Zero waste to landfills, it is possible!
173 pages
English

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173 pages
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Description

Qui n'a pas été choqué par tous ces déchets éparpillés dans l'environnement. Alors que le sentiment d'im- puissance domine, il existe néanmoins des solutions pour chaque déchet. Ce livre se veut un guide didactique destiné aux décideurs mais aussi aux personnes désireuses de créer des petites entreprises liées au recyclage des déchets. De nombreuses solutions mises en oeuvre sur les continents africain et européen sont présen- tées. Ces solutions sont très souvent financièrement rentables. Il est important que l'aspect économique soit pris en compte pour que le recyclage se fasse durablement. Les nombreuses illustrations permettent de mieux comprendre les enjeux et la manière dont on peut recycler certaines matières. Si vous avez une question sur un déchet, vous trouverez une réponse dans ce livre. Il n'y a pas une seule réponse à un problème, tout dépend dans quel pays on se trouve et quelles installations sont présentes ou non sur place. C'est pourquoi plusieurs alternatives sont présentées. Lorsqu'on ne le sait pas, on ne le sait pas, mais lorsqu'on le sait et que l'on ne fait rien, on devient alors com- plice. Au 21 ieme siècle, on n'a plus le droit de dire «on ne sait pas quoi faire de ces déchets». On sait que des solutions existent. Il s'agit maintenant de les faire connaître et de se donner les moyens de résoudre ce problème avant que les polluants ne contaminent toute la chaîne alimentaire et impactent durablement la santé des Hommes et des animaux

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Publié par
Date de parution 09 décembre 2021
Nombre de lectures 8
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 389 Mo

