Canada and the Changing Arctic
341 pages

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Global warming has had a dramatic impact on the Arctic environment, including the ice melt that has opened previously ice-covered waterways. State and non-state actors who look to the region and its resources with varied agendas have started to pay attention. Do new geopolitical dynamics point to a competitive and inherently conflictual “race for resources� Or will the Arctic become a region governed by mutual benefit, international law, and the achievement of a widening array of cooperative arrangements among interested states and Indigenous peoples?

As an Arctic nation Canada is not immune to the consequences of these transformations. In Canada and the Changing Arctic: Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship, the authors, all leading commentators on Arctic affairs, grapple with fundamental questions about how Canada should craft a responsible and effective Northern strategy. They outline diverse paths to achieving sovereignty, security, and stewardship in Canada’s Arctic and in the broader circumpolar world.

The changing Arctic region presents Canadians with daunting challenges and tremendous opportunities. This book will inspire continued debate on what Canada must do to protect its interests, project its values, and play a leadership role in the twenty-first-century Arctic.

Forewords by Senator Hugh Segal and former Minister of Foreign Affairs and of National Defence Bill Graham.



Publié par
Date de parution 01 novembre 2011
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781554584130
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 7 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0070€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Canada and the Changing ArcticWe acknowledge the support of the Canada Council for the Arts for our publishing program. We
acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund
for our publishing activities.
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Griffiths, Franklyn, 1935–
Canada and the changing Arctic : sovereignty, security, and stewardship / Franklyn Griffiths,
Rob Huebert, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Issued also in electronic format.
ISBN 978-1-55458-338-6
1. Canada, Northern—Strategic aspects. 2. Arctic regions—Strategic aspects. 3. Canada,
Northern—Military policy. 4. Canada, Northern—Government policy. 5. Canada—Boundaries—
Arctic regions. I. Huebert, Robert N. (Robert Neil), 1960– II. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney III. Title.
FC191.G75 2011 341.4'209719 C2011-904876-0
Type of computer file: Electronic monograph.
Issued also in print format.
ISBN 978-1-55458-413-0 (PDF). —ISBN 978-1-55458-414-7 (EPUB)
1. Canada, Northern—Strategic aspects. 2. Arctic regions—Strategic aspects. 3. Canada,
Northern—Military policy. 4. Canada, Northern—Government policy. 5. Canada—Boundaries—
Arctic regions. I. Huebert, Robert N. (Robert Neil), 1960– II. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney III. Title.
FC191.G75 2011a 341.4'209719 C2011-904877-9
Cover design by Blakeley Words+Pictures. Cover photograph by Master Corporal Kevin Paul/DND. Text design
by Catharine Bonas-Taylor.
© 2011 Wilfrid Laurier University Press
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
This book is printed on FSC recycled paper and is certified Ecologo. It is made from 100%
postconsumer fibre, processed chlorine free, and manufactured using biogas energy.
Printed in Canada
Every reasonable effort has been made to acquire permission for copyright material used in this
text, and to acknowledge all such indebtedness accurately. Any errors and omissions called to the
publisher’s attention will be corrected in future printings.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or trans mitted, in any
form or by any means, without the prior written consent of the publisher or a licence from The
Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency (Access Copyright). For an Access Copyright licence, visit or call toll free to 1-800-893-5777.Contents
List of Maps vii
List of Figures ix
Foreword / Hugh Segal, Senator xi
Foreword / Bill Graham, former Minister of Foreign Affairs
and of National Defence xv
Acknowledgments xxiii
List of Acronyms xxvii
1 Introduction 1
2 Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security in a Transforming
Circumpolar World / Rob Huebert 13
Understanding Sovereignty and Security 14
Canadian Concepts of Arctic Sovereignty and Security 19
The Changing Arctic 25
Conclusion 59
3 From Polar Race to Polar Saga: An Integrated Strategy for Canada
and the Circumpolar World / P. Whitney Lackenbauer 69
Background 72
Defence 93
Diplomacy 118
Development 146
Conclusion 161
vvi Contents
4 Towards a Canadian Arctic Strategy / Franklyn Griffiths 181
The Arctic as an Arena 183
Arctic Strategy for Canada 195
Domestic Sources of Stewardship 211
Recommendations 218
5 Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship: An Update /
P. Whitney Lackenbauer 227
Canada’s Northern Strategy 227
The Emerging Arctic Security Regime? 228
Appendix: Statement on Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy: Exercising
Sovereignty and Promoting Canada’s Northern Strategy Abroad,
August 2010 / Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade 255
