Seeking Urban Transformation
269 pages
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Seeking Urban Transformation


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En savoir plus
269 pages


Seeking Urban Transformation. Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe tells the stories of ordinary people’s struggles to remake urban centres. It interrogates and highlights the principle conditions in which urban transformation takes place. The main catalysts of the transformation are social movements and planning institutions. Social movements pool resources and skills, acquire land, install infrastructure and build houses. Planning institutions change policies, regulations and traditions to embrace and support a new form of urban development driven by grassroots movements.
Besides providing a comprehensive analysis of planning and housing in Zimbabwe, there is a specific focus on three urban centres of Harare, Chitungwiza and Epworth. In metropolitan Harare, the books examines new housing and infrastructure series to the predominantly urban poor population; vital roles played by the urban poor in urban development and the adoption by planning institutions of grassroots-centered, urban-planning approaches.
The book draws from three case studies and in-depth interviews from diverse urban shapers i.e. representatives and members of social movements, urban planners, engineers, surveyors, policy makers, politicians, civil society workers and students to generate a varied selection of insights and experiences. Based on the Zimbabwean experience, the book illustrates how actions and power of ordinary people contributes to the transformation of African cities.



Publié par
Date de parution 10 février 2020
Nombre de lectures 3
EAN13 9781779223685
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 11 Mo

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Seeking Urban Transformation:
Alternative Urban Futures in ZimbabweSeeking Urban Transformation:
Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe
Davison MuchadenyikaPublished by
Weaver Press,
Box 1922, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2020
© Davison Muchadenyika, 2020
Cover: Danes Design, Harare
Figures and Maps by Street Savvy, Harare
All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means –
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise – without
the express written permission of the publisher.
ISBN: 978-1-77922-367-8 (p/b)
ISBN: 978-1-77922-368-5 (e-pub)Contents
About the Author vii
List of Tables, Boxes and Figures ix
Acronyms xiii
Chronology (1890-2018) xvii
Preface xxix
1. Introduction: Transformation Drivers 1
2. Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives 14
3. Planning and Housing: A History 25
4. Metropolitan Harare: Past, Present and Future 53
5. Urban Economies, Politics and Governance
(1980-2018) 75
6. Harare: the Transformation of a City 105
7. Chitungwiza: A Fractured City 144
8. Epworth: The Informal-Formal Transition 167
9. Redefning a New Urban Future 196
10. Bibliography 217About the Author
Davison Muchadenyika is an urban planner who has worked
for universities, nongovernmental organizations and international
development agencies. Between 2015 and 2017, he read for his PhD at the
University of the Western Cape, South Africa. He was a research fellow
at the African Centre for Cities and Climate System Analysis Group, both
at the University of Cape Town. There, he conducted research in Lusaka,
Maputo and Windhoek. Further, he worked for Danish Church Aid in
Harare as a Research Coordinator where he led three fagship reports:
Cities at the Crossroads: The State of Service Delivery, The Uncertainty
of 2018: Local Government Elections Survey Report, and Cities in
Distress: Municipal Budgeting and Financial Management Survey. He
has written about fve book chapters and more than 12 articles in journals
such as Cities, Urban Forum, Habitat International, Journal of Southern
African Studies, Journal of International Development, Development
Policy Review, among others.