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Exrait

Introduction
«Zero waste to landfills» it is possible!
oday, it is unacceptable to see open dumps where There is as much waste on land as in the sea and rivers.Tmillions of people are trying to survive in appalling
Currently, there are 5 large accumulations of waste in dif-health and safety conditions.
ferent oceans. These wastes pollute the sea and kill many
marine animals and birds. Since waste ends up in theThese dumps pollute the air, the earth and the water
food chain sooner or later, we will finally end up eating it.tables, they bring diseases like cholera.
Landfill Mbeubeuss in Dakar, Senegal
© iStockphoto.com
The Citarum River, located on the island of Java in Indonesia
is one of the most polluted rivers in the world
7
© Isabelle ChevalleyFive huge garbage patches in the ocean
Accumulation of Ocean currentsNorth Pacific - Accumulation of
2 plastic waste in from oceanic3.43 millions of km of garbage
the oceans vortexes (gyres)(12x the size of Burkina Faso) - 96,400 tons
North Atlantic
56,400 tons
Indien ocean
59,100 tons
South Pacific
21,000 tons In water, a plastic bottle
will take up to 450 years
South Atlantic to degrade
12,800 tons
1 million birds die every year Turtles die from asphyxiation Fish mistake fragments
by ingesting plastic waste after swallowing for plankton making these particles
they are mistaking for food plastic bags enter the food chain
8
© Chris Jordan
© Oceanic Imagery
Publications
© The 5 Gyres Institute
© Francis Ray
www.5gyres.orgThis is no longer acceptable
because scientifically,
there is a solution.
The concept is simple: Everything is sorted and recycled
upstream of the waste chain and the incinerable fraction
is sent to cement kilns for destruction.
Clinker landfill (incineration residues) With the knowledge we have acquired up to today, it is
in Switzerland
possible to recycle a lot of type of waste. This book
details, for each type of waste some of the existing
channels.
What to do with
non-recyclable waste?
To operate a cement plant, furnaces must be heated
between 1,600 and 2,000 °C. To do this, fossil fuels such as
coal or heavy oils are used. Cement manufacturing
generates a lot of CO and therefore contributes to climate2
change. But since the 1990s, most European cement
plants have replaced a large proportion of fossil fuels with
waste. Thus, they avoid significant CO emissions.2
But this is not the only advantage
When waste is burned in conventional incineration plants
that use heat between 700 and 800°C, toxic molecules
Spoons such as dioxins are generated. These
modon’t burn!lecules are not present in
cement kilns because the
temperature is higher and these
molecules do not form. On the other the temperature is so high that
hand, when incineration plants are everything is transformed into
used, 20% of the weight of the ashes, which are directly
waste put into the furnace comes mixed with the cement. So in
out in the form of clinker that still has the end, there will be nothing
to be disposed of. In a cement kiln, left of the waste!
9
The concept is simple:
Everything is sorted and
recycled upstream of the waste
chain and the incinerable
fraction is sent to cement
kilns for destruction.
© Isabelle Chevalley © Isabelle ChevalleyCement factory from Lafarge-Holcim
in Eclépens, Switzerland
A pollution invisible Limited resources
but present
Today, we continue to think that the Earth will provide
us with everything we need forever. But let us not turn Pollution from landfills and open-air incineration of waste
a blind eye on it that at this rate our children and their is not visible, but it is present. The rains carry pollutants
descendants will no longer have access to certain into the groundwater and it is us humans who end up
metals and many other materials. How can we justify drinking this water. Heavy metals are found in our rivers
our selfish behaviour when we knew it and had the and are absorbed by fish and it is us humans who will
technology to recycle this waste? That is why we must finally eat that fish. The smoke from landfills contains toxic
put as much material as possible back into the pro- molecules such as dioxin and it is us humans who will
duction line in order to save it. The largest metal mines breathe that air. Have you ever wondered why there are
are located in electronic waste dumps. Why go mining so many cancers? Why do we put so much money into
for metals when our electronic waste contains large cancer drugs and so little into preventing people from
quantities? getting sick...?
The waste of some becomes When we do not know,
the raw material of others. we do not know, but when
we know and do nothing about it,
then we become accomplices
in what is happening.
10
© Isabelle ChevalleyWaste dump in the middle of nature
in the Comoros
It is the responsibility of everyone, decision-makers at all
levels, entrepreneurs and citizens, to ensure that this
situation becomes a bad memory and that a problem is It is useless to keep
turned into an opportunity to create jobs and added value knowledge to oneself,
for materials that no longer had any.
the greatest wealth
You will discover in this book extraordinary ideas of is to share it.
recycling. Ideas found by people without diploma but
ingenious. You too can innovate and share your ideas.
11
© Isabelle ChevalleyThis book is
a modest
contribution
to knowledge
transfer in
waste recycling.
12
© Francis RayLifespan of waste
Plastic bag
Tin can 450 years
10 - 100 years Single use lighter
100 years
Wool socks
Rope
1 year
3 - 4 months
Chewing gum
Matches Apple core 5 years
6 months A few weeks
Glass bottles
Wood plank 4,000 years
13 - 15 monthsPlastic bottles
100 - 1,000 years
Cigarette butt
With filter: 1 - 2 years
Aluminum canPaper tissue Without filter: 3 - 4 months
200 - 500 years3 months
13
© Francis Ray© Francis RayCompostable waste
Green waste, braun gold!
Environment and health
Compostable or green waste is not toxic per se but can generate bad smells and
attract pests such as rodents, which are disease vectors. Compostable waste in a
large landfill can produce methane gas through fermentation. This gas may ignite
in the presence of a spark. Methane is also a greenhouse gas that has a global
warming potential more than 20 times greater than that of CO .2
The open-air combustion of 50 kg of green waste emits as much fine particulate
matter as a lorry driving 5,000 km. Fine particles cause serious respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
15
Définition:
The largest component of waste is compostable green
waste. It consists of kitchen waste but also waste from
gardening.
© Pixabay.comRecycling method
The method consists in transforming compostable waste
into compost by imitating what nature has been doing for
thousands of years.
Composting and
vermicomposting
Waste
incineration
Organic End Organic Humus
waste of cycle waste Compost
Fruit and Plants Fruit and Plants
vegetables vegetables
CO2
emissions
+ loss of
fertilising
elements
CURRENT CYCLE NATURAL CYCLE
(without compost) (with compost)
16
Compost production
© Francis RayCompostable waste must be separated as soon as
possible from other waste, otherwise it will generate
smells and contaminate the other waste, making it
difficult to recycle.
It should be collected, separately if possible, from
where it is produced, such as households. To do that,
it is necessary to provide green bins that will only be
used for kitchen and garden waste.
17
© Francis RayTo make good compost, proper fermentation must take must also be aerated, so it must not be put in an airtight
place. You need to make large mounds, at least one container. Oxygen is necessary for the degradation of
metre wide and tall, so that sufficient heat can be produ- organic material. Bad smells coming from your compost
ced in the centre of the mound. This heat will allow the suggests that it is not sufficiently turned over or it is too
fermentation of the plant material to begin. The mound wet: it must be sheltered from the rain.
Principle of composting
O CO2 2
5-6 months
70°C~20°C
40-50°C
Fertiliser
Mulch
© Francis Ray
18
How to make good compost≥ 3 m
Animal layer
Plant layer
Production
C N
3 3 31 m 1 m 2 m
Carbon materials C/N C/N Nitrogen materials
Hay Grass cuttings
25-30 10-15
Leaves Poultry manure
40-80 10-15
Each item of green waste contains varying
amounts of carbon and nitrogen. It's called the
carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio. The higher the
Cardboard Legume tops figure, the more carbon the material contains.
For example, wood ash has a C:N ratio between
≥ 200 15 200 and 500, which means that there is
practically no nitrogen and only carbon. On the other
hand, cow manure has a C:N ratio of between
20 and 30, which means it contains a lot of
Wo

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