Humanities Translation From English Into Arabic
203 pages
English
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Humanities Translation From English Into Arabic

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203 pages
English

Description

ARABIC LANGUAGE , TRANSLATION , HUMANITIES

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 2008
Nombre de lectures 4
EAN13 9796500022697
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0022€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

HUMANITIES
TRANSLATION :
FROM ENGLISH INTO ARABIC
:ﺔﻴﻧﺎــﺴﻧﻹا مﻮﻠـــﻌﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ
ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﱃإ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻦﻣ
Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli
Publisher : DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ ح ﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا
P. o. Box 818 818 ب .ص
Swaileh 11910 11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ
Jordan ندرﻷا
Tel & fax 009626-5411547 009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ
E-mail: books @daralfalah.com
Website: www.daralfalah.com
.ﻪﻨﻣ ءﺰﺟ يأ وأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﺮﻳﻮﺼﺗ ﻊﻨي ، نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا ﺐﺟﻮب
ﴍﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﻇﻮﻔﺤﻣ قﻮﻘﺤﻟا ﻊﻴﻤﺟ



َ

Copyright: by the publisher
All rights are reserved.
No part of this book may be translated, reproduced , stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording ,
without the prior written permission of the publisher .
2008 Edition
Publisher : DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد : ﴍﺎﻨﻟا
P.O. BOX 818 818 صب .
Swaileh 11910 11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ
Jordan ندرﻷا
Tel & Fax 009626-5411547 009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓ و ﻒﺗﺎﻫ
E-mail: books@daralfalah.com
Website: WWW.daralfalah.com

ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر
2001/7/1373
418, 022
ﲇﻋ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ، ﱄﻮﺨﻟا
ﲇﻋ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ / ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻦﻣ : ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺴﻧﻹا مﻮﻠﻌﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ
2001 ، حﻼﻔﻟا راد : نم ﻋ . ﱄﻮﺨﻟا
ص ( 202 )
2001/ 7 /1373 : ! .ر
. ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا / ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺴﻧﻹا مﻮﻠﻌﻟا / ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا : تﺎﻔﺻاﻮﳌا
ندرﻷا ، ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ داﺪﻋإ ﻢﺗ 
2001 / 7 / 1365 ﴩﻨﻟاو تﺎﻋﻮﺒﻄﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻹا ﻢﻗر
ISBN 9957- 401- 39 – 4 ( ﻚﻣدر )



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CONTENTS
PREFACE …………………………………………………… 5
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRANSLATION …………. 8
UNIT 1. LEARNING AND ACQUIRING……………………………................. 16
UNIT 2. ENGLAND AND SHAKESPEARE …………....................................... 20
UNIT 3. WHAT IS LITERATURE, AND WHY DO WE STUDY IT ?.............. 24
UNIT 4. ARABIA AND HER NEIGHBOURS ……………………………… 28
UNIT 5. SOME INTELLECUAL FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL
SOCIOLOGY……………………………………………………… 32
UNIT 6. GAMES AND LANGUAGE TEACHING…....................................... 36
UNIT 7. CHANGES IN GEOGRAPHY TEACHIN ………………………….. 40
UNIT 8. THE USE OF THE COMPASS ……………………………….......... 44
UNIT 9. THE PERIOD OF THE WARRING STATES ……………. 48
UNIT 10. THE HUMANTTY OF THE ASIA ……………………………….. 52
UNIT 11. SITERATURE AS A SPECIALIST SUBJECT …………. 56
UNIT 12. THE PURPOSES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE …………... 60
UNIT 13. CHANING STUDENT NEEDS AND A TEACHER‘ S ROLE ……. 64
UNIT 14. TEACHING METHODS COMPARED WITH OTHER
EDUCCATIONAL CONCEPTS ………………………………....... 68
UNIT 15. SOCIAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT …………………….... 72
UNIT 16. LAW AND POLITICS ……………………………...... 76
UNIT 17. THE CENTRAL STATUS OF LEARNING IN PSYCHOLOGY….. 80
UNIT 18. THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY ……………… 84
UNIT 19. GEOGRAPHY IN AFTER-SCHOOL LIFE …………………… 88
UNIT 20. THE NEED FOR MODELS ………………………………….... 92

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UNIT 21. THE POLICAN‘S PROBLEM …………………………………. 96
UNIT 22. THE FOUNATIONS OF MODERN POLITICS ……… 100
UNIT 23. THINKING ABOIT POLITICS ………………………………... 104
UNIT 24 . THE ART OF LITERATURE ………………………………………………….. 108
UNIT 25. LIFE AND WRITINGS OF ARISTOTLE ……………………………..... 112
UNIT 26. ANCIENT PHIIL SOPHY ………………………………………………………. 116
UNIT 27. INDUSTRIAL SOCOETY AND INDUSTRIAL SOCIOLOGY….. 120
UNIT 28. RESEARCH IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION …………….. 124
UNIT 29. THE NATURE OF SOCIETY ……………………………………. 128
UNIT 30. MOROCCO ………………………………………………………………………………. 132
UNIT 31. WHY WRITE ? ……………………………………………………………………. 136
UNIT 32. LITERATURE ………………………………………………. 140
UNIT 33. NINTEENTH-CNNTURY ART IN THE UNITED STATES …… 144
UNIT 34. THE LARYNX AND FOICING …………………………………………….. 148
UNIT 35. PRONUNCIATION AND SPELING ………………………………………. 152
UNIT 36. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AESTHETICS ………………………………… 156
UNIT 37. YOUR KEY TO A BETTER LIFE ……………………………………….... 160
UNIT 38. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD ………………………………………………… 164
UNIT 39. KNOWLEDGE AND MASTERY OF LANGUAGE ……………….. 168
UNIT 40. WHAT IS GOOD TEACHING ? ……………………………………………. 172
UNIT 41. THE AIMS OF EDUCATION ………………………….. 176
UNIT 42. TRAINING ………………………………………………….. 180
UNIT 43. THE ART OF TEACHING ……………………………… 184
UNIT 44. ERRORS AS POSITIVE AIDS TO LEARNING ………………………. 188
UNIT 45. SOCAL MOVEMENTS …………………………………………………………. 192
TEXT SOURCES ………………………………………………………………………………. 196
THE AUTHORU'S BOOKS …………………………………………………………….. 200

