Angels
255 pages
English

Vous pourrez modifier la taille du texte de cet ouvrage

Angels

-

Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus
255 pages
English

Vous pourrez modifier la taille du texte de cet ouvrage

Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus

Description

Even today, the splendid appearance of angels remains undiminished. Images of these heavenly and powerful messengers convey protection, innocence and calm, and have been an inspiration to religious artists throughout the history of art. This book illustrates the most impressive representations of angels, from delicate, whimsical cupids to majestic depictions of the archangel Michael, and from medieval to modern times.

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 07 janvier 2014
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781781609538
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0298€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

Author: Clara Erskine Clement

Layout:
Baseline Co. Ltd,
61A-63A Vo Van Tan Street
4th Floor
District 3, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam

ISBN: 978-1-78160-953-8

© Confidential Concepts, Worldwide, USA
© Parkstone Press International, New York, USA

All rights reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced or adapted without the permission of the copyright holder, throughout the world. Unless otherwise specified, copyright on the works reproduced lies with the respective photographers. Despite intensive research, it has not always been possible to establish copyright ownership. Where this is the case, we would appreciate notification.
“ When angels visit us, we do not hear the rustle of wings, nor feel the feathery touch of the breast of a dove; but we know their presence by the love they create in our hearts”
CONTENTS


Index of Artists
Introduction
Archangels
Guardian Angels, Angel Choristers and Adoring Angels
Pictures of Angels as Authorised by the Scriptures
Angels in Pictures of the Virgin Mary
List of Illustrations

Index of Artists

B
Baciccio (Giovanni Battista Gaulli)
Baldovinetti, Alesso
Bartolomeo, Fra
Bartolomeo, Fra
Blake, William
Botticelli, Sandro (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)
Botticelli, Sandro (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)
Botticelli, Sandro (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)
Botticelli, Sandro (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)
Botticini, Francesco
Botticini, Francesco
Boucher, François
Bourdon, Sébastien
Broederlam, Melchior
Bruegel the Elder, Piete r I
Bruegel the Elder, Piete r I
Bruegel the Elder, Piete r I
Buoninsegna (di), Duccio

C
Campin, Robert (Master of Flémalle)
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)
Carpaccio, Vittore
Carracci, Annibale
Christus, Petrus
Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo)
Correggio (Antonio Allegri)
Credi (di), Lorenzo
Crivelli, Carlo
D/E/F
David, Gérard
Eyck (van), Jan
Fabriano (da), Gentile
Fouquet, Jean
Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
Francesca (della), Piero
Froment, Nicolas

G
Gaddi, Agnolo
Giordano, Luca
Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone
Goes (van der), Hugo
Greco ( e l) (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
Grien, Hans Baldung
Grien, Hans Baldung
Grünewald, Matthias Gothart
Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri)

I/L
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique
Lanfranco, Giovanni
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
Lippi, Filippino (Fra)
Lippi, Filippo (Fra)
Lippi, Filippo (Fra)
Liss, Johann
Lochner, Stephan
Lorenzetti, Ambrogio

M
Mantegna, Andrea
Mantegna, Andrea
Mantegna, Andrea
Mantegna, Andrea
Martini, Simone
Martini, Simone
Martino (di), Ottaviano Nelli
Masaccio, Tommaso
Masaccio, Tommaso
Master of Hohenfurth
Memling, Hans
Memling, Hans
Memmi, Lippo
Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti)
Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti)
Monaco, Lorenzo
Murillo, Bartolomé Estebán Perez
Murillo, Bartolomé Estebán Perez
Murillo, Bartolomé Estebán Perez

P
Pacheco, Francisco
Pacino (di), Matteo
Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Mazzola)
Pinturicchio, Bernardino
Poussin, Nicolas
Pozzo, Andrea

R
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Rembrandt van Rijn, Harmensz
Reni, Guido
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel
Rottenhammer, Hans
Rubens, Peter Paul
Rubens, Peter Paul
Rubens, Peter Paul

