Leonardo Da Vinci
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81 pages
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Description

Leonardo’s early life was spent in Florence, his maturity in Milan, and the last three years of his life in France. Leonardo’s teacher was Verrocchio. First he was a goldsmith, then a painter and sculptor: as a painter, representative of the very scientific school of draughtsmanship; more famous as a sculptor, being the creator of the Colleoni statue at Venice, Leonardo was a man of striking physical attractiveness, great charm of manner and conversation, and mental accomplishment. He was well grounded in the sciences and mathematics of the day, as well as a gifted musician. His skill in draughtsmanship was extraordinary; shown by his numerous drawings as well as by his comparatively few paintings. His skill of hand is at the service of most minute observation and analytical research into the character and structure of form. Leonardo is the first in date of the great men who had the desire to create in a picture a kind of mystic unity brought about by the fusion of matter and spirit. Now that the Primitives had concluded their experiments, ceaselessly pursued during two centuries, by the conquest of the methods of painting, he was able to pronounce the words which served as a password to all later artists worthy of the name: painting is a spiritual thing, cosa mentale. He completed Florentine draughtsmanship in applying to modelling by light and shade, a sharp subtlety which his predecessors had used only to give greater precision to their contours. This marvellous draughtsmanship, this modelling and chiaroscuro he used not solely to paint the exterior appearance of the body but, as no one before him had done, to cast over it a reflection of the mystery of the inner life. In the Mona Lisa and his other masterpieces he even used landscape not merely as a more or less picturesque decoration, but as a sort of echo of that interior life and an element of a perfect harmony. Relying on the still quite novel laws of perspective this doctor of scholastic wisdom, who was at the same time an initiator of modern thought, substituted for the discursive manner of the Primitives the principle of concentration which is the basis of classical art. The picture is no longer presented to us as an almost fortuitous aggregate of details and episodes. It is an organism in which all the elements, lines and colours, shadows and lights, compose a subtle tracery converging on a spiritual, a sensuous centre. It was not with the external significance of objects, but with their inward and spiritual significance, that Leonardo was occupied.

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Publié par
Date de parution 15 mars 2013
Nombre de lectures 6
EAN13 9781781606292
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,021€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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Author: Gabriel Séailles

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ISBN: 978-1-78160-629-2

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All rights of adaptation and reproduction reserved for all countries. Unless otherwise mentioned, the copyright for the reproductions of art work belong to the photographers who created them. In spite of our research, in some cases we were unable to establish the intellectual property rights. Please address any claims to the publishing house.
Gabriel Séailles




Leonardo da Vinci
Table of content


1. Portrait of a Young Woman, Genevra d’Benci, 1474-1476

2. Dreyfus Madonna (Virgin of the pomegranates), c.1471

3. Virgin and Child (Virgin with carnation), c.1470

BIOGRAPHY

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Portrait of a Young Woman, Genevra d’Benci , 1474-1476.
Oil on panel, 42.7 x 37 cm.
The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Leonardo was born in 1452 on the right bank of the Arno in the town of Vinci between Florence and Pisa. His father was Ser Piero who at that time was twenty-two or twenty-three years old. His mother was a young peasant girl named Catarina . One may well imagine the details of the little family drama that took place at the birth of Leonardo which put a brusque and prosaic end to his parents’ romantic idyll. Ser Piero broke his vows with Catarina , at the urging of his father without a doubt, taking his son with him, and in that same year married Albiera di Giovanni Amadori . For her part, Catarina quietly married a certain Accatabriga di Piero del Vacca , a peasant who did not look too closely into her past. As an illegitimate son living with his father, Leonardo grew up without that maternal influence which every great man with self-respect should experience. Leonardo da Vinci spent his childhood in his father’s house. Probably he was not made to suffer because he had been born out of wedlock, since it was his good luck that during his childhood no legitimate child was born to turn his stepmother’s mistrust against him.
We know very little about his early studies. He went from Vinci to Verrocchio’s studio in 1470 at the latest, and, starting in the year 1472, his name is written in the register of the painters’ guild as an independent member. Perugin and Lorenzo di Credi were his fellow students at the studio. This is the time when, with the divine gift of youth and infinity of hope, the world opened up before him. As an artist, from his very first works, he attracted all eyes, aroused the attention of his rivals and, if we can believe the legend, discouraged his master. Verrochio had received an order from the Vallombrosa monks for a Baptism of Christ and Leonardo contributed a kneeling angel to that painting. The figure should have been unnoticeable within the group work, but it stood out to such an extent that nothing else was noticed. Vasari tells the story that since the master-painter was so “disturbed to see a child paint better than himself, Verrocchio decided that from that day forward he would never again take up a brush”. During that first stay in Florence, Leonardo must have led a brilliant, and probably somewhat dissipated, existence ,. More than once his comic verve showed up at the expense of the stolid bourgeoisie of Florence.
Almost all of Leonardo’s first works have been lost. They are hardly known at all except from the descriptions of Vasari. But those descriptions are enough to show us that from the beginning he had found his own identity as an artist. Already the scholar in him appears within the artist, studying nature’s functions in order to use her methods in the human sphere like a machine that responds to one’s needs, or a work of art that enriches the soul with the emotions it awakens.
He already had the skill of composition, the science of chiaroscuro , the joyful attitude and the strength of expression which would make all of his contemporaries from Perugin ( Virgin, in the museum in Nancy, Virgin of the Rocks ,) to Lorenzo di Credi , Michelangelo and Raphael, become – to a greater or lesser extent – imitators of Leonardo.
2. Dreyfus Madonna (Virgin of the pomegranates) , c.1471.
Oil on wood, 15.7 x 12.8 cm.
The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
3. Virgin and Child (Virgin with carnation), c.1470.
Oil on wood, 62 x 47.5 cm.
Alte Pinakothek , Munich.
One can sense the living spirit of da Vinci in his works as it moves from the soul to the body, from the inside to the outside, first imagining feelings, and then their expression in gesture and physiognomy. By insisting on emotion, he defines it and varies its nuances. But, as a painter, he does not separate this from the movement that follows from it. He sees it represented in the bodies it animates, and he follows, with his impeccable hand, the lines moved by that ineffable shiver of inner life. If the scholar in da Vinci did not kill the artist, it is because above all he loved invention. He never asked of science more than the power it bestows to act and to create.
Already in this first period of his life, Leonardo was many things; a painter, a sculptor, an architect, an engineer and a scholar – in a word, a man who is a real man, and whose actions flow in all directions.