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ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟا ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟا ﻪـﻠـﻟا ﻢﺴﺑ
PREFACE
ﺔــﻣﺪــﻘـﻣ
تءﺎﺟ ، ﻚﻟﺬﻟو . ﺔﻴﻋمﺘﺟﻹا مﻮـــــﻠﻌﻟاو ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺴﻧﻹا مﻮﻠﻌﻟا ﰲ صﻮﺼﻧ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﲆﻋ ﺐﻳرﺪﺗ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ
ﺔﻴﺑﱰﻟا، ﺎﻴﻓاﺮﻐﺠﻟا ، ﺲﻔﻨﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ ، تﺎﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟا ، بدﻷا ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ ، ﺦﻳرﺎﺘﻟا : ﺎﻬــﺗﺎﻋﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻋﻮﻨﺘﻣ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻊﻄﻘﻟا
يوﺎﺴﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻌﺴﺘﻟا تﺎ ــــﻋﻮﺿﻮﳌا ﲆﻋ ﻊﻄﻘﻟا ﺖﻋزﻮﺗ ﺪﻗو . عمﺘﺟﻹا ﻢﻠﻋ و ، ﺔﻔﺴﻠﻔﻟا ، ﺔﺳﺎﻴﺴﻟا ﻢــــﻠﻋ ،
. عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻞﻜﻟ ﻊﻄﻗ ﺲﻤﺧ لﺪﻌب يأ ، ﺎﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ
ﺢﺿﻮﻳ نأ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﻦﺴﺤﻳو . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟا ئدﺎ ـــﺒﳌا لوﺎﻨﺘﻳ ﺎﻳﺪﻴﻬت اءﺰﺟ ﺔﺘﻳاﺪﺑ ﰲ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﻞﻤﺸﻳو
نأ ذﺎﺘﺳﻸﻟ ﻦﻜي ةﺪﻳﺪﻋ ىﺮﺧأ ئدﺎﺒﻣ كﺎﻨﻫ ، ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎﺑو . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟﺎﺑ ءﺪــﺒﻟا ﻞــﺒﻗ ﻪـــﺑﻼﻄﻟ ئدﺎ ـــﺒﳌا هﺬﻫ
. ﺎﺒﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﻚﻟذ ىأر مﻠﻛ ﻪﺑﻼﻄﻟ ﺎﻬﺤــــﺿﻮﻳ
ﻞﺼﻔﻟا ﰲ تاﴐﺎﺤﳌا دﺪ ــــــﻋ ي وﺎـــــﺴﺘﻟ ةﺪﺣو ﻦـــــﻴﻌﺑرأو ﺎــــﺴﻤﺧ تاﺪﺣﻮﻟا دﺪﻋ ﺖﻠﻌﺟ ﺪﻘﻟو
ﰲ ﺎﻋﻮﺒﺳأ ﺮــــﺸﻋ ﺔــــﺴﻤﺧ ىﺪﻣ ﲆﻋ ﺎـــــﻴﻋﻮﺒﺳأ تاﴐﺎ ـــــﺤﻣ ثﻼـــــﺛ سﺎــــﺳأ ﲆﻋ ، ﺪﺣاﻮﻟا ﳼارﺪﻟا
اذإ اﺬﻫ . ﺪﺣاﻮﻟا ﻲــــﺳارﺪﻟا ﻞــﺼﻔﻟا


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ﻦﻣ ءﺎﺸﻳ ﺎﻣ رﺎﻴﺘﺧا ﻦﻣ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا ﻦﻜي اﺬﻫ نﺈﻓ ، ﻞﻗأ تاﴐﺎﺤﳌا دﺪﻋ نﺎﻛ اذإو . ةﴐﺎﺤﻣ 45 ﺲﻳرﺪﺗ ﺎﻨﺿﱰﻓا
. ءﺎﺸﻳ ﺎﻣ ءﺎﻨﺜﺘﺳاو ﻊﻄﻘﻟا
ﺔﺑﻮﺘﻜﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟﺎﺑ بﻼﻄﻟا مﻮـــﻘﻳ نأ ﻲـــﻫ – ﻲــــﻳأر ﰲ – ﺔـﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺲﻳرﺪﺘﻟ قﺮﻄﻟا ﻞﻀﻓأ ﻦﻣ و
ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﺑ نﻮﻣﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﺛ ، ةﴐﺎﺤﳌا ءﺎﻨﺛأ ﰲ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا فاﴍﺈﺑ ﺔـــﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻖﻴﻗﺪﺘﺑ بﻼﻄﻟا مﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﺛ ، ﻒﺼﻟا ج رﺎﺧ
ﰲ ﱃوﻷا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻠﻟ بﻼ ــﻄﻟا ﺔـــﺑﺎﺘﻛ (1) : ﻞﺣاﺮﻣ ثﻼﺛ كﺎﻨﻫ ، ىﺮﺧأ ةرﺎﺒﻌﺑ . ﻒﺼﻟا جرﺎﺧ ﺔــﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟا ﺔـــﻤﺟﱰﻟا
ﻚﺷ ﻻ . ﺖﻴﺒﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻠﻟ بﻼﻄﻟا ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ (3) ، ﻒﺼﻟا ﰲ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا فاﴍﺈﺑ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻖﻴﻗﺪﺗ (2) ، ﺖﻴﺒﻟا
، لﺎﺣ يأ ﻰ ــﻠﻋو . قﺮﻄﻟا ﻞﻀﻓأ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﻟا هﺬﻫ نأ ﺪﻘﺘﻋأ ﻲﻨﻨﻜﻟو ، ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺲﻳرﺪﺘﻟ ىﺮـــﺧأ ﺎﻗﺮﻃ كﺎﻨﻫ نأ
. ﻪﻟ قوﺮﻳ ﺎﻣ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ رﺎﺘﺨﻳو قﺮﻃ ةﺪﻋ بﺮﺠﻳ نأ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﻦﺴﺤﻳ
ءﻞﳌ ﺐﻟﺎﻐﻟا ﰲ ﺔـﻴﻓﺎـﻛ ﺔـﻴـﻤـﻛ ﻲـﻫو ، ﻦـﻴـﺘـﺤﻔـﺻ ﻦـﻣ ﺺـﻧ ﲆـﻋ يﻮﺘﺤﺗ بﺎ ـﺘـﻜﻟا ﻲـﻓ ةﺪــﺣو ﻞـﻛ
ﺖﺤـﺗ ﻦـﻴـﺘﺤﻔﺼﻟا ﺔـﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻦﻣ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا ﻦﻜﻤـﺘﻳ ﻻ ﺪﻗ ، ﺔﻘﻴﻘﺤﻟا ﰲو . ةﴐﺎﺤﳌا ﺖﻗو ﻲﻫ ﻦـﻣﺰﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺔـﻋﺎﺳ
ﻢﻫيـــﻀﺤﺗ ىﺪـــﻣ ﻰـﻠﻋو بﻼ ــﻄﻟا ىﻮـﺘــﺴﻣ ﲆـﻋو ﺺـﻨﻟا ﺔﺑﻮـﻌـﺻ ﲆـﻋ ﻒـﻗﻮـﺘـﻳ ﺮـﻣﻷا نإ . ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻂﻐﺿ
ﺾـﻌﺒﺑ ﻲﻔـﺘﻜـﻳ ﺪـــﻗ ذإ ، ﻦـــﻴﺘﺤﻔﺼﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﺑ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا م ﺰﻠﻳ ءﳾ ﻻ . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺲﻳرﺪﺗ ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻃ ﻰـــﻠﻋو
ﻦﻣ ﻊـﻴﻄﺘﺴﻳ ﺎﻣ ﺮـﺜﻛأ ﻢـﺟﺮـﺘﻳ نأ ﺎـئاد ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻠﻟ حﻮـﺘﻔﻣ لﺎـﺠﻣ كﺎﻨﻫ ﻦﻜﻟو . ﻦـﻴـﺘﺤﻔﺼﻟا ىﺪـﺣإ وأ تاﺮ ـﻘﻔﻟا
ﻂـــﻐﺿ ﺖـــﺤﺗ ﻒـــﺼﻟا ﰲ لﺎـﺤﻟا ﻮـﻫ ﺎـﻤﻣ ﻒﺼـﻟا جرﺎــﺧ ﺖــــﻗﻮﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻊــﺳوأ ﻻﺎـﺠﻣ ﻪـﻳﺪﻟ نﻷ ﺺـﻨﻟا
. ةﺮـﺿﺎـﺤﻤﻠﻟ دوﺪـــﺤﳌا ﺖـــﻗﻮﻟا
Helpf ةﺪـﻋﺎـﺴﻣ تﺎ ـﻤـﻠـﻛ ﻰـﻠـــﻋ ةﺪــــﺣو ﻞـــﻛ يﻮـﺘﺤـﺗ ، ﺺـــﻨﻟا ﻰــﻟإ ﺔــﻓﺎـﺿﻹﺎﺑ
ةدراﻮـﻟا تارﺎ ـﺒـﻌﻟا ﻢــﻫأ ناﻮــﻨـﻌﻟا اﺬـﻫ ﺖـﺤـﺗ ﺮـﻬـﻈـﺗو . Vocabulary