viiList of Tables, Boxes and Figures
List of Tables
Table 3.1 Planning standards 34
Table 3.2 Infrastructure standards 34
Table 3.3 Housing construction standards 34
Table 3.4 LARP housing projects 44
Table 3.5 National housing loan development facility projects 47
Table 3.6 NHDP (2014-2018) major focus issues 49
Table 3.7 Housing projects in Zimbabwe as of 12 December 2014 50
Table 4.1 Demographic trends in metropolitan Harare 54
Table 4.2 Zimbabwe’s urban population (1992-2012) 54
Table 4.3 Basic housing and infrastructure features for Harare 56
Table 4.4 Major infrastructure, planning and governance
developments in Salisbury (1890-1935) 58
Table 4.5 Development of African housing in Salisbury (1950-1979) 59
Table 4.6 Basic planning and housing features for Chitungwiza 65
Table 4.7 Historical development of Chitungwiza (1951-1979) 66
Table 4.8 Status of planning and housing in Epworth 73
Table 5.1 State of fnances in 32 urban centres (USD) (2013-2016) 84
Table 5.2 Political parties’ control of urban councils (2002-2018) 87
Table 5.3 Improper land deals to Bulawayo City Councillors 94
Table 5.4 Post-2000 major political events and impacts on
metropolitan Harare 97
Table 5.5 Urbanization and housing statistics for Zimbabwe 100
Table 6.1 State of housing in the movements under study 106
Table 6.2 Status of housing co-operatives on council land (2000-2015) 107
Table 6.3 Actors and their contribution to housing (2000-2015) 108
Table 6.4 Infrastructure developed by housing movements 109
ixTable 6.5 Resource mobilization by co-operatives 112
Table 6.6 ZIHOPFE daily and Gungano savings (2010-2015) 113
Table 6.7 Services offered to co-operatives by DHCS in 2010 119
Table 6.8 Aspects and principles of Harare Slum-upgrading
Strategy 120
Table 6.9 Layout approval time-frames 122
Table 6.10 Planning and housing status in Caledonia before
regularization 125
Table 6.11 Development status on state land 130
Table 6.12 Land invasions, acquisition and housing movements 133
Table 6.13 Odar Farm (Southlea Park) summary of events 136
Table 6.14 Saturday Retreat Farm (Southview Park)
summary of events 140
Table 7.1 Ideal processes of planning and housing
in Chitungwiza 157
Table 8.1 Epworth property stock 177
Table 8.2 Areas of origin for households 178
Table 8.3 Reasons for migrating to Epworth 179
Table 8.4 Informal settlers and preferred upgrading model 184
Table 8.5 In situ upgrading and formalization processes 185
List of Boxes
box 3.1 The nature of Operation Garikai in Marondera-
Elmswood residential development 47
box 5.1 Land and housing policies under MDC’s Smart
City Initiative: Immediate incorporation of peri-
urban housing settlements 92
box 6.1 City of Harare regularization notice 126
box 7.1 Impacts of co-operative activities on spatial
planning in Chitungwiza 153
box 8.1 Land sales as narrated through life history 168
x xiList of Figures
Figure 8.1: Condition of Buildings, Epworth Ward 7 189
Figure 8.2: Orientation of Buildings, Epworth Ward 7 190
Figure 8.3: Layout Plan Produced from Community Participation 193
Figure 8.4: Approved Layout Plan, Ward 7 Epworth 194
xi Acronyms
AGMs Annual General Meetings
BCC Bulawayo City Council
BSAC British South Africa Company
CABS Central African Building Society
CBOs Community Based Organisations
CHITREST Chitungwiza Residents’ T rust
CHRRA Chitungwiza Residents and Rate Payers
COH City of Harare
CSOs Civil Society Organisations
DA District Administrator
DHCS Department of Housing and Community Services
DOS Dialogue on Shelter
DPP Department of Physical Planning, MLGPWNH.
