin
Social Aspects
8 The Disabled Person in Society: a Historical Perspective 62
Ramón Puig de la Bellacasa and Stephen von Tetzchner
9 Policy and Legislation 71
Guy Cobut, Ja n Ekberg, Joh n Frederiksen, Anja Leppo, Knut Nordby and
Giorgio Rollandi
10 Telework as an Employment Option for People with Disabilities 8
Barbara Murray and Sean Kenny
11 Vocational Training of People with Disabilities in Germany with Regard to
Teleworking 92
Gerhard Klause
12 Telecommunications Needs as Expressed by Elderly People and People
with Disabilities 100
Sylvie Collins, Leonor Moniz Pereira, Camilla Persson, Joã o Purificação and
Gunela Astbrink
13 Attitudes and Acceptance 11
Sidsel Bjørneby, Sylvie Collins, Knut Nordby, Leonor Moniz Pereira and
João Purificação
Equipment and Services
14 Existing Equipment and Services 122
Kelvin Currie, Joh n Frederiksen and Jan Håvard Skjetne
15 Research 13
Jan-Ingvar Lindström and Stephen von Tetzchner
16 Towards a Model of Terminal Design 141
Constantine Stephanidis, Ja n Ekberg and Knut Nordby VI
17 Domestic Telephone Equipment and Services for Disabled and Elderly
People 157
Gerhard Klause and Jim Sandhu
18 Modularity and Portability 165
Jan Ekberg, Jor i Paananen and Diamantino Freitas
19 Standardisation 172
Jan Ekberg, Björn Lindström and Knut Nordby
20 Proposals for Standardisation Activities9
Knut Nordby
21 Telephone Amplification for Hearing Impaired People 19
Mike Martin '
22 Relay Services 20
Kelvin Currie, Jan-Ingvar Lindström, Kasper G. Olesen and Stephen von
23 Directory Services 218
Olof Dopping
24 Awareness of Alarm Signals for Hard of Hearing, Deaf, and Deaf-Blind
People 223
José Louis Delgado, Tord Israelson, Jan-Ingvar Lindström, Jan Håvard
Skjetne and Kevin Welsby
25 Emergency Telephones 231
Mike Martin
Communication by Text
26 The Short History of Text Telephones8
Stephen von Tetzchner
27 Text Telephone Protocols 245
Peter Reefman
28 Proposals for an Ideal Text Telephone 254
René Besson
29 A Conversation-Oriented Text Telephone Program for IBM Compatible
Computers 263
Stephen von Tetzchner and Jan Berntzen
30 Electronic Mail as a Telematic Tool for Disabled People 271
Jan Engelen
Graphic Communication
31 Use of Graphic Communication Systems in Telecommunication 280
Stephen von Tetzchner
32 Use of Graphicn in Distance Training of Patients with
Aphasia 289
Unni Holand
33 The Use of Picture Communication for People with Disabilities 298
Jan-Ingvar Lindström
34 The Development of Videotelephony 306
Bjørn Møllerbråten VII
35 Videotelephony and Speech Reading: The Effect of Picture Quality 319
Hank W. Frowein, Guido F. Smoorenburg, Desbeth Pyfers and Dolf
36 The Use of 64 Kbit/s Videotelephones for Sign Language 327
Stephen von Tetzchner
37 Visual Telecommunication for Deaf People at 14.4 Kbit/s on the Public
Switched Telephone Network 340
Mike Whybray
38 Use of Videotelephones for Intervention and Independent Living 35
Leonor Moniz Pereira, Margarido Matos, Joã o Purificação and Stephen von
39 Supervision of Habilitation via Videotelephone 36
Stephen von Tetzchner, Finn Hesselberg and Hanne Langeland
40 Two Field Trials with Videotelephones in Psychiatric and Habilitative Work 372
Unni Holand, Stephen von Tetzchner and Kari Steindal
41 Videotelephone-Based Support Services for Elderly and Mobility Disabled
People 379
Jukka Perãlã and Lea Lounela
42 Videotelephony on 2 Mbit/s for Deaf People in Their Working Lives 386
Olof Dopping
Non-Visual Screen Representations
43 Access to Pictorial Information by Blind People 396
Pier Luigi Emiliani, Constantine Stephanidis, Jan-Ingvar Lindström,
Gunnar Jansson, Heikki Hamäiläinen, Carl Richard Cavonius, Jan Engelen
and Jan Ekberg
44 Access to Newspapers via Telecommunications 417
Jan-Ingvar Lindström, Joh n Gill and Carl Richard Cavonius
45 Requirements for Telecommunication Terminals for People with
Combined Visual and Auditory Impairment 423
Stephen von Tetzchner and Jan Håvard Skjetne
46 Teletouch 436
Warren M. Brodey and Hans Kristian Holmen
Future Trends
47 Projections from the Past 448
Jan-Ingvar Lindström and John McEwan
48 Technology Today and Tomorrow 452
Bob Allen, Ramón Puig de la Bellacasa, Jan Ekberg, Pier Luigi Emiliani,
Klaus Fellbaum, Jan-Ingvar Lindström, António Sousa Pereira, Constantine
Stephanidis, Stephen von Tetzchner and Mike Whybray
49 Scenarios 467
Jan-Ingvar Lindström, Stephen von Tetzchner, Carl Richard Cavonius and
Gun nar Jansson
A Bibliography of Telecommunications for People with Disabilities 475
Addresses of Contributors and COST 219 Members 491