6
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، قﺎــﻴﺴﻟا ﺐـــــﻠﻄـﺘﻳ مﺒـــــﺴﺣ فﺪﻬـــــﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻬـﺘـﻤـﺟﺮـﺗ ةرﺎـﺒـﻋ ﻞـﻛ مﺎﻣأ ﺮﻬـﻈـﺗو ، ﺺـﻨﻟا ﻲـﻓ
ﻞﻛ ﲆﻋ يﻮﺘﺤﺗ ﻻ ةﺪﻋﺎﺴﳌا تﺎ ـــــﻤﻠﻜﻟا ﻦـﻣ ﺔﺤﻔـﺼﻟا هﺬـﻫ . ﺐﻟﺎـﻐﻟا ﻲـﻓ ﺔﻴﺣﻼﻄـﺻا تارﺎﺒ ـﻋ ﻲـﻫو
يﻌﺘﺴﻳ نأ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﲆﻋ و . ﻂﻘﻓ ﺎﻫزﺮﺑأ ﲆﻋ يﻮﺘﺤﺗ ﻞﺑ ، ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﺐﻟﺎـــﻄﻟا ﺎﻬـــﺟﺎﺘﺤﻳ ﻲـــﺘﻟا تارﺎﺒﻌﻟاو تادﺮﻔﳌا
. ﺎﻳروﴐ ﻚﻟذ ىأر مﻠﻛ ﻢﺠﻌﳌﺎــــﺑ
ﺔﻠﺻ يذ يﻮﻐﻟ ﻦﻳﺮت ﲆﻋ ةﺪﺣو ﻞـــﻛ يﻮﺘـــﺤﺗ ، ةﺪﻋﺎﺴﳌا تمﻠﻜﻟاو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺺﻨﻟا ﱃإ ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ
ﺔﻔﻨﺼﻣ ﻲﻫو . ﺺﻨﻟا ﰲ تدرو تمﻠﻛ ةﺪﻋ ﺮﻬﻈﺗ ﺚﻴﺣ ، قﺎﻘﺘﺷﻻا ﻦﻳﺮت ﻮﻫ ﺎﻨﻫ ﻦﻳرمﺘﻟا هﺬﻫ ﻊﻴﺷأو . ﺺﻨﻟﺎﺑ
ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ ، ﻼﻌﻓ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻛ اذإ ، ﻼـــﺜﻣ . ﻦﻳﺮﺧﻵا يﻋﻮﻨﻟا ﻖﺘﺸﻳ نأ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﲆﻋو ، تﺎﻔﺻ وأ ءمﺳأ وأ لﺎﻌﻓأ ﱃإ
ﺎﻀﻳأ ﻪﻴﻠﻋو . اﺬﻜﻫو ، ﻢﺳﻻاو ﻞﻌﻔﻟا ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻖﺘﺸﻳ نأ ، ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ ، ﺔـــﻔﺻ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ اذإو . ﺔﻔﺼﻟاو ﻢﺳﻻا ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻖﺘﺸﻳ نأ
ﺔﻴﺗادﺮﻔﳌا ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﺔﻠﻴﺼﺣ ءاﺮﺛإ ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺘﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻳﺎﻐﻟاو . ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻞﻛ مﺎﻣأ ىﺮﺧﻷا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﻞﺑﺎـــﻘﳌا ﺐـــﺘﻜﻳ نأ
. ﺔﻴﻤﺟﱰﻟا ةرﺪﻘﻟا ﰲ ﳼﺎﺳأ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻲﻫ ﻲﺘﻟا
ردﺎﺼﻣ يﺒﺗ ﺔئﺎﻗ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﺮﺧآ ﰲ تﺮﻬ ـــﻇ ﺪﻘﻠﻓ ، ﺔﻋﻮﻨﺘﻣ تﻼﺠﻣ وأ ﺐﺘﻛ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺴﺒﺘﻘﻣ صﻮﺼﻨﻟا نأ ﺎبو
. تﺎﺳﺎﺒﺘﻗﻻ ا هﺬﻫ
. ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟﺎﺑ ممﺘﻫا ﻪﻟ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻜﻟو ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا بﻼﻄﻟ ةﺪﺋﺎﻓ اذ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ نﻮﻜﻳ نأ ﻮﺟرأ ، ﺎﻣﺎﺘﺧو
يﳌﺎﻌﻟا بر ل ﺪﻤﺤﻟاو
ﱄﻮﺨﻟا ﲇﻋ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ .د.أ