DUPS Department of Urban Planning Services (City of
EHHCSLC Education, Health, Housing, Community Services
and Licensing Committee
ELB Epworth Local Board
EMA Environmental Management Agency
ESAP Economic Structural Adjustment Programme
FGDs Focus Group Discussions
FTLRP Fast Track Land Reform Programme
GIS Geographic Information System
GN General Notice
GoZ Government of Zimbabwe
HGF Housing Guarantee Fund
HHDS Homelink Housing Development Scheme
HSUFF Harare Slum-upgrading Finance Facility
HSUP Harare Slum-upgrading Programme
HSUS Harare Slum-upgrading Strategy
LARP Local Authorities Reorientation Programme
LGB Local Government Board
Seeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Acronyms
LP A Local Planning Authorities
MDC Movement for Democratic Change
MLGPWNH Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and
National Housing
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MOSMECD Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises and
Cooperative Development
MP Member of Parliament
MTP Medium T erm Plan
MYGEC Ministry of Youth, Gender and Employment Creation
NGO Non-Governmental Or ganisation
NHDP National Housing Delivery Programme
NHF National Housing Fund
NHP National Housing Policy
NTFH National Task Force on Housing
OG/L W Operation Garikai/Live W ell
OHDC Odar Housing Development Consortium
OM/RO Operation Murambatsvina / Restore Order
POS Political Opportunity Structures
RBZ Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe
RMT Resource Mobilisation Theory
RTCPA Regional Town and Country Planning Act
SI Statutory Instrument
SMOs Social Movement Organisations
STERP Short-Term Economic Recovery Programme
TNDP T ransitional National Development Programme
UCs Urban Councils
UDCORP Urban Development Corporation
UN United Nations
UPF Urban Poor Fund
USA United States of America
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USD United States Dollar
USLO Urban State Land Offce
WADCO Ward Development Committee
ZANU-PF Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front
ZESA Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority
xiv xvSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Acronyms
ZIHOPFE Zimbabwe Homeless People Federation
ZimStat Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency
ZINAHCO Zimbabwe National Association of Housing
ZINARA Zimbabwe National Roads Administration
ZINW A Zimbabwe National W ater Authority
ZPSHP Zimbabwe Private Sector Housing Programme
ZRP Zimbabwe Republic Police
ZT A Zimbabwe T obacco Association
ZW$ Zimbabwean Dollar
xv Chronology (1890-2018)
1890 British South Africa Company (BSAC) sites Salisbury
(present-day Harare) in September. Site selected for
military, agricultural and ecological reasons.
1891 First town plan for Harare prepared with 2,548 stands.
Proposal to change the site of the town (Harare) to
Norton, Mvurwi, Darwendale or Rusape declined by
property developers.
1892 Salisbury Sanitary Board (SSB) established with a
mandate to provide water and sewerage services. BSAC
grants Methodist Church 1,064 hectares of land in
1896 Introduction of Hut Tax forces indigenous people to
migrate to towns to raise the tax through employment.
1897 Harare and Bulawayo attain municipal status through a
Municipal Ordinance. Municipality of Salisbury replaces
SSB. Mbare, the frst African Township built in Harare.
1899 Railway line from Beira reaches Harare.
1906 Native Urban Locations Ordinance (No. 4 of 1906)
creates maximum noise and security buffer between
white and black residential areas.
1913 Cleveland Dam opens as Harare’s water supply source.
1925 Report of the Land Commission concludes that
municipalities needed to set aside areas where the native
working class can acquire houses.
1930 Land Apportionment Act (No. 30 of 1930) divides the
country into ‘African’ (black) and ‘European’ (white)
1933 Town and Country Planning Act promulgated to guide
urban development. It sets out the Department of
Physical Planning (DPP) as the supreme spatial planning
1934 Industrial Conciliation Act enacted and compels
employers to provide accommodation for employees.
1935 Harare attains city status.
xviiSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
1936 Southern Rhodesia Native Affairs Report acknowledges
the importance of white-governed areas to provide
services for natives.
1941 ‘Two-pyramids policy’ (separate development of
whites and blacks) adopted and operationalized for the
Land Apportionment Act (of 1941). The Act allows the
establishment of urban black townships though it was not
1943 Settler government report on Economic, Social, and
Health Conditions of Africans employed in Urban Areas
fnds that the poor living conditions of Africans in urban
areas has widespread impact on economic, industrial,
moral and social order. It concludes that ‘the Native
problem’ must be faced by the unconcerned and wishful
1944 Percy Ibbotson Memorandum to the Native Production
and Trade Commission fnds horrifc overcrowding and
squalid housing conditions of natives. It reports that
‘Cases were found where three men and their womenfolk,
plus four bachelors, shared the one room, and this was not
unusual’ (p. 2).
1945 Town and Country Planning Act enacted and sets out
planning objectives as economy, convenience and beauty.
Amendment of the Land Apportionment Act makes
provision for the compulsory establishment of Native
Urban Areas.
