Lahore: The Architectural Heritage
140 pages

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This guide to Lahore narrates the history of the city and, with the help of maps, photographs, and line drawings, explores the background to numerous historic buildings from the Mughal, Sikh and Colonial eras.



Publié par
Date de parution 08 février 2018
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9788193600955
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 28 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0500€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


The Architectural Heritage

This digital edition published in 2018
First published in 2017 by
The Lotus Collection
An Imprint of Roli Books Pvt. Ltd
M-75, Greater Kailash- II Market
New Delhi 110 048
Phone: ++91 (011) 40682000
Copyright © Lucy Peck, 2017
First published in 2015 by Ferozesons (Pvt.) Ltd., Karachi
with support from Babar Ali Foundation
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, or stored in a retrieval system, in any form or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical, print reproduction, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Roli Books. Any unauthorized distribution of this e-book may be considered a direct infringement of copyright and those responsible may be liable in law accordingly.
eISBN: 978-81-9360-095-5
All rights reserved.
This e-book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated, without the publisher’s prior consent, in any form or cover other than that in which it is published.
Key to Maps
Foreword by Syed Babar Ali
Introduction and Acknowledgements
The modern context of Lahore
The Fort
The Walled City
Shahdara and Sheikhupura
North Lahore
Colonial Lahore
Modern Agra and road to Sheikhupura
Pre-Mughal Lahore
Mughal Lahore
Late-Mughal Lahore
1846 Lahore
Colonial Lahore
The Fort & Badshahi Mosque
Sikh Samadhs
The Fort
The Palace
The Walled City
Walled City: 1846 Gough map
Walled City: Taxali Gate
Walled City: Kashmiri Gate
Walled City: Delhi Gate
Walled City: Bhati Gate
Walled City: Lohari Gate
Walled City: Mochi Gate
Lahore, Shahdara and the river
Shahdara and Mughal tombs
Sheikhupura and Hiran Minar
North Lahore
North Lahore: Shalamar Bagh
North Lahore: Begumpura
North Lahore: Bhogiwal
North Lahore: Baghbanpura
North Lahore: South of Baghbanpura
North Lahore: Kot Khwaja Saeed
North Lahore: Mian Wadda Khanqah
Colonial Lahore
Colonial Lahore: Landa Bazaar
Colonial Lahore: Lower Mall
Colonial Lahore: Anarkali Bazaar
Colonial Lahore: Gowalmandi
Colonial Lahore: Qila Gujjar Singh
Colonial Lahore: Railway Colony
Colonial Lahore: High Court
Colonial Lahore: Charing Cross
Colonial Lahore: Bibi Pak Daman
Garhi Shahu
Mian Mir
Bhairon ka Asthan, Ichhra
Key to Maps
Because different things have to be shown in different periods there is some inconsistency between the maps. Below are the keys to the maps of the walled city and Colonial chapters.
Walled City