7

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF
TRANSLATION
ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻣﺎﻋ ئدﺎﺒﻣ
ءﺎﻨﺛأ ﰲ ﻰﻋاﺮﺗ نأ ﺐــﺠﻳ ﻲﺘﻟا ئدﺎﺒﳌا ﻢﻫﺄﺑ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﻦﺴﺤﻳ ، بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ﺔﻳاﺪﺑ ﰲ
:ﲇﻳ ﺎﻣ ئدﺎﺒﳌا هﺬﻫ ﻦﻣو . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ
ةدﺪﻌﺘﻣ يأ ) ﻰﻨﻌﳌا ﺔــﻀﻣﺎﻏ Source Language رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻛ اذإ .1
فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻬﺿﻮﻤﻏ ﺔﻟازإ لوﺎﺤﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻌﻓ ، (تادﺮﻔﻣ ﺐﺒﺳ وأ يﻮﺤﻧ ﺐﺒﺴﻟ نﺎﻌﳌا
. ﻚﻟذ ﻪﻨﻜﻣأ مﻠﻛ target language

نﺎﻛ اذإ رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔــﻐﻠﻟا ﻲــﻓ ﺐﺗﺎــﻜﻟا هﺪﺼﻗ يﺬﻟا يﺛﺄﺘﻟا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻞﻘﻨﻳ نأ ﻦﺴﺤﺘﺴﻳ .2
... ﻼﻌﻔﻨﻣ مأ ﺎﺒﺿﺎﻏ مأ ﺎﺋزﺎﻫ مأ اﺮﺧﺎﺳ مأ ﺎﻄﺧﺎــﺳ ﺐﺗﺎـــﻜﻟا نﺎﻛ ﻞﻫ . يﺛﺄﺘﻟا ﻚﻟﺬﻟ ﺎﻛرﺪﻣ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا
. (فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟاو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا) يﺘﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻳارﺪﻟاو ةﱪﺨﻟاو ﺔــﺳرمﳌﺎﺑ ﻻإ تﺄﺘﻳ ﻻ اﺬﻫو ؟ ﺦﻟا
ةﺪﺋﺎﻓ ﻻ ذإ ، ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ءﺪــﺒﻠﻟ ﻖﺒــﺴﻣ طﴩﻛ ﺎﻣﺎت ﺺﻨﻟا ﻢﻬﻔﻳ نأ ﻦﻣ ﻢﺟﱰﻤﻠﻟ ﺪﺑ ﻻ .3
. ﺺﻨﻟا ﻢﻬﻓ ءﻮﺳ ﲆﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻦﻣ
اﺬﻫ ﺔﻴﻤﻫأ دادﺰﺗو . فﺪـﻬــﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻣﺪﺨﺘﺴﳌا تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌﺎﺑ ﺪﻴﻘﺘﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ .4
صﻮــﺼﻨﻟا ﺔــﻤﺟﺮﺗ يأ ، ﺔــﻴﺼﺼﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ أﺪﺒﳌا







8
تﺎﺤﻠﻄ ﺼﻣ عاﱰﺧا ﺪــﻴﻔﻳ ﻻ ﺎﻨﻫ . ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا عوﺮﻓ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻫاﻮﺳ وأ نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا وأ مﻮﻠﻌﻟا ﰲ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﳌا
ﺔـــﻌﺋﺎﺸﻟا تﺎ ـــﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌﺎﺑ ماﺰﺘﻟﻻا ﻦﻣ ﺪﺑ ﻻ ، ةﺪﻳﺪﺟ
. دﻮﺸﻨﳌا يﻮﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻫﺎﻔﺘﻟا ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟ فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ

اذإو . ﺔﻴﻓﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻰـــﻋﺪﻳ ﺎـــﻣ اﺬﻫو ، رﺪﺼﳌا ﺺﻨﺑ ﺪﻴﻘﺘﻟا ﻮﻫ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﻞﺻﻷا .5
. ﻰـــﻨﻌﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻰـــــﻟإ لﻮــــﺤﺘﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻌﻓ ، ﺎﻣ ﺐﺒﺴﻟ ﻚﻟذ رﺬﻌﺗ

س ﺢﻠﻄﺼﳌا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻢــﺟﺮﺗ اذﺈــﻓ . ﺎﻣ ﺢﻠﻄﺼﳌ ﺔﺘﺑﺎﺛ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟ ماﺰﺘﻟﻻا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ .6
ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ س تﺮﻬﻇ مﻠﻛ س ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ص مﺪﺨﺘﺴﻳ نأ ﻪ ـــﻴﻠﻌﻓ ، ﺎﻣ ﺺﻧ ﰲ ﺎﻣ ﺔﻠﻤﺟ ﰲ ص ﻞﺑﺎﻘﳌﺎﺑ
. consistency قﺎﺴﺗﻻاو تﺎﺒﺜﻟاو حﻮﺿﻮﻟا ئدﺎﺒﻣ ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺗ ﻞﺟأ ﻦﻣ رﺪﺼﳌا

دﺪﻌﺑ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا دﺪﻌﻟاو . (3000) ﻲﻤﻗر دﺪﻌﺑ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ (3000 ﻼﺜﻣ) ﻲﻤﻗﺮﻟا دﺪﻌﻟا .7
. ﺔﺌﻣ ثﻼﺛ ــﺑ ﻢﺟﱰﺗ three hundred ﻼﺜﻣ ، بﺎﺘﻛ

ﻲﻫ مﻛ ﻰﻘﺒﺗ نأ ﻦﻜي phoneme ، ﻼﺜﻣ . ﻮﻫ مﻛ ﻰﻘﺒﻳ ﺢﻠﻄﺼﻣ وأ ، تﻻﺎﺤﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ ﰲ .8
. (ﺲﻛﺎﻓ) ﻰﻘﺒﺗ fax ، (ﻢﻴﻧﻮﻓ)

ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﺑ فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻫزوﺮﺑ ﲆﻋ ﻆﻓﺎﺤﻳ رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ةزرﺎﺒﻟا ةرﺎﺒﻌﻟا وأ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا .9
ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻫزاﺮﺑإ ﻦﻜي رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ دﻮﺳأ فﺮﺤﺑ ﺔﺑﻮﺘﻜﳌا وأ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﳌا تمﻠﻜﻟا ﻼﺜﻣ . ﺔﺒﺳﺎﻨﻣ
ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻞﺋﺎﻣ فﺮﺤﺑ بﻮﺘﻜﳌا بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ناﻮﻨﻋ . فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻬﺘﺤﺗ ﻂﺧ ﻊﺿﻮﺑ وأ ﺎﻬﺗاذ
. ﻞﺋﺎﻣ فﺮﺤﺑ ﻊﺒﻄﻳ وأ ﻂﺧ ﻪﺘﺤﺗ ﻊﺿﻮﻳو ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﱃإ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا



9

ك ﻪﻠﻛ ﺺﻨﻟا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا أﺮــﻘﻳ نأ ﻞــﻀﻓﻷا ﻦﻣ ، ﺺﻨﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻠﻤﺟ لوأ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﺑ ءﺪﺒﻟا ﻞﺒﻗ .10
. ﻪﺋاﺰﺟأ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻞﻬﺴﻳ مﻣ عﻮﺿﻮ ﳌا ﻦﻋ ﺔﻣﺎﻋ ةﺮﻜﻓ ﺬﺧﺄﻳ

function ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻇو تمﻠﻛو content words ىﻮﺘﺤﻣ تمﻠﻛ : نﺎﻋﻮﻧ ﺺﻨﻟا تمﻠﻛ .11
تمﻠﻜﻟا ﻢﺟﱰﻳ نأ ﻪﻨﻣ ﺎﺑﻮﻠﻄﻣ ﺲﻴﻟ ﻦﻜ ﻟو ، ىﻮﺘــﺤﳌا تﺎ ــﻤﻠﻛ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ .words
. ىﻮﺘﺤﳌا تمﻠﻜﻟا رود ﻦﻋ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻳ ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟا تمﻠﻜﻟا رود نﻷ ﺎ ــئاد ةﴍﺎﺒﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟا
. to, a, an ,the, ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟا تمﻠﻜﻟا ﺔﻠﺜﻣأ ﻦﻣو

يﺳﻮﻗ يﺑ ﺎﻬﻌﻀﻳ نأ ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ ﲇﺻﻷا ﺺﻨﻟا ﱃإ هﺪﻨﻋ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا دارأ اذإ .12
ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹا . نﺎﺴﻧﻹا ﻢﺴﺟ ﰲ ﺶﻴﻌﺗ [ﺎــﻳيﺘﻜﺒﻟا ﻦﻣ] ةﺪﻳﺪﻋ عاﻮﻧأ كﺎﻨﻫ ، ﻼﺜﻣ . [ ] اﺬﻜﻫ
ىﺮﻳ مﺒﺴﺣ ضﻮﻤﻐﻟا ﺔﻟازﻹ وأ ﺢﻴﺿﻮﺘﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺰﻣ ﻞﺟأ ﻦ ــﻣ ﻢﺟﱰـــﳌا مﻬﻔﻴﻀﻳ يﺳﻮﻗ يﺑ
. ﺎﻳروﴐ ﺮــﻣﻷا ﻢﺟﱰــﳌا

ﻒﻴﻀﻳ نأ ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ ، ﺺﻨﻟا ﻰــﻠﻋ ﻖــﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟا وأ ﺔﻠﻳﻮﻃ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﺈﺑ ﺺﻨﻟا ﺢﻴﺿﻮﺗ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا دارأ اذإ .13
يﺑ ﻪﺗاذ ﺺﻨﻟا ﻞﺧاد ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹا . ﻚﻟذ ﺺﻨﻟا ﻞﺧاد ﻚـــﻟذ ﻒـــﻴﻀﻳ ﻻأ و footnote ﺔﻴﺸﻣﺎﻫ ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ
. يﺘﻨﺛا وأ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻦﻋ ﺪﻳﺰﺗ ﻻ اﺪﺟ ةدوﺪﺤﻣ ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ ﲆﻋ ﴫﺘﻘﺗ [ ] يﺳﻮﻗ

ﻰﻄﻌﺗ ، رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔــﻐﻠﻟا ﻲــﻓ ﺎــﻣ ﺢﻠﻄﺼﳌ تﻼﺑﺎﻘﻣ ةﺪﻋ فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ اذإ .14
. ﺎﻬﻨﻣ قدﻷا وأ ﻊﻴﺷﻸﻟ ﺔﻴﻠﻀﻓﻷا


10

ﻮﺤﻨﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﻪﺘﻣﻼﺳ ﻦــﻣ ﺪﻛﺄﺘﻠﻟ ﺺﻨﻟا ﻊﺟاﺮﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ , ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺪﻌﺑ .15
. ﺔﻠﻤﺘﺤﻣ ﺔﻴﺑﻮﻠﺳأ ﺔـــﻛﺎﻛر ﺔـــﻳأ ﻦﻣ ﺺﻨﻟا ﺺﻴﻠﺨﺘﻟو ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟاو ءﻼﻣﻹاو

acronyms (ﺔﻴﻠﺋاوأ تﺎ ــﻤﻠﻛ ) تارﺎﺼﺘﺧا هﺪﻨﻋ ﻦﻣ عﱰــ ﺨﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﻤﻠﻟ زﻮــﺠﻳ ﻻ.16
تﻻﺎﺣ ﰲ ﻢﺟﱰﻤﻠﻟ زﻮﺠﻳ ﻦﻜﻟو . ئرﺎﻘﻟاو ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻦــﻴﺑ لﺎــﺼﺗﻻا ﻖــﻴﻌﻳ ﻚــﻟذ نﻷ ﺔــﻓﻮﻟﺄﻣ يـــﻏ
ةﺪــﻋ ﺢﻠﻄﺼﳌا رﻮﻬﻇ رﺮﻜﺗ اذإ يﺒﻌﺘﻟا ﰲ ادﺎﺼﺘﻗا ﻪﺤﻴﺿﻮﺗ ﺪﻌﺑ ارﺎﺼﺘﺧا ثﺪﺤﺘ ــﺴﻳ نأ ةدوﺪﺤﻣ
. (ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺠﻟا قﺎﺜﻴﻣ) ع ج م ﻼﺜﻣ ، تاﺮﻣ
ﰲ ﺔﻣﺎﺗ تمﻠﻛ ﱃإ ﺎﻬﻟﻮﺤﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻌﻓ ، رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻴﻠﺋاوأ تمﻠﻛ تﺮﻬﻇ اذإ .17
ﺔﻤﻈﻨﻣ) ﱃإ ﻢﺟﱰﺗ N A T O ، (اﺪﺟ ﻢﻬﻣ ﺺﺨﺷ) ﱃإ ﻢﺟﱰﺗ V I P ، ﻼﺜﻣ . فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا
، ﻪﺘﻤﺟﱰﻟ ﻲﻋاد ﻼﻓ ، ( AIDS ﻞﺜﻣ) اﺪﺟ ﺎﻌﺋﺎﺷ رﺎﺼﺘﺧﻻا نﺎﻛ اذإو . (ﴘﻠﻃﻷا لمﺷ ةﺪﻫﺎﻌﻣ
يﺑ ﻊﻤﺠﻟا تﻻﺎﺤﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ ﰲ زﻮﺠﻳو . (زﺪﻳﻹا يأ) رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻮﻫ مﻛ ﻰﻘﺒﻳ نأ ﻦﻜي ﻞﺑ
( ﴘﻠﻃﻷا لمﺷ ةﺪﻫﺎﻌﻣ ﺔﻤﻈﻨﻣ ) ﻮــﺘﻴﻨﻟا ﻞﺜﻣ ، ﻪﺘﻤﺟﺮﺗو رﺎﺼﺘﺧﻻا
ﻊﻣ فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻲــﻓ ةﺮﻘﻔﻟا أﺪﺒﺗ يأ . ﺎﻫدﺪﻋو تاﺮﻘﻔﻟا دوﺪﺣ ﲆﻋ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻆﻓﺎﺤﻳ .18
رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ تاﺮﻘﻔﻟا ﻖﺑﺎﻄﺘﺗ ، ﻚ ــﻟﺬﺑو . ﺎﻬﺘﻳﺎﻬﻧ ﻊﻣ ﻲﻬﺘﻨﺗو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ةﺮﻘﻔﻟا ﺔﻳاﺪﺑ
. دﺪﻌﻟاو ﺔﻳﺎﻬﻨﻟاو ﺔــﻳاﺪﺒﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟاو




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َ
َ

(فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟاو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ) نﺎﺼﻨﻟا ﻖﺑﺎﻄﺘﻳ نأ ﺐﺠﻳو ، ﻲﺟرﺎﺨﻟا ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ .19
تﺎﻣﻼﻋو ﺐﺠﻌﺘﻟا ﺔﻣﻼﻋو مﺎﻬ ﻔﺘﺳﻻا ﺔﻣﻼﻋ ﻚﻟﺬﻛو ، ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻰﻘﺒﺗ ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا . ﻞﻤﺠﻟا ﺮﺧاوأ ﻢﻴﻗﺮﺗ ﰲ
ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ، ﻼﺜﻣ . ﺎﻧﺎﻴﺣأ ﺔﻣﻼﻌﻟا ﻞﻜﺷ ﰲ ﺔﻔﻴﻔﻃ قوﺮﻓ ﻊﻣ ، ﺔﻃﻮﻘﻨﳌا ﺔﻠﺻﺎﻔﻟاو سﺎﺒﺘﻗﻻا
ﰲ ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟا ﻮﻫ ﻲﺟرﺎﺨﻟا ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟﺎﺑ دﻮﺼﻘﳌا نأ ﻆﺣﻻ . ؛ و ؟ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻧ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﰲو ; و ؟ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻧ
. ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﺔﻳﺎﻬﻧ
ﻒﻠﺘﺨﺗ ﺪﻗ ، ( ﺎﻬﺘﻳﺎﻬﻧ ﻲـﻓ ﺲــﻴﻟو ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﻞﺧاد ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟا يأ ) ﲇﺧاﺪﻟا ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ .20
ﺎﻬﻣاﺪﺨﺘﺳا ﻊﻣ ﻖﺑﺎﻄﺘﻳ ﻻ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻠﺻﺎﻔﻟا ماﺪﺨﺘﺳا ، ﻼﺜﻣ . ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟا اﺬﻫ مﺎﻜﺣأ ﰲ تﺎﻐﻠﻟا
. ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ

. ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﰲ ﺔﻠﺻﺎﻔﻟاو ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﰲ يﺘﻄﻘﻨﻟا مﺪﺨﺘﺴﻧ ، ﴍﺎﺒﳌا مﻼﻜﻟا ﻢﻴﻗﺮﺗ ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ .21
ﰲ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻳ ﺔﺤﺗﺎﻔﻟا سﺎﺒﺘﻗﻻا تﺎﻣﻼﻋ هﺎﺠﺗا نأ مﻛ . He said, ،، .‘‘ ،،. ‘‘ : لﺎﻗ ، ﻼﺜﻣ
تﺎﻣﻼﻋ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﺗ ، ﻚﻟﺬﻛو . ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﰲ ‘‘ ـــﺑ أﺪﺒﻧ ﻦﻜﻟو ، ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﰲ ’’ ـــﺑ أﺪﺒﻧ : يﺘﻐﻠﻟا
. ﺔتﺎﺨﻟا سﺎﺒﺘﻗﻻا

زﻮﺠﻳ ﻻو Muhammad ﻰــﻘﺒﺗ ﺪـﻤﺤﻣ ، ﻼـﺜﻣ . ﻢﺟﱰـﻳ ﻻ ﻢـ ﻠﻌﻟا ﻢـﺳﻻا ، ةدﺎﻌﻟا ﰲ .22
ﻢﻠﻌﻟا نﺎﻛ اذإ ﺎﻣأ . ( ةﺮﺨﺼﻟا ) ﺲﻴﻟو سﺮﻄﺑ وأ ﱰﻴﺑ ﺢــﺒﺼﺗ peter ، the praised ﱃإ ﺎﻬﺘﻤﺟﺮﺗ
، ( يدﺎـﻬﻟا ﻂـﻴﺤﳌا ) ﺢﺒﺼﺗ the Pacific Ocean ، ﻼﺜﻣ . ﻪﺘﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻊﻴﺷﻷﺎﻓ ﺎﺒﻛﺮﻣ ﺎﻴﻓاﺮﻐﺟ مﺳا
. ( ﺮﻤﺣﻷا ﺮﺤﺒﻟا ) ﺢـﺒﺼﺗ the Red Sea




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ﺎﺼﻧ ، ﻼﺜﻣ ، ﺎﺼﺼﺨﺘﻣ ﺎﺼﻧ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ نﺎﻛ اذإ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﳌا ﻢﺟﺎﻌﳌا ﱃإ ﻊﺟﺮﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ .23
ﻢﺠﻌﳌا . ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﻪﻔﻌﺴﺗ ﻻ ةدﺎﻌﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟا ﻢﺟﺎﻌﳌا نﻷ ، ﺎﻴﻧﻮﻧﺎﻗ وأ ﺎﻴﺳﺪﻨﻫ وأ ﺎﻴﺒﻃ
. فرﺎﻌﳌاو مﻮﻠﻌﻟا عوﺮﻓ ﻰﺘﺷ ﰲ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﻣ ﻢﺟﺎﻌﻣ كﺎﻨﻫو . ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟا صﻮﺼﻨﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﰲ ﺪﻴﻔﻳ مﺎﻌﻟا
ءﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻟاو تﺎﻴﺿﺎﻳﺮﻟاو ءﺎﻳﺰﻴﻔﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻋ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧإ و ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧإ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻋ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﻣ ﻢﺟﺎﻌﻣ كﺎﻨﻫ
ﺔﺳﺎﻴﺴﻟاو نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟاو ةرادﻹاو ﺔﺒﺳﺎﺤﳌاو ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻠﻋو ﺔﻔﺴﻠﻔﻟاو ﺲﻔﻨﻟا ﻢﻠﻋو ﺔﻴﺑﱰﻟاو ءﺎﻴﺣﻷاو
ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ ﻞﺜﻣ ﻦﻣ ، عوﺮﻔﻟا عوﺮﻓ ﰲ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﻣ ﻢﺟﺎﻌﻣ كﺎﻨﻫ نإ ﻞﺑ ، ﻢﻠﻌﻟا عوﺮﻓ ﻞﻛو بﻮﺳﺎﺤﻟاو
. تاﻮﺻﻷا ﻢﻠﻋو ﻲﻘﻴﺒﻄﺘﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻠﻋو يﺮﻈﻨﻟا