1946 Native (Urban Areas) Accommodation and Registration
Act (No. 6 of 1946) compels municipalities to fnance
and administer urban black townships. Town and Country
Planning Act (No. 22 of 1946) passes and compels for a
maximum distance between white and black residential
1951 Proposal to develop an African Township within Seke
Communal land (present day Chitungwiza) put forward.
1955 Government of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
approaches the International Bank of Reconstruction and
xviii xixSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
Development (World Bank) with a proposal to built 130
miles long Kariba dam and construct a power station with
500 megawatts capacity. The proposal planned to use the
dam to power Copper Belt, Harare and Bulawayo. World
Bank advances USD80 million loan for Kariba Dam
1958 The Report of the Urban Affairs Commission urges the
construction of family housing units.
1960 The Vagrancy Act passes and empowers local authorities
to send back black people to rural areas if they fail to
provide proof of employment or formal registration as
urban residents.
1969 Land Tenure Act (No. 55 of 1969) obliges municipalities
to establish African townships with the aim of providing
adequate housing for urban Africans.
1975 Harare’s housing stock amounts to 42,138 units
accommodating 278,400 people.
1976 Revised Town and Country Planning Act sets out
provisions for regional, master and local planning.
1978 Chitungwiza urban local authority becomes operational.
1980 Zimbabwe attains independence. Pass Laws which
restricted Africans to migrate and live in towns without
proof of employment and residence were repealed. The
total housing units in the country’s eleven urban areas was
estimated as 165,890. Harare and Chitungwiza’s housing
stock stood at 53,867 and 22,500 respectively. Epworth’s
housing stock stood at 3,000 units. The offcial housing
waiting list for all urban areas estimated as 44,900 units.
Government sets a target of building 167,000 housing
units in fve years.
1981 The Report on the Commission of Inquiry into Incomes,
Prices and Conditions of Service fnds that the shortage
of housing was manifest in ‘squatter camps, the sight
of people sleeping on the streets, in shop doorways, on
the verandahs of schools and even in storm drains’ (p.
211). Commission strongly recommends government
xixSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
to establish and promote housing co-operatives. The
Commission concludes that ‘the experience in Zimbabwe
indicates that with a little assistance, people given their
own plot of land are able to erect a home with a minimum
capital expense’ (p. 219).
Chitungwiza granted town status.
1982 Minimum planning, construction and housing standards
revised upwards. Low standards were conceived as
an enduring symptom of colonialism. Rent Control
Regulations adopted, which led to a drastic decline in
social housing. The Housing Guarantee Fund (HGF)
(USD50 million) launched and delivers 11,780
lowcost housing stands and 7,680 core houses in Harare
(Kuwadzana) and Chitungwiza. Government demolishes
an informal settlement in Chitungwiza leaving 30,000
people homeless. Census estimates metropolitan Harare’s
population as 828,000.
1983 Government demolishes a second informal settlement in
Chitungwiza affecting10,000 people.
1984 About 9,000 public rental units sold to individuals over a
four-year period through the home ownership policy.
1985 At the end of the Transitional National Development
Plan, about 13,500 houses of the planned total of 115,000
had been completed. World Bank launches Urban I
(USD112.5 million) (funded by World Bank, building
societies, government and Commonwealth Development
Corporation) and delivers 22,373 serviced stands and
11,000 houses in four cities. Second phase of HGF
launched and delivers 19,300 serviced plots and 7,500
core houses in nine urban centres.
1986 Urban Development Corporation (UDCORP) Act
promulgated. Functions of UDCORP stated as to assist
local authorities on matters of planning and co-ordination
of urban growth, employment creation, housing and social
service provision. Government establishes Epworth Local
Board managed by government appointed-commissioners.
xx xxiSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
1989 World Bank launches Urban II (USD580 million) which
delivers 30,000 low- and middle-income housing stands
in 21 cities and towns.
1992 Zimbabwe’s urban population estimated at 3,187,720
(79 urban areas) representing 30,7% of the total
population. Census estimates Metropolitan Harare’s
population as 1,464,015. Circular No. 3 of 1992 reduces
planning, infrastructure and housing standards. United
States Agency for International Development supported
Zimbabwe Private Sector Housing Programme (USD150
million) launched and delivers 19,000 serviced plots,
7,500 core houses and 17,000 self-help housing
construction loans.
