Training for everyoneA guide to the planning of innovative training and employment projects for unemployed young people in the European Community


148 pages
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Vocational training
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Training for everyone
A guide
to the planning of innovative
training and
employment projects for
unemployed young people
in the European Community Guide prepared by:
Per-Marcel Ketter, Dr Hans-Joachim Petzold and Dr Wolfgang Schlegel
Frankfurt, may 1986
on behalf of
Cedefop — European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training,
Berlin 1987
Published by
European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training,
Bundesallee 22, D-1000 Berlin 15
Tel.: (030) 88 41 20; Telex 184 163 eucen d; Telefax 88 41 22 22
The Centre was established by Regulation (EEC) No 337/75 of the Council
of the European Communities. This publication is also available in the following languages:
ES ISBN 92-825-6884-9
DEN 92-825-6885-7
FR ISBN 92-825-6887-3
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1987
Design: ZQhlke Scholz & Partner Werbeagentur GmbH, Berlin
ISBN 92-825-6886-5
Catalogue number: HX-47-86-010-EN-C
Reproduction is authorized except for commercial purposes, provided the source
is acknowledged.
Printed in the FR of Germany Contents
Introduction 8
Purpose and structure of the guide 13
The main project areas — Planning aids for the development of innovative
training and employment projects 16
1. Planning Areal : The project's objectives ,. 19
2. Planning Area 2: Pedagogical concept 20
3. Planning Area 3: Integration into employment 20
4. Planning Area 4: Qualifications of the staff 21
5. Planning Area 5: Financing 21
Taking stock: Description and analysis of innovative practice 28
What limits characterize conventional training I
■ employment schemes? 30
1. Labour market trend and marginalization 31
2. Target group: marginalized young people 31
3. Strategies to combat youth unemployment in the European Community
— a critical review 34 4. Limitations of one-sided education, training or employment strategies .. 40
5. Recent approaches to combating unemployment 42
What is meant by innovative training and employment 2■ programmes? 44
1. Need for and function of new initiatives and approaches in training and
employment 44
2. Central element of 'innovative projects': the combination of work and
learning as a training strategy 46
3. The varying emphasis placed by projects on training and employment .. 49
For what and how do innovative training and employment initiatives 3
■ teach skills? 51
1. Main elements of training strategies 52
2. Different training strategies adopted by the projects 53
3. Practical example of a graduaded training structure 56
4. Where even innovative projects have their limitations 58
5. Approaches to the creation of permanent jobs 59
What are the main requirements for the successful integration of 4
■ young people into employment? 60
I.Integration of innovative training and employment projects into local
development strategies 60
2. Local cooperation and partnerships 63
3. Development of new products and services, and local needs 66 Summary: Innovative activities in innovative training and employ­5■ ment projects 68
1. Training is closely linked to the creation of new jobs 68
2. The projects try to make work and learning activities holistic and trans­
parent 69
2.1 The distinction between thinkers and doers tends to be abandoned ... 69
2.2 The projects try to take account of the social world and environment
of the young people 70
2.3 Democratic self­management and work structures are the projects
ultimate objective 70
2.4 To enable them to involve young people as active participants, the pro­
jects pursue a comprehensive training strategy 71
3. Work and learning are combined with meeting social needs at local or
regional level 72
Guidelines on the planning and implementation of innovative training and
employment projects 74
How can innovative training and employment projects help to 6
■ create permanent jobs? 76
1. Objectives of innovative combined training and employment projects ... 77
2. Features of employment projects 77
3. Appropriate forms of training geared to subsequent employment 79
4. Training and employment projects and the distinction between social
and economic profitability 80 7. What skilled personnel are needed? 83
I.The qualifications of the trainers and staff of projects as a function of
the strategy adopted for the training of young people 84
2. The ideal qualification profile for the staff of innovative training and
employment projects 86
3. Staff cooperation: in theory and practice 88
What forms of support are needed for innovative local training and 8
■ employment projects? 89
1. Moral support through political recognition 89
2. Financial support 90
3. Direct support from advisory institutions 92 Annex
I. List of participants in the workshops 94
II. Pioneering project approaches in the European Community — a review 95
III. Institutions, projects, contacts 128 Introduction als, e.g. during the planning and im­
plementation of innovatory measures This guide is the most important
to be assisted by the European Social outcome of a CEDEFOP project en­
Fund, titled 'Training of young people in in­
novative local employment initia­ (b) the future formulation of guide­
tives', which was undertaken from lines on the administration of the
1983 to 1986. Fund and national financing instru­
The purpose of this project was to ments,
establish whether and to what extent (c) the political implementation of a
innovative training and employment whole series of resolutions concern­
initiatives can help disadvantaged ing the European Community's voca­
young people, for example, and what tional training, employment and
1features of such initiatives can be in­ youth or social policles.( )
corporated in the formal vocational It is also intended as a source of pro­
training system. ject ideas and planning aids for
Specifically, the aim was to discover: planners and organizers and of
(i) what opportunities the various pro­ practical support in the implementa­
jects provide for the vocational tion of these ideas, where this is pos­
training and integration of margin­ sible without local, regional and
alized and socially disadvantaged national institutional and organiza­
young people; tional structures being involved.
From July 1983 to March 1984 studies (ii) what special role should be played
were carried out in seven Member in this context by the specific con­
States of the European Community, cepts and models for an innovative
one or two particularly interesting combination of work and learning;
projects being inspected in each and (iii) how far the new training and
selected for a closer study. These pro­employment initiatives are or might
jects were expected to satisfy a be integrated into existing structures;
number of criteria, which were dis­(iv) what innovative impulses they
cussed with a CEDEFOP steering might give to the vocational training
group. The criteria included: system as a whole;
(i) several years of experience of in­(v) what forms of transfrontier co­
tegrating young people Into society operation between projects appear
and employment; appropriate and possible.
(ii) an exemplary combination of This study Is designed to help deci­
training and employment; sion-makers in the Member States
and Community institutions, espe­ (iii) broadly based vocational training
recognized both within the confines cially the Commission in this in­
of the project Itself and in the labour stance, with
market; (a) the evaluation of project propos­
(') See in particular the resolutions of July 1983 on vocational training policy in the 1980s (OJ C193,1983, p. 2) and
1984 on local employment Initiatives (OJ C 161,1984, p. 1).