يأ ، ﺔﺑرﺎﻘﺘﳌا تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌا ﺔﻤ ــﺟﺮﺗ ﰲ ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻗﺪﻟا ىﺮﺤﺘﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ .24
.ﻖﺑﺎﻄﺘﻳ نأ نود ﺎﻫﺎـﻨﻌﻣ برﺎﻘﺘﻳ ﻲ ــﺘﻟا تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌا

ﰲ نﺎﻛ اذإ ﻻإ، ﻢﺠﻌﳌا ﻰــﻟإ عﻮــﺟﺮﻟا نود ﺎﻬﻓﺮﻌﻳ ﻻ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻰﻨﻌﻣ ﻦﻤﺨﻳ ﻻأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ .25
رﺎﻴﺧ ىﻮﺳ ﻪﻣﺎﻣأ ﺮﺧآ رﺎﻴﺧ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ﻻ ، ﺔﻟﺎﺤﻟا هﺬــــﻫ ﰲ . ﺔﻴﻌﺑﺎﺘﺗ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ وأ ﺔﻳرﻮﻓ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻒﻗﻮﻣ
ﻢــﺠﻌﳌا ﻰــﻟإ ﻊﺟﺮﻳ ل اذإ ﻪﻟ رﺬﻋ ﻼﻓ ،ﺔﻴﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻒﻗﻮﻣ ﻲـــﻓ نﺎﻛ اذإ ، ﻦﻜﻟ و . يﻤﺨﺘﻟا
.ﻰﻨﻌﳌا ﻦــﻣ ﺖـﺒﺜﺘﻠﻟ

. ﺪﺣاو ﻰﻨﻌﻣ تاذ ﺔ ـــﻤﻠﻛ ﺪﺠﻧ نأ رﺪﻨﻳ ﻚﻟﺬﻟو ، تمﻠﻜﻟا ﻦﻣ ثﻛ أ ﺔﻐﻟ ﺔﻳأ ﰲ نﺎﻌﳌا .26
رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ دﻮﺼﻘﳌا ﻰﻨﻌﳌا ﻢﻬﻔﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰـــﳌا ﺐﺟاو ﻦﻣو . نﺎﻌﳌا ةدﺪﻌﺘﻣ تمﻠﻜﻟا ﻢﻈﻌﻣ
. فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻳ ﺎﻣ رﺎﺘﺨﻳ ك





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ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺺﻧ ءﺎﺸﻧإ و رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺺﻨﻟا ﻢﻬﻓ: ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﱪﻛﻷأ يﺪﺤﺘﻟا ﻮﻫ اﺬﻫو
.فﺪﻬﻟا

ﺐﻠﻄﺘﺗ ﺎﻬﻧأ ﻻإ ، ﺎئاد ﺔﻨﻜﻤﻣ ﺔﻴﺿﺮﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻦﻜﻟو ، ﺎﻧﺎﻴﺣأ ﺔﻨﻜﻤﻣ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻜﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا .27
.ةﱪﺨﻟا و ﺔﻳارﺪﻟا و ﺔﻗﺪﻟا

ترﺬﻌﺗ اذإ ثﻧ ﱃإ وأ ﻦﻜﻣأ نإ ﺮﻌﺷ ﻻإ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ نأ زﻮﺠﻴﻓ ﺮﻌﺸﻟا ﺎﻣأ . ثﻧ ﱃإ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ ثﻨﻟا .28
.ﺮﻌﺷ ﱃإ ﻪﺘﻤﺟﺮﺗ

ﱃوﻷا ﻦﻘﺘﻳ . فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔــــﻐﻠﻟا و رﺪــﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا : يﺘﻐﻠﻟا ﻦﻘﺘﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ ﺐﺟﻮﺘﻳ .29
ﻼﺘﺨﻣ ﻢﻬﻔﻟا ﻞﻌﺠﻴﺳ ﱃوﻸﻟ نﺎﻘﺗﻹا مﺪﻋ نأ ﺢــﺿاﻮﻟا ﻦﻣو . ﺎﻬﺑ ﺐﺘﻜﻴﻟ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﻦﻘﺘﻳو ﺺﻨﻟا ﻢﻬﻔﻴﻟ
ﺔﺛرﺎﻜﻟا ﺪﺣ ﱃإ رﻮﻣﻷا ﻞﺼﺗو . عﻮﻧ ﻞﻛ ﻦﻣ ءﺎﻄﺧﻷﺎﺑ ﺔﺌﻴﻠﻣ ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﻞﻌﺠﻴﺳ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻠﻟ نﺎﻘﺗﻹا مﺪﻋ نأو
ةﺪﻳﺪﻋ ءﺎــــﻄﺧأو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻬﻓ ﰲ ةﺪﻳﺪﻋ ءﺎﻄﺧأ ﺄﺸﻨﺗ ﺎﻨﻫ : يﺘﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻔﻴﻌﺿ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا نﺎﻛ اذإ
. فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ يﺒﻌﺘﻟا ﰲ
اذإ ﻞﻀﻓأ ﻊﺿو ﰲ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا نﻮﻜﻳ ، ﺔﻴﺳﺪﻨﻬﻟاو ﺔﻴﺒﻄﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻞﺜﻣ ، ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ .30
ﻮﻋﺪﻧ نأ ﻦﻜيو . لﺎﺤﻟا ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻄﺑ يﺘﻐﻠﻟ ﻪﻧﺎﻘﺗإ ﱃإ ﺔـــــﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ ، ﻪﻴﻓ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ يﺬﻟا ﻞﻘﺤﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻓرﺎﻋ نﺎﻛ
نأ ﺢﺿاﻮﻟا ﻦﻣو . ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا يﺘﻐﻠﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻮﻋﺪﻧ نأ و ﺔﻴﺼﺼﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا ﻞﻘﺤﻟﺎـــﺑ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا
مﺟﱰﻣ ﺐﻴﺒﻄﻟا ﻞﻌﺠﺗ ﻻ ، ﻼ ـــﺜﻣ ، ﺔﻴﺒﻄﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌﺎﻓ , ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا ﻦﻋ ﻲﻨﻐﺗ ﻻ ﺔﻴﺼﺼﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا
ﺎــﺼﻧ ﻢﺟﱰــــﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻊﻴﻄﺘﺴﻳ ذإ ، ﺔﻴﺼﺼﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا ﻦﻋ ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا ﻲﻨﻐﺗ ﺪﻗ ، ﻦﻜﻟو .
. ﻪــﻳﺪﻟ ﺮــﻓﻮﺘﺗ ﺖﻧﺎــﻛ ﻦﻣ يﻤﺟﱰﳌا يﺧ نأ ﻚﺷ ﻻو . ﺐﻄﻟا ﰲ ﺎﺼﺼﺨﺘﻣ نﻮــﻜﻳ نأ نود ﺎــﻴﺒﻃ