Introduction 255
Exercising Sovereignty 257
Promoting Economic and Social Development 261
Protecting the Arctic Environment 265
Improving and Devolving Governance 270
The Way Forward 271
Conclusion 273
Bibliography 275
Index 303List of Maps
Map 1 Circumpolar world xxx
Map 2-1 Arctic Ocean marine routes 20
Map 2-2 US Geological Survey Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal of
undiscovered oil and gas 30
Map 2-3 Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries in the Arctic Region 40
Map 3-1 Inuit Nunaat 72
Map 3-2 Canadian Arctic islands and mainland baselines 79
Map 3-3 Northern Canada Vessel Traffic Services (NORDREG) zone 115
Map 3-4 Hans Island 120
Map 3-5 Beaufort Sea: US and Canadian claims 125
Map 3-6 Arctic peoples subdivided according to language families 135
Map 3-7 Resource knowledge: oil and gas 151
Map 3-8 Modern treaties in the North 155
Map 4 Potential intercontinental shipping routes 182
viiList of Figures
2-1 Maritime zones of Canada 15
2-2 USCGS Polar Sea in Beaufort Sea, 2009 35
2-3 RadarSat-2, launched 2007 37
2-4 Russian Yamalnuclear-powered icebreaker 44
2-5 CF-18 Hornet with Russian Tu-95 “Bear” bomber, 2007 51
2-6 CC-138 Twin Otter with Canadian Rangers on patrol, 2008 53
2-7 HMCS Montreal and iceberg in Strathcona Sound 61
3-1 Canadian Ranger with army personnel in Penguin, 1954 74
3-2 Global Business Network Future Arctic Marine Navigation Matrix,
2008 91
3-3 Stephen Harper at opening ceremony for Operation Lancaster,
2006 95
3-4 Canadian Rangers at briefing, Cumberland Peninsula area, Baffin
Island, 2004 100
3-5 CC-177 Globemaster at Alert, Nunavut, on Operation Nunalivut,
2010 105
3-6 Canadian officials during Operation Nanook 09 in Frobisher
Bay 108
3-7 Co-chairs at meeting of Arctic Security Working Group, Yellowknife,
2009 109
ixx List of Figures
3-8 CCGS Henry Larsen in Strathcona Sound during Operation
Nanook 10 111
3-9 Ships in formation on Labrador Sea during Operation Nanook,
2010 117
3-10 Icebreakers on research expedition in Canadian Basin, Arctic Ocean,
2010 124
3-11 Ministers of foreign affairs meet in Chelsea, Quebec, 2010 133
3-12 Duane Smith at Social Development Working Group of Arctic
Council 137
3-13 Mary Simon responds to official apology for residential schools,
2008 144
3-14 Stephen Harper in Tuktoyaktuk, 2010 153
3-15 Scientist Luke Copland on Ayles Ice Shelf, Ellesmere Island,
2008 159
5-1 Ceremony marking conclusion of Operation Nunavilut, Alert,
2010 229
5-2 Canadian Ranger instructs soldiers near Resolute during Operation
Nanook, 2010 231
5-3 Signing of Canada–Denmark memorandum of understanding on
Arctic defence, 2010 236
5-4 Arctic Ocean Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Chelsea, Quebec,
2010 241
5-5 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, Norway, 2009 243Foreword
Hugh Segal
t is rare that a territory seen by so few can be emotionally, spiritually, andIpersonally so compellingly important to so many. Yet that is a modest and
understated description of the relationship between Canadians and their
Arctic region and territories. It is a passionate, possessive, patriotic, and
nationalistic relationship second only to our embrace of hockey. It is not yet jingoistic,
which is a good thing. But it is also prone, as is often the case with visions
seen from a great distance, to substantive and dangerous distortion. To
suggest that the relationship is simply geo-strategic, or narrowly territorial, or
militaristic, or simply about the oil and gas, is to oversimplify. Because the
relationship between Canadians and the Arctic is about all of the above and
a highly romantic quality, understanding the dynamics of the romance, its
sustainability and attendant risks, is not only constructive but actually vital to
the kind of public, defence, and foreign policies essential to maintaining the
relationship at its optimum clarity and balance.
The political, environmental, and international law prospectus for the
Arctic is complex, as are the instruments available for Canada and Canadians
to secure our interests. Canada and the Changing Arctic is essentially a
careful unpacking of the challenges that are most germane to Canada’s Arctic
purposes and of the instruments available to deal with them. It is very reflective
of Canada’s history and the postwar growth and aspirations, which strongly
shaped who we are today through events and clarion calls in the 1950s and
1960s, that Mike Pearson’s universal health insurance is totemic for many and
that John Diefenbaker’s “northern vision” of “roads to resources” is as totemic
for others. And in fact, in a way that confounds sterile assumptions dividing
xixii Foreword
right from left, many of the same people had their sense of Canadian identity
imprinted by both.
That another Canadian prime minister from the West should, half a
century later, re-engage both the symbolism and the promise of the Arctic and
make substantive policy announcements and yearly visits part of three
election campaigns and his regular schedule, speaks to the enduring impact of
the Arctic challenge on Canadians. That vote-rich southern Ontario or the
B.C. Lower Mainland remains interested in this issue and attracted to
coherent policy for the North underlines the seminal roll the North plays in

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