1995 Urban Councils Act of 1995 repeals and replaces the one
of 1980. The Act aims to reform urban local government
in terms of responsiveness, elections and accountability.
Chitungwiza attains municipal status.
1996 Regional, Town and Country Planning Act revised and
sets eight town planning objectives, namely promoting
health, safety, order, amenity, convenience, general
welfare, effciency and economy. Iran Steel Plant Group
indicates interest to develop Hopley (Tariro) Farm for
middle- and low-income home seekers on the Housing
Waiting List (HWL). Company fails to get letter of credit
from Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) on grounds of:
project could not generate forex but the repayment had
to be in forex, the repayment period of fve years was
deemed too short, and the interest rate of 15% on capital
was viewed as higher than the usual commercial rate of
off-shore funding.
1997 First National Housing Convention convenes and resolves
to draft a new housing policy.
1998 Zimbabwe Homeless Peoples Federation launched with
membership of about 12,000.
1999 About 135 housing co-operatives had registered
xxiSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
2000 Fast Track Land Reform Programme launched, and
housing movements took advantage of it to invade
urban and peri-urban land. First national housing policy
document adopted with a goal to provide 1,000,000
houses in ten years. Ministry of Local Government
issues Circular No. 11 of 2000 which reduces planning
standards for schools in urban centres. It reduced land
size for primary and secondary schools respectively from
5 and 10 hectares to 3,5 and 8 hectares.
2001 The Minister of Local Government directs the City of
Harare to acquire and allocate 40,000 housing stands
to people on the city’s HWL. Possible land sources
identifed as Hopley, Stoneridge, Arlington, Derbyshire,
Amsterdam and Eyestone farms.
2002 Zimbabwe’s urban population estimated at 4,029,707
(122 urban areas) representing 34,6% of the total
population. Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic
Front (ZANU-PF) loses control of urban centres with the
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) taking over
the governance of cities. The 2002 Census reports that
about 197,994 households (632,230 people) were renting
in Harare. Census estimates metropolitan Harare’s
population as 1,896,134.
2004 Circular No. 70 of 2004 reduces minimum standards
for planning, infrastructure and house construction.
Government launches the National Housing Delivery
Programme (2004-08) aimed at delivering 1,25 million
units in fve years. Of this, government could only
deliver 320,000 residential stands. RBZ launches the
Homelink Housing Development Scheme, a diaspora
housing initiative. The 2004 City of Harare Department
of Housing and Community Services (DHCS) reports
that the city’s housing stock amounted to 174,688 units
(composed of 117,688 units in high density and the
remainder low and medium density). General Notice
466 of 2004 designates all the country’s major roads
linking major cities and borders as ‘restricted roads’.
xxii xxiiiSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
This means that ‘land within seventy metres from
the road centerline and on either side of the roads are
classifed as restricted roads’.
2005 Government of Zimbabwe launches Operation
Murambatsvina/Restore Order (OM/RO) and destroys
92,460 housing structures. Government launches
Operation Garikai (Live Well) and delivers only 4,205
core houses. RBZ launches the Local Authorities
ReOrientation Programme (LARP) and delivers 1,228
serviced stands in Umzingwane, Masvingo and Victoria
Falls and 153 houses in Kadoma.
2006 Government takes over water and sanitation functions
from local authorities to the Zimbabwe National Water
Authority (ZINWA). City of Harare adopts parallel
development – a strategy to promote low-income housing
delivery. The strategy relaxes minimum infrastructure
requirements in new settlements.
2007 Through General Notice 55 of 2007, government hands
over urban trunk roads from all cities, municipalities and
town councils to the Department of Roads, under the
ministry responsible for transport.
2008 Inclusive government composed of the MDC and
ZANUPF formed. Epworth elects councillors to govern the
urban area for the frst time in history. MDC wins 29 out
of 30 urban centres including Harare, Chitungwiza and
Epworth. Cholera outbreak kills more than 4,000 people.
Urban Councils Act (Chap. 29:15) amended to replace
executive with ceremonial mayors.