S
Saraceni, Carlo
Sarto, Andrea del
Sarto, Andrea del
Stella, Jacques

T/V
Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista
Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Troger, Paul
Velázquez, Dieg
Velázquez, Dieg
Veronese (Paolo Caliari)
Introduction

Angels and archangels, cherubim and seraphim, and all the glorious hosts of heaven were a fruitful source of inspiration to the oldest painters and sculptors.
The Almighty declared to Job that the creation of the world was welcomed with shouts of joy by “all the sons of God”, and the story of the words and works of the angels written in the Scriptures from the placement of the cherubim at the east of the Garden of Eden to the worship of the angel by John in the last chapter of Revelation, presents them to us as heavenly guides, consolers, protectors, and chastisers of human beings.

Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels and SS. Francis and Dominic
Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo)
Tempera on wood panel, 133 x 81 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

What study is more appealing than that of the angels or more interesting to observe than the manner in which the artists of various nations and periods have expressed their ideas concerning these celestial messengers of God? What more fascinating, more stimulating to the imagination and further removed from the exhausting tension of our day and generation?

Rucellai Madonna
Duccio di Buoninsegna, 1285
Tempera on wood panel, 450 x 290 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

The Old Testament presents angels as an innumerable host, discerning good and evil by reason of superior intelligence, and without passion following the will of God. While they have the power to slay, the force is only exercised upon the command of the Almighty, and not until after the Captivity do we read of evil angels who work wickedness among men.

Flight into Egypt
Giotto di Bondone, 1304-1306
Fresco, 200 x 185 cm
Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua

The angels of the New Testament, while exempt from need and suffering, have sympathy for human sorrow, rejoice over repentance of sin, attend to prayerful souls, and escort the spirits of the just to heaven when the earthly life has passed.
However it is highly unlikely that scriptural teaching concerning angels would encourage a universal interest in their representation, and the personal sympathy with it, which is commonly shared by all sorts and conditions of men, did they not cherish a belief consciously or otherwise that beings superior to themselves exist, and employ their super-human powers for the blessing of our race, and for the welfare of individuals.

Ognissanti Madonna (Madonna in Maestà)
Giotto di Bondone, c. 1310
Tempera on wood panel, 325 x 204 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

As early as the fourth century, the Christian Church had developed a profound belief in the existence of both good and evil angels, the former persuading human beings to pursue good and forsake evil, the latter luring human beings to sin and indulgence. This faith is devoutly maintained in the writings of the Fathers of the Church, in which we are also taught that angelic aid may be invoked in our need, and that a consciousness of the abiding presence of celestial beings should be a supreme solace to human sorrow and suffering.

Maestà (detail)
Simone Martini, 1315
Fresco, 763 x 970 cm
Palazzo Pubblico, Siena

The theologians of the Middle Ages exercised their imaginations to create a systematic classification of the Orders of the Heavenly Host, assigning to each rank its distinctive office. To the sceptical mind, the warrant for these discriminations may seem insufficient, but as their results are manifested in the works of the old masters, basic knowledge of them is imperative to art students; without it, a large portion of the famous religious pictures of the world are utterly void of meaning.

The Annunciation and Two Saints
Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi, 1333
Tempera on wood panel, 184 x 210 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Speaking broadly, this classification was based on of the theories of St. Paul, when he speaks of “the principalities and powers in heavenly places” and of the “thrones and dominions”, on Jude’s account of the fall of the “angels which kept not their first estate” on the triumphs of the Archangel Michael, and on a few other Scripture texts. Upon this premise, the angelic host was divided into three hierarchies, and these hierarchies were further separated into nine choirs.

Small Maestà
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 1335-1340
Tempera on wood panel, 49 x 32.5 cm
Pinacoteca Nazionale, Siena

The first hierarchy embraces seraphim, cherubim, and thrones, the first mention being sometimes given to the cherubim. Dionysius, the Areopagite to whom St. Paul confided all that he had seen, when transported to the seventh heaven accords the first rank to the seraphim, while the familiar hymn of St. Ambrose has accustomed us to saying, “To Thee, cherubim and seraphim continually do cry”. Dante gives preference to Dionysius as an authority, and says of him: “For he had learn’d/ Both this and much beside of these our orbs/ From an eye-witness to Heaven’s mysteries”.

