Support policies for business start-ups and the role of training

Support policies for business start-ups and the role of training

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National reports from France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and synthesis report
Vocational training
Enterprise

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Langue English
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g Support policies for
g business start-ups and
ρ the role of training
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National reports from France, Italy, Spain,
Λ United Kingdom and synthesis report
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O European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training + ^ Support policies for business start-ups and the role of
C training
m National reports from France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom
-m and synthesis report
Mr José Maria Prieto, Mrs H. Briales (Técnicas de Formación 3 Empresarial)
O Mr H. Le Marois (Espace)
Q Mr Alastair Thomson (The Planning Exchange)
A . Mr Donato Speroni (Centosud)
First edition, Berlin 1991
Q_
Published by: O
CEDEFOP — European Centre for the Development of mmm
Vocational Training
■J " Jean Monnet House, Bundesallee 22, D-W-1000 Berlin 15
Q Tel. (030) 88 41 20; Telefax (030) 88 41 22 22;
Telex 184 163 eucen d
^ ^ The Centre was established by Regulation (EEC) No 337/75
of the Council of the European Communities Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1991
ISBN 92-826-2653-9
Catalogue number: HX-70-91-702-EN-C
Reproduction Is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source Is acknowledged
Printed in Belgium - 1 -
Contents Page
- Introduction 3
- National report - Spain 5
-l report - France 55
- National report - United Kingdom 103
-l report - Italy 149
- Synthesis report and conclusions 23- 3
INTRODUCTION
In this publication we have the pleasure of presenting the
first four national studies in which CEDEFOP collected
valuable data on the role of training as an element of
support for business start-up and as an essential factor for
the survival of newly established businesses.
The study was initially conducted (1990) in four Member
States of the EC: Spain, France, the United Kingdom and
Italy. A synthesis report presenting some conclusions and
recommendations is attached to these four research studies.
At the moment the same study is being conducted in the other
8 Member States of the EC so that at the end of 1991 we will
be able to present an overall survey of the 12 Community
countries.
The data was collected on the basis of the following
outline :
1. Statistical data on the business start-up process and
its impact on the generation of jobs (including
business failure rates).
2. Small business start-up support programmes existing in
the various countries, considered with regard to
funding, provision of infrastructures, access to
technologies and, with special emphasis, training and
counselling programmes.
3. Specific analysis of the provision of training and
counselling.
4. Characteristics of the successful business starter
based on research work already carried out in the
countries under study.
Obviously, as the reader can see, the data obtained is of
great importance to have a better knowledge of the different
situations in the 4 countries studied. However, the
available data is not always comparable, and without doubt,
there are problems in acquiring statistical data on the new
businesses set up every year and their survival rate in the
different, countries.
It was equally difficult (and in some cases impossible) to
find studies which had evaluated the impact of training
programmes designed for business starters.
In addition, there are not many empirical surveys dealing
with the profile of the successful businessman, although
there are many studies on this subject in the majority of
the countries concerned. - 4 -
Despite all this, the data collected here is a first step
which clearly shows the importance all countries have
attached in the last 5-10 years to the phenomena accom­
panying the establishment of new businesses.
The support programmes for business starters in the
individual Member States are so numerous that it is
impossible to publish them in full. The original studies
conducted in Spain and the United Kingdom contained annexes
which are enumerated in the respective lists of content.
Their inclusion in this publication would increase the
volume of this study by 100 pages.
For this reason, and also because, basically, they are
mostly of interest in the national context, it was decided
not to include them. However, readers who are interested in
this subject and wish to see these annexes can make a
request for them or consult them in the Documentation
Service of CEDEFOP.
This publication is the first volume which will be followed
by similar studies carried out in the 8 other Member States
of the EC. In October 1991 we will be able to present the
public with the results of the second phase of this
research. In all the studies it is planned to devote
particular attention to the problems encountered by women
who set up their own businesses and the programmes
especially designed for them.
Through close collaboration with the TFHR and DG 23 of the
EC Commission it will be possible to include detailed
information on Community programmes in this field in the
final report (covering all 12 Member States and to be
published together with the studies in the second phase of
this research).
We sincerely hope that these studies will provide a deeper
insight into the phenomenon of business start-up, will
contribute to a broader dissemination of the programmes
which are becoming more operative in each country, and
finally, will present some of the key elements for
reflection which decision-making bodies at national and
Community level can take into account when they draw up
their programmes and recommendations.
Berlin, February 1991
Africa Melis Corrado Politi
Project Coordinator Deputy Director - 5
SUPPORT PROGRAMMES TOR SMALL BUSINESS START-UP IN SPAIN:
AN OVERVIEW
TÉCNICAS DE FORMACIÓN EMPRESARIAL
C/Velasquez, 3 - lo 28001 MADRID
Tel: 91 - 577 67 85 Fax: 91 - 578 01 19
Prof. Dr. José Maria Prieto -
Dpto. Psicosociologia del Trabajo
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Sra. Dna. Helena Briales -
Consultora de T.F.E. - 6
INDEX
0 INTRODUCTION 8
0.1 History and economic background 9
0.2 Self-employment in Spain: the political and social background 10
0.3 Legal status of self-employed persons and new enterprises 11
0.4 Characteristics of entrepreneurs 1
0.5 Psychological and social differences between employees and
the self-employed5
1 SURVEY OF BUSINESS CREATION IN SPAIN IN RECENT YEARS 16
1.1 Current legislation governing business creation
1.1.1 The company 16
1.1.2 Self-employment7
1.2 Statistics on business creation
1.2.1 Number of incorporated businesses established, 1978-1989:
official figures 18
1.2.2 New businesses established from 1981 to 1987 by sector of
20 activity
1.2.3 Number of new businesses established by autonomous region
and year 22
2 NEW BUSINESSES: CRISIS AND FAILURE3
2.1 Number of businesses wound up, by legal status (official figures) 24
2.2 Number of declarations of bankruptcy and suspension of payments
since 1975 26
2.3 Number of employment adjustment measures authorized8
2.4 The principal causes of business failure9