Decorative Art
302 pages
English

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302 pages
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Description

From the Middle Ages to contemporary times, decorative art can be defi ned by the artistic materials, designs and objects used in both architecture and interior design. Similar to many art forms decorative art continues to evolve, originating with pieces as simple as a chair, noted for its utility, to purely ornamental objects, celebrated for their aesthetic beauty.
Decorative Art aims to eulogize these often undervalued objects by giving praise to all mediums of decorative art throughout the centuries. Originally never considered as fi ne art, their artistic potential was not acknowledged until the twentieth century when industrial production replaced artisanal creation.
The age, authenticity and above all the uniqueness of these precious objects have now become the new standards of quality and beauty found in decorative art. Join us in discovering the evolution of decorative art through this enticing survey of major masterpieces throughout time.

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Publié par
Date de parution 15 septembre 2015
Nombre de lectures 9
EAN13 9781783107872
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 3 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0598€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Extrait

Author:
Albert Jacquemart

Layout:
Baseline Co. Ltd
61A-63A Vo Van Tan Street
4 th Floor
District 3, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam

© Confidential Concepts, worldwide, USA
© Parkstone Press International, New York, USA
Image Bar www.image-bar.com

All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or adapted without the permission of the copyright holder, throughout the world. Unless otherwise specified, copyright on the works reproduced lies with the respective photographers, artists, heirs or estates. Despite intensive research, it has not always been possible to establish copyright ownership. Where this is the case, we would appreciate notification.

ISBN: 978-1-78310-787-2
Albert Jacquemart



Decorative Art
Contents


Introduction
Furniture
Carved wooden furniture
Furniture inlaid with piqué
Ebony furniture inlaid with ivory or carved
Furniture inlaid with stones
Furniture styled with brass carving
Furniture overlaid with tortoise shell and metal
Furniture in marquetry of various woods
Furniture panelled with plaques of porcelain
Furniture lacquered in varnish or paint
Furniture in gilt or painted wood
Ornamental Art
Ornamental bronzes
Clocks and timepieces
Wrought iron, European arms, embossed brass, damascened metals
Arms
Repoussé coppers
Damascened metals
The goldsmith ’ s art
Jewellery
Tortoise shell, piqué, and posé d ’ or
Boxes and snuff boxes
Enamels
Cloisonné and champlevé enamels
Painted enamels
Venetian enamels
Glass
Objects of Art Derived from Statuary
Marble, stone, alabaster
Bronzes
Plaquettes and medallions
Ivories
Wood
Drapes and Fabrics
Tapestry
Arras
Lille
Brussels
The Gobelins
Beauvais
Embroidery and lace
Knitted fabric
Leather and wallpaper
Index
Notes
Diptych, 8 th century. Elephant ivory, 34.3 x 10.7 cm.
From the Beauvais Cathedral treasure. Musée de Cluny, Paris.


