Animation
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196 pages
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Description

A comprehensive introduction to the animation industry


Animation—Art and Industry is an introductory reader covering a broad range of animation studies topics, focusing on both American and international contexts. It provides information about key individuals in the fields of both independent and experimental animation, and introduces a variety of topics relevant to the critical study of media—censorship, representations of gender and race, and the relationship between popular culture and fine art. Essays span the silent era to the present, include new media such as web animation and gaming, and address animation made using a variety of techniques.


Introduction: Maureen Furniss
Part I. Global Perspectives
Cecile Starr Fine Art Animation
William Moritz Some Critical Perspectives on Lotte Reiniger
Esther Leslie It's Mickey Mouse
Terence Dobson Norman McLaren: His UNESCO Work in Asia
Patrick Drazen Conventions versus Clichés
Helen McCarthy My Neighbor Totoro
Marian Quigley Glocalisation vs. Globalization: The Work of Nick Park and Peter Lord
Terry Lindvall and Matthew Melton Toward a Postmodern Animated Discourse: Bakhtin, Intertexuality and the Cartoon Carnival
Edwin Carels 1895: Animation, History and the Metafilm
Jørgen Stensland Innocent Play or the Copycat Effect? Computer Game Research and Classification

Part II. Animation in America
John Canemaker Winsor McCay
J.B. Kaufman The Live Wire: Margaret J. Winkler and Animation History
Bill Mikulak Disney and the Art World: The Early Years
John Lewell The Art of Chuck Jones
Charles Solomon The Disney Studio at War
Jules Engel Untitled essay in "The United Productions of America: Reminiscing Thirty Years Later" Edited by William Moritz. ASIFA Canada
Karl Cohen Blacklisted Animators
Michael Frierson Clay Animation and the Early Days of Television: The 'Gumby' series
Bill Hanna and Tom Ito Commercial Breaks
George Griffin Cartoon, Anti-Cartoon
James Lindner; John Lasseter; Tina Price; and Carl Rosendahl Computers, New Technology and Animation
Sean Griffin The Illusion of 'Identity': Gender and Racial Representation in Aladdin
Linda Simensky Selling Bugs Bunny: Warner Bros. and Character Merchandising in the Nineties

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Publié par
Date de parution 05 octobre 2009
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780861969043
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 14 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0500€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Extrait

ANIMATION:
ART & INDUSTRY
ANIMATION:
ART & INDUSTRY

Edited by
Maureen Furniss
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Animation: Art & Industry

A catalogue entry for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 9780 86196 680 6 (Paperback)

Cover: Visual development sketch by Jules Engel, courtesy of the artist.
Ebook edition ISBN: 978-0-86196-904-3

Ebook edition published by
John Libbey Publishing Ltd, 3 Leicester Road, New Barnet, Herts EN5 5EW, United Kingdom
e-mail: john.libbey@orange.fr ; web site: www.johnlibbey.com

Printed and electronic book orders (Worldwide): Indiana University Press, Herman B Wells Library – 350, 1320 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
www.iupress.indiana.edu

© 2012 Copyright John Libbey Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Unauthorised duplication contravenes applicable laws.
Contents
Introduction Maureen Furniss GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES Chapter 1 Starr, Cecile. "Fine Art Animation". The Art of the Animated Image: An Anthology . Ed. Charles Solomon. Los Angeles: The American Film Institute, 1987. 67–71. Chapter 2 Moritz, William. "Some Critical Perspectives on Lotte Reiniger". Animation Journal 5:1 (Fall 1996). 40–51. Chapter 3 Leslie, Esther. "it’s mickey mouse". Hollywood Flatlands London: Verso, 2002. 25–32. Chapter 4 Dobson, Terence. "Norman McLaren: His UNESCO Work in Asia", Animation Journal 8:2 (Spring 2000). 4–17. Chapter 5 Drazen, Patrick. "Conventions versus Clichés". Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation . Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2003. 16–27. Edited Chapter 6 McCarthy, Helen. "My Neighbor Totoro". Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation . Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 1999. 116–123, 132–138. Chapter 7 Quigley, Marian. "Glocalisation vs. Globalization: The Work of Nick Park and Peter Lord" Animation Journal 10 (2002). 85–94. Chapter 8 Lindvall, Terry & Matthew Melton. "Toward a Postmodern Animated Discourse: Bakhtin, Intertexuality and the Cartoon Carnival", Animation Journal 3:1 (Fall 1994), 44–64. Chapter 9 Stensland, Jørgen. "Innocent Play or the Copycat Effect? Computer Game Research and Classification". Animation Journal 9 (2001). 20–35. Revised. ANIMATION IN AMERICA Chapter 10 Canemaker, John. "Winsor McCay". The American Animated Cartoon . Ed. Donald Peary and Gerald Peary. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1980. 12–23. Revised. Chapter 11 Kaufman, J.B. "The Live Wire: Margaret J. Winkler and Animation History". Unpublished essay. 2004. Chapter 12 Mikulak, Bill. "Disney and the Art World: The Early Years". Animation Journal 4: 2 (Spring 1996). 18–42. Chapter 13 Lewell, John. "The Art of Chuck Jones". Films and Filming 336 (Sept 1982). 12–20. Chapter 14 Solomon, Charles. "The Disney Studio at War" in Walt Disney: An Intimate History of the Man and His Magic (1998). Walt Disney Family Foundation. Chapter 15 Engel, Jules. Untitled essay in "The United Productions of America: Reminiscing Thirty Years Later". Edited by William Moritz. ASIFA Canada (December 1984). 15–17. Chapter 16 Cohen, Karl. "Blacklisted Animators". Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America . Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997. 155–191. Edited. Chapter 17 Frierson, Michael. "Clay Animation and the Early Days of Television: The ‘Gumby’ series". Clay Animation: American Highlights 1908 to the Present . New York: Twayne, 1994. 116–131. Chapter 18 Hanna, Bill & Tom Ito. "Commercial Breaks". A Cast of Friends . Dallas: Taylor, 1996. 131–139. Chapter 19 Griffin, George. "Cartoon, Anti-Cartoon". The American Animated Cartoon . Ed. Donald Peary and Gerald Peary. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1980. 261–268. Revised. Chapter 20 Lindner, James; John Lasseter; Tina Price; and Carl Rosendahl. "Computers, New Technology and Animation". Storytelling in Animation: The Art of the Animated Image . Vol 2. Ed. John Canemaker. Los Angeles: American Film Institute, 1988. 59–69. Chapter 21 Griffin, Sean. "The Illusion of ‘Identity’: Gender and Racial Representation in Aladdin ". Animation Journal 3:1 (Fall 1994). 64–73. Chapter 22 Simensky, Linda. "Selling Bugs Bunny: Warner Bros. and Character Merchandising in the Nineties". Reading the Rabbit: Explorations in Warner Bros. Animation . Ed. Kevin S. Sandler. New Brunswick: Rutgers, 1998. 172–192. Revised.
Introduction