St. Bernard’s Vision of the Virgin with Saints (triptych)
Matteo di Pacino
Tempera on wood panel, 175 x 200 cm
Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence

The second hierarchy includes dominations, virtues, and powers; the third, princedoms, archangels, and angels. The first hierarchy receives its glory directly from the Almighty, and transmits it to the second, which in turn illuminates the third, which is especially dedicated to the care and service of the human race.
The third hierarchy is constructed of the ministers and messengers of God; the second is composed of governors, and the first consisted of councillors.

Nativity
Master of Hohenfurth, c. 1350
Panel, 99 x 93 cm
Národní Galerie, Prague

The choristers of heaven are also angels, and the making of music is revered as an angelic duty.
The seraphim immediately surround the throne of God, and are ever lost in adoration and love, which is expressed in their very name, seraph coming from a Hebrew root meaning ‘love’. The cherubim also worship God and are assigned special duties; they are superior in knowledge. The word cherub, by definition, means ‘to know’.

Madonna of Humility with Six Angels
Agnolo Gaddi, c. 1390
Tempera on wood panel, 118 x 62.5 cm
Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence

The second hierarchy governs the elements and the stars. Princedoms protect earthly monarchies, while archangels and angels are the agents of God in his dealings with humanity. The title of angel signifies a messenger and is often given to a man bearing important tidings. Thus, the Evangelists are represented with wings, and St. John the Baptist is considered an angel. In addition, the Greeks sometimes depict Christ with wings and call him “The Great Angel of the Will of God”.

Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation in the Temple and Flight to Egypt
Melchior Broederlam, 1393-1399
Tempera on wood, 167 x 125 cm
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon

Very early in the history of art, a system of religious symbolism existed, knowledge of which greatly enhances the pleasure derived from representations of sacred subjects. In no case was this symbolism more carefully explored than in the representations of angels. The aureole or nimbus is rarely omitted from the head of an angel and is always used as the symbol of sanctity.
Wings are the distinctive angelic symbol and emblematic of spirit, power and swiftness.

Richard II Presented to the Virgin and Child by his Patron St. John the Baptist and SS. Edward and Edmund, also called The Wilton Diptych
Named after Wilton House, c. 1395-1399
Egg on oak, 53 x 37 cm
The National Gallery, London

Seraphim and cherubim are usually represented by heads with one, two or three pairs of wings, which symbolise pure spirit, informed by love and intelligence. The head remains an emblem of the soul, love and knowledge.
This manner of representing the two highest orders of angels is ancient, and in the earliest instances of their existence the faces are human, thoughtful and mature. Gradually they became increasingly more childlike and are depicted as little baby heads with small wings folded under the chin, symbolising innocence. Evidently, these illustrations fail to convey the original, spiritual significance of the seraphic and cherubic head.

Madonna del Belvedere
Ottaviano Nelli di Martino, 1404
Tempera on stone
Santa Maria Nuova, Gubbio

The first scriptural mention of cherubim with wings occurs after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, Exodus 25.20: “And the cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat”.
In Ezekiel, we read that “their wings were stretched upward when they flew; when they stood they let down their wings”. There is, no doubt, scriptural authority for representing angels’ wings in the most realistic manner, since Daniel says “they had wings like a fowl”.

Adoration of the Magi
Lorenzo Monaco, c. 1422
Tempera on wood, 115 x 177 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Is it not more desirable, however, to see angel-wings rather than bird-wings? The more devout and imaginative artists succeeded in overcoming the commonplace in this regard by various devices. For example, in one of Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican, we see fiery cherubs, their hair, wings and limbs ending in glowing flames, while their faces are full of spirit and intelligence.

Adoration of the Magi
Gentile da Fabriano, 1423
Tempera on wood, 300 x 282 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

  • Accueil Accueil
  • Univers Univers
  • Ebooks Ebooks
  • Livres audio Livres audio
  • Presse Presse
  • BD BD
  • Documents Documents