Introduction


In discussing furniture, we must begin by defining the value of the word according to the various periods to which it is applied. In its literal and general meaning, furniture represents everything that is moveable, transportable, and easy to put away.
In the early ages of our history, man was, to a certain extent, nomadic. If the necessity of defence caused castles and fortresses to be erected, fitted for repelling a hostile incursion, and for protecting the humble dwellings which gathered around them, lords and vassals, rich and poor, providing against a victorious invasion, or the necessity of going to fight in distant parts for their country’s cause, held themselves prepared to pack up, in chests kept ready for the purpose, all of their possessions. These chests are, therefore, the first and most ancient furniture.
By degrees, as public security increased, and society, growing more condensed, found support in its legal organisation, ease began to develop. Along with this came luxury, the innate want of intelligent races who require the satisfaction of the eye in proportion to the enlightenment of the mind. Strictly speaking, therefore, it was not until after the strife of the Middle Ages that furniture, such as we understand it today, could have existed. That is, an assemblage of objects placed in the principal divisions of the habitation to satisfy various requirements, and at the same time present an agreeable, elegant and even splendid appearance.
It is difficult, therefore, in the present day to compose a truly historical set of furniture, even by seeking its elements in the periods closest to us. Customs, habits, needs, and wants have changed; ancient pieces have been destroyed in mass quantities, and even when they are discovered, these pieces offer an incomplete match in regard to comfort as a modern invention but an absolute necessity in every luxurious dwelling.
Some people have, it is true, conceived the idea of transforming old furniture so as to adapt it to present exigencies; this is a barbaric concept, against which all sensible men will protest. Let us respect the waifs of the past, and beware of touching them with sacrilegious hands. It is only thus that valuable relics can retain their prestige, and add lustre to the galleries of their fortunate possessors.
Nor do we accept the compromise adopted by some, which consists in completing a furniture characteristic of a particular period with modern imitations. Few people would be deceived by it, and a false specimen introduced into a collection confuses visitors, and makes them doubt the authenticity of the entire collection.
Let us now glance rapidly at the periods whence a connoisseur may seek, with some chance of success, various parts of a choice set of furniture.
In the 14 th century, Charles V and Jeanne of Bourbon had collected at the Louvre and in their chateaux countless marvels, of which a detailed inventory has preserved us a description of the contents. It was absolutely necessary that the flats should be suitable in order to contain these treasures. Indeed, contemporary writings prove the admiration impressed upon and shared with their guests by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV and his son Wenceslas, King of the Romans, when they came to Paris in 1378. They even felt great pleasure, writers say, in receiving magnificent jewels from the king, “such as they are known to do in Paris.”
The 15 th century offered nothing to add to this luxury. At most one could ask for items with which to furnish an oratory or study, that is to say chairs, benches, desks, kneelers, bookshelves and cabinets, etc.
In the 16 th century, furniture that may be applied to our current uses becomes more common. The necessity of easy transport still exists and everything must be made with the option of disassembly; beds have their columns and other parts jointed, tables are on trestles or made to fold down on their axis, cabinets are numerous and varied in materials and dimensions so that being filled with valuables they may be easily stored in the chests or trunks, chairs have hooks, fastenings or can be folded. In a word, the camp furniture is ready to be packed together with the ornamental cushions, carpets and moveable hangings that they attached wherever the dwelling-place of the moment was located.
At the end of the century, furniture becomes still more abundant, and already the more cumbrous pieces cease to travel; at the moment of leaving the chateau such pieces are consigned to the garrets or the wardrobe rooms, where they remain until the day of return. At this period, a taste for the sights becomes more common; distant voyages procure objects from India, caskets painted in the Turkish fashion, oriental carpets and porcelain from China, which was easily obtainable in Cairo. It is easy to realise in the present day what kind of riches a palace of 1589 might contain; l ’ Inventaire des meubles de Catherine de Médici , published by Edmond Bonnaffé, is, in this respect, as descriptive as possible.
Castle of Écouen, aerial view.
Notre Dame de Paris, sculpture room. Musée de Cluny, Paris.


To return to less exceptional things, let us go back to the Musée de Cluny, where the decorations from the Château de Villepreux, belonging to Pierre de Gondy, bishop of Paris, will show the luxury of the 16 th century in a simpler form, and allow us to observe a bed more appropriat for contemporary use. We must also point out this important peculiarity, that the inventory of Catherine de Médici shows a very extensive collection of ebony cabinets inlaid with ivory which are of German fashion, that is, marquetry of various woods. However, it does not have pieces of wood-carved furniture which must have still been in use, as may be proved by those bearing the monogram of Henry II and the double crescent to be found in museums and among collections. It is an indication of the possible mingling of these three kinds of furniture making one whole set.
We still keep to the genuine 16 th century so long as we do not see the rather cumbrous pieces of the time of Henry IV which lead directly to the style of Louis XIII. The furniture of this period of transition, which is occasionally sombre from the abuse of ebony, has already a degree of pomp announcing the century of Louis XIV. When we say furniture, we do not mean pieces of outward show, more luxurious than useful; this is one of the characteristics of the period of the great king. A more complete picture more clearly proving the absence of useful furniture could not be desired. In order to find such, in an intimate and charming form, we must pass to the reign of Louis XV, the king who deserted the state apartments to take refuge in places with secret doors and back staircases.
But here, if the “grandiose” style has disappeared, that of exaggerated caprice takes its place. Everything is distorted, broken and complicated, exuberant, elaborately ornamented details appear in everything; simplicity is unknown. It is the period above all others which is the most difficult for the man of taste. Ugliness jostled with what is mere extravagance of style or elegance, while, by a judicious choice, the exaggerations which are the evident work of artists of inferior merit who can only be impressed with ideas from their extreme points of view discarded. Here begins the remarkable era of metal ca

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