Art in Motion, Revised Edition
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237 pages

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Art in Motion, Revised Edition is the first comprehensive examination of the aesthetics of animation in its many forms. It gives an overview of the relationship between animation studies and media studies, then focuses on specific aesthetic issues concerning flat and dimensional animation, full and limited animation, and new technologies. A series of studies on abstract animation, audiences, representation, and institutional regulators is also included.



Publié par
Date de parution 05 février 2008
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780861969449
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 7 Mo

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Art in Motion
Animation Aesthetics
Art in Motion
Animation Aesthetics
Maureen Furniss
Cover image from Jules Engel s Meadow (1995). Courtesy of the artist .
Copyright 1998 John Libbey Company Limited. Revised edition 2007 Reprinted 2009 and 2012. Print on Demand edition 2014
All rights reserved. Unauthorised duplication contravenes applicable laws.
The publisher and author have undertaken all efforts to acquire permission to reproduce the illustrations used in this book. If any infringement occurs it is unintentional.
National Library Cataloguing in Publication Data:
Furniss, Maureen
Art in motion: animation aesthetics.
Includes index.
ISBN: 9780 86196 663 9
1. Animation (Cinematography). 2. Motion pictures - Aesthetics. 3. Animated films. I. Title.
Published by John Libbey Publishing Ltd, 5 Leicester Road, New Barnet, Herts EN5 5EW, UK e-mail: ; web site:
Orders outside USA:
Distributed in North America by Indiana University Press, 601 North Morton St, Bloomington, IN 47404, USA.
2014 Copyright this edition John Libbey Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Unauthorised duplication contravenes applicable laws.
Printed in the United States of America.
1. Introduction to animation studies
Defining animation
Conducting animation research
2. Foundations of studio practices
Dominant traits of the animation industry
Development of the American film industry
Innovations in animation techniques
Mass-production and creative control
Marketing through innovation and differentiation
3. Alternatives in animation production
Modes of animation production
Two-dimensional animation as an extension of other arts
Drawing and painting
Direct animation
Cut-outs and collage
Under lit sand
Strata-cut and wax
4. General concepts: Mise-en-sc ne
Components of animation design
Image design
Colour and line
Movement and kinetics
5. General concepts: Sound and structural design
Elements of sound
Dialogue in animation
Sound effects
Musical scores
Structural design
6. Classical-era Disney Studio
An overview of Disney s early years
Traditional storytelling
Promotional strategies
Shifts in the studio s structure
7. Full and limited animation
Aesthetics of full and limited animation
United Productions of America (UPA)
Made-for-television animation
Aesthetics of early television animation
Contemporary uses of limited animation
8. Stop-motion animation
Aesthetics of stop-motion animation
Overview of the techniques
Backgrounds and characters
Movement in stop-motion animation
Uncanny object s
9. Animation and digital media
Introduction to digital animation
Basic terms and concepts
Stages of industry development
Aesthetic issues
Aesthetic challenges
10. Institutional regulators
Taste and control
Broadcast standards and practices
Governmental regulation of content
11. Animation audiences
Predicting profitability
Merchandising strategies
Market research
12. Issues of representation
Addressing cultural difference
Gender and the animation industry
Representations of femininity in animation
Developing an alternative form of expression
13. Considering form in abstract animation
Structural models
Watching abstract animation
Musical influences on content and form
Arnold Schoenberg and atonal music
Vibration and the music of the spheres
T he world of animation has changed a great deal since the mid-1980s. Today, animated imagery surrounds us, in feature films, television series, games, and other contexts. Computer animation has opened many opportunities, and closed others. While traditional cel animation techniques have been largely replaced by digital ink and paint systems, the computer has allowed for the growth of animation that looks very different from the classical cel animated features that dominated production for so many years. With the assistance of computers, one can much more easily produce work that employs - or simulates - watercolors, colored pencils, charcoals, and many other media. Artists can now use computer-generated imagery to create three-dimensional characters and environments that range from cartoon-like to ultra-realistic. So, while many of the jobs of traditional cel animation have largely disappeared, new jobs have emerged - many of them related to digital production.
During this time of industrial expansion, there has been a similar growth in the realm of animation literature. When the first edition of this book was published in 1998, it represented the culmination of ten years of my personal research. At that time, books covered only limited amount of animation topics. Now, just a few years later, one can find numerous books covering the history, theory, and criticism of animation - and not just related to American studio production. For example, Japanese animation - including the highly acclaimed work of Hayao Miyazaki - has attracted critical attention, partly because of the vast size and diversity of the industry and partly because of its international popularity. We also have much greater access to animated productions from throughout the world due to the increased availability of Web animation and DVDs, which often contain useful supplemental material.
As animation spreads through society - showing up on the World Wide Web, on Cable Channels broadcasting 24-hours a day, in DVD collections, and even on our mobile phones - we increasingly appreciate its potential as a means of entertaining and informing people across the world. However, the growth in not only exhibition contexts but also production media leaves educators and students with a big question: how do we train for this multifaceted field, using the latest technology - while still being grounded in essential qualities of the art form? It remains vital to understand aesthetic issues related to animation and discuss them in classrooms and other forums. This edition of Art in Motion: Animation Aesthetics retains the bulk of its original form, while incorporating new information and updating material to bring its discussion into the new social and historical contexts of animation production.
Like its first edition, this book is divided into two parts. Part 1 covers fundamental issues that pave the way for a discussion of animation aesthetics in various contexts. Chapter 1 introduces the realm of animation studies , providing definition of the term animation and suggesting approaches to research. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of animated film in its early years, mainly focusing on the American industry, including the rivalry between the Fleischer and Disney studios. Chapter 3 overviews a range of animation media used to create two-dimensional work - alternatives to the once dominant practice of cel animation. With these options in mind, the reader then moves into two chapters covering general concepts related to animation aesthetics. Chapter 4 focuses on visual elements: image design, color and line, and movement and kinetics. Chapter 5 examines aesthetic considerations outside the visual realm: sound and structural design.
The Disney studio has been so significant to the history of animation that it warrants its own chapter. Chapter 6 examines its use of traditional storytelling and explains how censorship affected Disney s work. It also discusses the studio s promotional strategies and changes that occurred during the post-WWII period. Chapter 7 segues to the topic of limited animation, which represents an aesthetic alternative to Disney s full animation style. This chapter examines UPA, which popularised limited animation in the late 1940s and early 1950s, as well as contemporary uses of the technique. The rest of Part 1 , Chapters 8 and 9 , focuses on the aesthetics of stop-motion and digital animation in its various forms.
Whereas the chapters of Part 1 are best read in order, the chapters of Part 2 are more autonomous, representing a range of different studies. Topics covered include censorship and regulation ( Chapter 10 ), audiences for animation ( Chapter 11 ), representation issues ( Chapter 12 ), and abstract animation ( Chapter 13 ). The chapters of the book collectively provide the reader with an understanding of not only terminology used to discuss animated works, but a range of significant factors affecting production, exhibition, and reception of animation. Chapters contain examples from around the world, though the majority of information focuses on American contexts. The examples of animation used in the book are almost exclusively short subject and feature-length animation, though principles described here can be applied at least in part to animation in other contexts, such as games.
In the first version of my book, I had many people to thank. The majority of those people have remained steadfast friends and colleagues through the many projects, challenges, and achievements that have come since that time. Some of them have left us - I greatly miss Bill Moritz, Jules Engel, and Elfriede Fischinger, all of whom were so helpful to me

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