Support policies for business start-ups and the role of training in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) and in Luxembourg


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Synthesis report
Vocational training



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g Support policies for business
| start-ups and the role of
o training in the Federal
Q Republic of Germany, in the
former German Democratic
O.c (GDR) and in
O Luxembourg
Q Synthesis report
Ü European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992
ISBN 92-826-4258-5
Articles and texts appearing in this document may be reproduced freely in whole or in part providing their
source is mentioned.
Printed in Belgium III
Foreword V
Report on the Federal Republic of Germany 1
Lu Haas, Frauenbetriebe
Report on the former German Democratic Republic 43
Peter Schuh, IQUI
Report on Luxembourg 87
Claude Brosius, Auxiliaire Generale d'Entreprise
Synthesis report 13
In October 1991 a European conference on programmes of support
for business start-ups and the role of training was held in
Madrid. It was organized jointly by the Department of Education
of the Madrid Regional Government and CEDEFOP, with the
collaboration of the Human Resources Task Force of the
Commission and DG23. Issue 8/91 of CEDEFOP Flash outlines the
issues covered at the conference.
The conference saw the publication of the results of twelve
national studies and of a combined report, all implemented over
the last two years, which analyse certain matters of fundamental
importance in understanding the phenomenon of business start-ups:
1. available statistics,
2. existing support programmes
3. training and guidance programmes aimed at business starters
4. starters and their characteristics/profile
5. specific problems facing women starters
6. conclusions.
As a result we now possess a large volume of information on the
twelve countries and an equally large list of gaps and
shortcomings, which might be summarized as follows:
the need for basic statistics which are accurate and
ensuring that information on support programmes reaches
those for whom it is intended
coordinating all the efforts made by different institutions
within each country in the area of support for business
start-ups VI
systematic evaluation of the effects of support programmes
designing suitable training models
coordinating the efforts of all institutions in the twelve
Community countries which monitor, analyse and formulate
policies in the area of support for business start-ups.
It is evident that the information which exists in the twelve
Community countries varies widely in terms of both quality and
content, allowing only rough comparisons to be made.
In some countries very detailed information is available on
business start-ups (with statistics broken down by sector, size
and region), on existing support programmes, on the effect of
such programmes (evaluation), and on specific training
programmes and their "effects" (with all the difficulties
inherent in this concept). In other countries, by contrast,
there are major gaps in information, both statistical
(first-order) and relating to training provision and its
"effects" (to the extent that the training variable can be
In those countries where detailed information is available the
criteria for the recording ofn sometimes vary, again
placing difficulties in the way of making comparisons.
As for the evaluation of support programmes, and in particular
of training programmes, it is vital that we identify and spread
the best models and promote the adoption of certain common
criteria of evaluation. The studies so far available appear to
show that "appropriate" (not just "any") training is relevant to
business success. To what extent can we generalize this
conclusion? VII
All these factors encourage us to manifest our interest in
working jointly with the relevant national institutions and the
Commission bodies with responsibilities in this area, a goal
which we shall pursue vigorously from the coming months onwards.
Close cooperation with the Commission (Human Resources Task
Force and DG23 in particular) will advance our understanding of
business start-ups, improve the operation and diffusion of the
most successful programmes and provide key ideas which national
and Community decision-makers can use when formulating,
operating or revising their programmes and recommendations.
Berlin, December 1991
Corrado Politi Africa Melis
In charge of the project Assistant Director VIII
The reports on the first four countries studied (France, la.
Spain Britain and Italy) and the combined report on these
four countries are published in one volume in the following
languages: FR, EN, ES, IT, DE (in preparation). The
English title is: Support policies for business start-ups
and the role of training (catalogue number
HX-70-91-702-EN-C). The synthesis report of these four
countries is also available in GR, PT and Russian.
lb. The reports on the 8 remaining countries and the synthesis
report on all 12 countries are available in the following
languages :
EN, FR, DE, ES, IT -Germany (East and West)
-Belgium: EN, FR, ES, IT
-Ireland: EN, FR, ES , IT
-Denmark: EN, FR, ES , IT
-Luxembourg: EN, FR
-Greece : EN, FR, GR
-Netherland s : EN, FR
-Portuga l : EN, FR
•Synthesi s report: EN,FR,DE,ES,IT,GR,PT
The reports are available as follows:
In English:
Part 1: Germany (including a special report on the former
German Democratic Republic) and synthesis report
Part 2: Portugal, Belgium, Greece ands report
Part 3: Ireland, Denmark, Netherlands and synthesis report IX
In French:
Identical to the English version
In Spanish:
1 document containing: Germany, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark
and synthesis report
In Italian:
Identical to the Spanish version
In Portuguese:
1 document including: Germany, France, Spain, Italy and
Portugal and synthesis report
In German:
1 document containing only Germany and synthesis report
In Greek
1 document containing only Greece and synthesis report