Maureen Furniss

T he concept of animation – bringing objects to life – has fascinated humankind since its earliest days. Throughout the years, animated movement has been employed in religious, scientific, educational, and entertainment contexts to explain everything from the spirit world to the mechanics of mundane objects. Some of the most recognizable icons of modern culture have emerged from animated productions, and some of our greatest works of art have been created using multiple frames that have brought still images to life.
This book focuses primarily on animation as entertainment and art, with an emphasis on work created for television and theatrical release. It surveys major artists working throughout history in various national contexts. While it touches on digitally created work, the main concern is with classical animation of the 20th century: pioneers, trendsetters, and critically acclaimed individuals and works within the field. It contains writing and interviews by influential historians and practitioners, including both reprints of significant essays (some of them updated) and previously unpublished writing. Topics covered range from aesthetics to business concerns, such as the role of merchandising and censorship in shaping the content of animation.
Essays are historical, as well as theoretical, reflecting the spectrum of writing on animation that began appearing in the 1980s. While examples of critical writing produced prior to this decade do exist, one finds that the real blossoming of animation studies literature occurs at the end of the 20th century, in part reflecting the growth of animated imagery in society. Animation has become ubiquitous, flowing from many sources: the Internet, cable television programming (for example, on Nickelodeon, the Disney Channel, Comedy Central, and especially Cartoon Network), television advertising, training materials, gaming, scientific applications, theatrical features, and more.
The first half of the book presents essays that overview animation history, aesthetics and theory in a global context. The volume begins with an essay by Cecile Starr, an important pioneer in the realm of fine art animation. Not only did she contribute a seminal book in the field, Experimental Animation (co-authored with Robert Russett), but she distributed and advocated the work of a number of international artists who otherwise might not have been ‘discovered’ by the larger animation community. In her essay, she argues that animation is deserving of more respect within the art community, and hopes for the day when animated productions will be as common within museums as paintings and other forms of expression.
It is not difficult to regard the detailed, ornate works of German animator Lotte Reiniger as art. In his essay, William Moritz focuses on the tradition of paper cutting, which Reiniger employed to make figures for her silhouette films – including one of the first feature-length productions ever produced, The Adventures of Prince Achmed , which was completed in 1926. Moritz suggests that Reiniger’s work can be considered in feminist terms, explaining how her aesthetic developed around the scissor craft learned by many German women at the time.
Even one of the most commercially successful figures in animation history – Mickey Mouse – began its life with ties to the fine art world. Esther Leslie’s essay focuses on the inception of Disney’s most famous creation, describing the relationship between early animation practice and the larger realm of international art production. Leslie explains how Mickey Mouse’s image slipped from the realm of the avant-garde, as it caught the attention of cultural critics during the early 1930s, to the tamer, more commercial domain it still occupies today.
Norman McLaren, who is best known for heading the animation unit at the National Film Board of Canada, created many celebrated animated productions employing a wide range of techniques. McLaren’s animation was substantially motivated by his social consciousness, as Terence Dobson’s essay suggests: his travels to China and India for UNESCO had a great impact on him. This essay also explains how his work in other countries may have shielded him from political problems of his time – specifically, blacklisting within North America due to associations with the communist party.
American animation dominated world production throughout most of the 20th century, just as US-produced live-action media did. However, its power has not been absolute. Japanese animation is now popular worldwide, and its impact on the aesthetics of animation production have been felt globally. The growth of home entertainment media fueled distribution of work that was once the domain of a tightly knit fan culture that valued and explored the visual and narrative devices specific to anime. Patrick Drazen’s essay on conventions and clichés in Japane

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