LEONARDO DA VINCI IN MILAN (1483-1499)

At thirty, Leonardo was in full possession of his talent. No longer the sublime child of the Baptism of Christ, he knew what he wanted and what he could do. He had method and he had genius. His early successes gave him the highest aspirations. What was he missing? A free field of action, material power, money, everything that could turn his dreams into reality. Although he had been reproached for leaving Florence for Milan, and Lorenzo da Medici for Ludovico Sforza, he went to Milan looking for what he would look for all his life, a prince who trusted in his genius and who would give him the means for action. Leonardo came to Milan seeking the opportunity to act, and to exercise his universal genius. He could not have found anyone better than this prince who was avid for glory, curious about all the sciences and intent on justifying his usurpation of power by making Milan the most important city in Italy and the rival of Florence.
Leonardo was the man Sforza needed for this purpose. For the regent, the duke, and the other noblemen, he organised fashionable shows, processions, triumphal scenes, and mythological pantomimes ( Perseus and Andromeda , Orpheus Charming the Wild Beasts , etc.), and cleverly-directed allegories in which the symbolic characters seemed to float in the air. By employing beautiful forms and beautiful colours , and by using a harmony of refined sensations, all of these entertainments blended art with life. Leonardo designed the costumes, directed the troupes, designated the decorations for the characters, and invented ingenious tricks to enliven the shows. But these roles of director and decorator were merely superficial games within the scope of his genius. While amusing himself by inventing ephemeral shows that reflected the vagaries of the changing moods and fashions of the great ladies of Milan, he worked on lasting works of art, which are, to this day, continually reborn and freshly renewed in the spirit of mankind.
4. Benois Madonna , 1475-1478.
Oil on wood transferred to canvas,
49.5 x 33 cm.
Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
5. Virgin and Child (Virgin with carnation) (detail), c.1470.
Oil on wood, 62 x 47.5 cm.
Alte Pinakothek , Munich.
6. Saint Anne, the Virgin with the Child and child John the Baptist, 1499-1500.
Cartoon, 141.5 x 104.6 cm.
National Gallery, London.
Leonardo’s great work in Milan was The Last Supper , which he painted in the refectory of the Santa Maria delle Grazie Church, working on it for many years, perhaps ten. He did not deign to use trompe-l’oeil in his paintings. He wanted his work to perfectly reflect Nature as it is seen by the human eye. One seems to enter this painting and see the actual table with those men seated behind it at the end of a long hall . The master used his profound knowledge of perspective to achieve that effect.
We have not yet exhausted the scope of Leonardo’s activities. When speaking of him, it is perfectly correct to say that, to him more than to any other man, nothing human was foreign or unfamiliar. In Milan, he was not only the court’s party organizer, its greatest painter, and its greatest sculptor, but, together with Bramante, he held the title of “ ingeniarius ducalis ”. The word ingeniarius has the double meaning of engineer and architect. However, we know of no building of that period that was built under his direction or with his plans.
But Leonardo was both an architect and a theoretician of architecture. According to the immutable laws of his spirit, he travelled from art to the science that it implies. Reflection is never very far from action for him because he directs reflection immediately towards the ability to act upon it. The curiosity of the scholar within him is simply the ambition of a man who passionately studies the laws of nature in order to surpass them as he imitates them. He studies the cracks in walls, their causes, and their remedies: “First, treat the causes which lead to breaks in the walls, and then separately treat these ills.” He studies the nature of the arch, “which is nothing other than a strength caused by two weaknesses”, and then the laws that must be observed in the division of the load it bears, the relations of the foundation to the building it must support, and the resistance of the beams.
Involved as he was in the construction of great religious buildings, such as the cathedra

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