Colonial Lahore

Chronology First 1,000 years Lahore is an important city under the rule of various local families, often Rajputs 1022 Lahore taken by Mahmud of Ghazni. Malik Ayaz left in charge – city ‘enlarged and embellished’ under him c. 1110 Becomes Ghaznavid capital 1184 Mahommed Ghori takes Lahore from Ghazni sultans by subterfuge 1206 Qutbuddin Aibak ascends throne at Lahore 1210 Death of Aibak 1239 Revolt by Governor of Lahore put down by Sultan Razia from Delhi 1241 Lahore taken by Moghals from Khorasan and Ghazni – plundered and inhabitants carried away as prisoners 1246-66 Sher Khan, viceroy for Nasiruddin Mahmud, holds off many incursions by Mughals 1286 Prince Mohammad, son of Balban, killed fighting Mongols on banks of Ravi. Balban orders Lahore fort rebuilt and he ‘re-populates’ Lahore and surroundings 1288-1414 Lahore and surroundings constantly ravaged by Mughals, some of whom settled to east of Lahore (Mughalpura) 1398-99 Timur invades. Betrayed by Lahore Governor. Lahore sacked and plundered. Timur appoints Khizr Khan Syed viceroy 1412 Khizr Khan Syed seizes Delhi throne. 1421 Mubarak Shah Syed restores city. Building of Hujra in Kot Khwaja Saeed 1436 Lahore taken by Bahlol Lodi 1450 Bahlol Lodi seizes Delhi throne 1524 Lahore governor, Dowlat Khan Lodi, asks help from Babur. Babur’s army sacks Lahore, enraged by resistance by Delhi Lodi forces 1526 Babur takes Delhi 1530 Humayun inherits Delhi throne. Kamran takes Lahore by subterfuge. Kamran builds gardens in Lahore 1540 Sher Shah takes Hindustan from Humayun 1555 Humayun marches back into Lahore on 2nd January 1556 Akbar in Lahore consolidating rule in Punjab. City wall built, palace founded 1559 Shamsuddin Atgah Khan appointed viceroy 1563 Hakim (Akbar’s half-brother) takes Lahore but quickly driven out again 1566 Hakim Mirza marches on Lahore but retreats when Akbar approaches. Akbar stays two or three months 1579 Mirza Hakim invades again. Man Singh and others set about improving fortifications. Again M Hakim retreats on Akbar’s approach 1580 Akbar returns from Kabul and celebrates victory in Lahore 1581 Hakim threatens Lahore but Akbar marches to rescue 1586 Akbar moves to Lahore. Extensive building in Fort 1597 Fire in palace 1599 Akbar leaves Lahore. Some of haram remains 1605-1627 Jahangir on throne. Khusrau’s rebellion: he besieges Lahore but is defeated. His supporters impaled on stakes in Nawlakha, garden of Kamran. Construction of palace buildings in Fort 1627 Death of Jahangir on his return from Kashmir. Construction of Jahangir’s Tomb 1628 Shah Jahan arrives in Lahore. SJ’s haram stays 4 years in Lahore before leaving for Agra 1631 Maryam Zamani Mosque built by Jahangir’s mother 1632-39 Wazir Khan Governor of Lahore. Construction of Wazir Khan Mosque and Hammam. Shah Jahan commissions new building in the Fort 1639-52 Shah Jahan makes many visits, mainly in winter. Shalimar Bagh built 1658 Aurangzeb declares himself emperor 1659 Dara Shikoh seizes the fort at Lahore but is deserted by his allies on the approach of Aurangzeb 1662 Aurangzeb taken ill and takes his family and court to Lahore ‘for change of air’. Aurangzeb’s bund built due to flooding 1668-9 Aurangzeb in Lahore 1673 Badshahi Mosque completed 1675 Aurangzeb offers Eid prayers in Badshahi Mosque 1707 Death of Aurangzeb 1712 Death of Bahadur Shah in Lahore. Fighting between his sons at Lahore 1713 Faruksiyar defeats Jahandar Shah and becomes emperor. Appoints Nawab Abdul Samad Khan (Dilerjang) as Governor 1726 Zakaria Khan becomes Governor and campaigns against the Sikhs. Construction at Begumpura 1738 Invasion of Nadir Shah – bought off by Zakaria Khan 1745 Zakaria Khan dies and his son Yahya Khan inherits as Governor. Sikh prisoners executed at Ghora Nakhas – now called Shahid Gunj (place of martyrs) 1747 Ahmad Shah Abdali/Durrani elected king in Afghanistan 1748 Invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Yahya Khan’s brother, Shah Nawaz Khan, seizes Governor-ship. Ahmad Shah defeated at Sirhind by Mir Mannu (Moin ul Mulk), who is made Governor 1750 Emperor Mohammad Shah dies. Ahmad Shah reinvades 1752 Third invasion by Ahmad Shah. Lahore besieged for four months until Mir Mannu submits and is reinstated as Durrani viceroy after paying heavy ransom. 1753 Mir Mannu killed by fall from horse. His widow is briefly regent but her son-in-law Ghaziuddin, Wazir of Delhi, seizes Lahore and makes Adina Beg Khan Governor. Sonehri Masjid built 1755-62 Numerous invasions by Ahmad Shah. The city is variously held by his governors, Sikhs and Marathas. 1766 Sikh triumvirate rule established 1797-8 Two invasion by Shah Zaman, grandson of Ahmad Shah, but on his second departure he leaves Lahore in nominal hands of Ranjit Singh 1799 Ranjit Singh assumes title of Sarkar. Over the next few years he takes control of Punjab 1809 Ranjit Singh makes treaty with British Government that his dominion would remain north and west of Sutlej 1812 City walls repaired and ditch dug 1839 Ranjit Singh dies leaving large empire 1839-1845 Fighting among Ranjit Singh’s descendants. Sikh samadhs built 1846 First war against British, who take Lahore. British superintendence of state negotiated for Duleep Singh’s minority 1848 2nd war against British. Sikhs defeated 1849 Duleep Singh deposed and kingdom of Lahore annexed 1859 Railway building starts 1862 Municipal Committee created 1881 Bhai Ram Singh helps design Mayo School of Art 1891 Punjab Legislative Council created in Lahore 1835 Punjab Legislative Assembly created 1947 Independence and Partition of Punjab (and Sub-Continent)
Foreword by Syed Babar Ali
I have lived in Lahore most of my life and it is a city I love. When I was a child there was a population of 250,000 people in the city, of which 100,000 lived in the walled city, including some of my relatives. Outside the walled city it was a very sparsely populated place, where people could walk in leisure from one end of Anarkali to the other, or drive up and down the bazaar in both directions. We could ride horses down the Mall road and alongside the canal. Model Town was a remote suburb. Lahore was a mature, static, and civilized city and in those days we assumed it would remain like that always. In a sense it has: people are still polite to each other, we enjoy excellent food, and, as Lucy Peck demonstrates in this book, some of the buildings also survive, even if, sometimes, in perilous condition.
This is a book written for us, the inhabitants of Lahore, to help us understand our city better and, as well as giving an overview of the well-known sites of Lahore, it guides us to lesser-known sites that have become submerged by the rapidly expanding city.
Visiting other cities, both in our sub-continent and worldwide, it strikes me how important the architectural heritage in each place is, both for creating a pleasant and interesting environment for local residents, and also in attracting visitors, who themselves help the local economy. Pakistan receives virtually no tourists at the moment, but we all hope that things will change. If so, Lahore is one of the first places that they will come to and we must make sure that their expectations are fulfilled. In the last few years m

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