2009 Second National Housing Convention held and concludes
for the urgent revision of housing policies and laws to
make these ‘pro-poor’. Government returns water and
sanitation functions to local authorities.
2010 Old Mutual, Central African Building Society (CABS)
and City of Harare launch housing project in Budiriro
(Harare), aimed at delivering 4,500 units at a cost of
USD15 million. City of Harare subsidizes the sale of
xxiiiSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
land to the Old Mutual project at USD0,50 per square
metre. UN-Habitat predicts Zimbabwe’s urban population
to reach 50% by 2030. City of Harare, Dialogue on
Shelter, ZIHOPFE launches Harare Slum Upgrading
Programme (HSUP) funded by Gates Foundation (USD5
million). HSUP provides tenure security and infrastructure
services (water, sanitation and roads) to 480 households
in Dzivarasekwa. Government takes vehicle licensing
functions from local authorities to the Zimbabwe National
Roads Administration. Ministry of Local Government
issues a Directive compelling all local authorities to observe
an employment costs to service delivery ratio of 30:70%. In
practice, this ratio was not met by many urban councils.
2011 City of Harare reports its housing backlog at more than
500,000 units. MDC councillors adopt a resolution to
upgrade Epworth in situ. Government of Zimbabwe signs
loan agreement with The Export-Import Bank of China
for a loan of USD141million for the development and
rehabilitation of municipal water and sewerage treatment
works for the City of Harare. Through Circular No. 1 of
2011, the Ministry of Local Government indicates that
councilors may access residential stands at full cost
recovery basis.
2012 Zimbabwe’s urban population estimated at 4,284,145 (30
urban centres) representing 33% of the total population.
Census estimates Metropolitan Harare’s population as
2,123,232 and access to services in the region given
as: electricity (76%), safe water (94%) and improved
sanitation (97%). New Housing Policy principally based
on grassroots approaches to housing delivery adopted.
National Housing Loan Development Facility projects
delivers 700 stands and 18 stands for fats (Kwekwe),
224 stands and 18 blocks of fats (Harare), 108 stands
(Marondera) and 201 stands (Mutare). City of Harare
adopts the Harare Slum Upgrading Strategy which centres
on incremental development and sets up the Harare Slum
Upgrading Finance Facility.
xxiv xxvSeeking Urban Transformation: Alternative Urban Futures in Zimbabwe Chronology
2013 Zimbabwe adopts a new Constitution which prioritizes
the right to shelter and the freedom from arbitrary
evictions. The Constitution provides for devolution of
powers and functions to local and provincial governments.
Government land audit in Chitungwiza fnds extreme
forms of unethical land transfers by politicians and
uncoordinated housing developments. MDC wins
majority wards in Harare and Chitungwiza but loses in
Epworth. City of Harare reports that about 39,142 houses
in the city have no title deeds despite being built before
and soon after independence. Prior to national elections,
the Minister of Local Government directs all local
authorities to write off debts in respect of rentals, unit tax,
development levies, licenses, and refuse charges owed by
ratepayers as at 30 June 2013. The ministerial directive
pushes local authorities into insolvency.
2014 Government of Zimbabwe adopts the NHDP
(201418) aimed at delivering 125,000 housing units by 31
December 2018. UDCORP submits a draft
ChitungwizaSeke Communal land combination concept plan to DPP.
The plan was premised on bringing sanity, and order and
providing a framework for forward planning. CABS start
selling completed housing units of the Old Mutual housing
project at a cost of between USD25,300 and USD31,300
depending on size. Ministry of Local Government issues
a Directive (8 October) for local authorities to rationalize
salaries and allowances of staff (ceiling for top earners set
as USD9,000).
2015 Cabinet reshuffe changes the Minister of Local
Government. The former minister, Ignatius Chombo,
presided over the collapse of a once vibrant local
government system. Offcial estimates indicate to the
emergence of about 3,000 housing co-operatives in
Harare beginning 2000. Government releases an
InterMinisterial Investigating report on Caledonia which
indicates to extensive corruption on land deals worth
USD60 million entered without following procedures

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