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. يﻤﺟﱰﳌا ءﻻﺆﻫ ﻞﺜﻣ ﺮﻓﻮﺘﻳ ﺎﻣ اردﺎﻧ ﻞﺑ ﻼﻴﻠﻗ ﻦﻜﻟو ، ﺎﻌﻣ ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌاو ﺔﻴﺼﺼﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا

ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﺪﻨﻋ اراﺮﻗ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﺬﺨﺘﻳ نأ ﺪﺑ ﻻ ذإ ، ﺔﻈﺤﻟ ﻞﻛ ﰲ تاراﺮﻗ ذﺎﺨﺗا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ نإ .31
ﲆﻋ ﺎﺳﺎﺳأ ﺪﻤﺘﻌﻳ راﺮﻘﻟا ذﺎﺨﺗا ﻦﺴﺣ ، ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎﺑو . ﺐــﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻞــﻛ ﺔـــﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﺪـــﻨﻋو ﺔـــﻤﻠﻛ ﻞﻛ
ﰲ – ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺔﻴﻠ ﻤﻋ نأ مﻛ . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ وأ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻦﻔﺑ ﻪﺘﻳارد ﲆﻋو ﻢﺟﱰﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟا ةرﺪﻘﳌا
ﱃإ ةدﻮﻌﻟا ﻢــﺛ مﺎــﻣﻷا ﻰـــﻟإ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا يأ ، ﺔﻟوﺎﺤﳌا ةدﺎﻋإ ﻲﻋﺪﺘﺴﺗ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ – ﻒﻗاﻮﳌا ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟا
ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻴﺿﺮﻣ ﺢﺒﺻأ و ﺮﻘﺘﺳا و ىﻮﺘـــﺳا ﺪﻗ جﻮﺘﻨﳌا نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﺲﺤﻳ ﻰﺘﺣ ، مﺎﻣﻷا ﱃإ ﻢﺛ ﻒﻠﺨﻟا
. ﻰﻨﺒﳌاو ﻰﻨﻌﳌا

ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻦﻣ يﺜﻜﺑ ﻞﻬـﺳأ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﱃإ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ، بﺮﻌﻟا ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻠﻟ .32
ﻦﻜﻟو ، ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟﺎﺑ يﺒﻌﺘﻟاو ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﻢﻬــﻓ ﻲﻋﺪﺘﺴﺗ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا نﻷ ، ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧ ﻹا ﱃإ
ﺎﻣأ ، ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﻢﻬﻓ ﱃوﻷا ﺔﺑﻮﻌﺻ . ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹﺎﺑ يﺒﻌﺘﻟاو ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﻢﻬﻓ ﻲﻋﺪﺘﺴﺗ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا
ﺐﻠﻏأ ﻲـــﻓ ، ﻢﻬﻔﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺐﻌﺻأ يﺒﻌﺘﻟا نأ ﻚﺷ ﻻ و . ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹﺎﺑ يﺒﻌﺘﻟا ﻲﻬﻓ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔـــﺑﻮﻌﺻ
. نﺎﻴﺣﻷا



















15

UNIT 1
LEARNING AND ACQUIRING

There are a few questions which have occupied language teachers for
centuries and probably always will. Of these perhaps the most basic is 'How
does a person come to control a language anyway?' We all achieved this feat with
our first language, and many of us have gained some ability in other language by
studying them in school. The term 'acquisition' is sometimes used for the former,
and 'learning' for what goes on in the classroom. There has been considerable
discussion about whether these two processes are essentially the same, or essentially
the same, or essen- tially different. Unit very recently, however, people have gener-
ally assumed that one followed the other with perhaps a few years' overlap. The
ability to 'acquire' supposedly died out at about the age of puberty, while 'learning'
became possible only in the early school years as the necessary 'readiness's'
developed.
More recently , though, some research has indicated that the picture is not quite
like that. It my be that the same kind of acquisition we see in children can continue
well into adulthood – perhaps throughout life. Or it may be that what some people
call 'adult acquisition' is really a third process. Be that as it may, however, it is
becoming clear that adults and adolescents do have available to them at least two
modes of gaining control of a new language.
The better known of these two modes is (in a special, narrowed sense) called
'learning.' Here, learning .' begins with selection of some clearly defined element
which is to be learned. In helping someone else to learn, your job is to teach (again
in a specially restricted sense of that word). In teaching, you first present the new
item as clearly and interestingly as you can. Then you have your students practice
the item in one way or another until they seem to have got it. When the time comes,
you go on to test them on it. Finally, you may or may not get around to using it with
them in some communicative way.
In this kind of teaching and learning, then, the very act of selecting an item pulls
it out of the context of normal com- municative exchange. To compensate for this
severing of the normal interrelationship you may go to some length to provide
context as you present, drill and test it.

16


In acquisition, the person who is doing the acquiring meets words in the full context
of some kind of genuine human communication. There is no special presentation of
a new item, no organized drilling, and no testing in the academic sense.
Conversation is about things which the acquirer understands and which are already
clear in his mind. Because a teacher cannot read minds, this requirement commonly
means that in the beginning most of the conversation will be about what is present in
the classroom at the time. The language used is generally at a level which the
acquirer already controls or a little beyond that level. The acquirer follows the
discourse comfort-ably, drawing on context to fill in the meanings of new words and
constructions. In time he becomes able to produce new items correctly, but for a
while he may remain largely silent. When he does speak, those around him react in
terms of their attempts to communicate, and not in terms of the correctness or
incorrectness, and not in terms of the correctness or incorrectness of what he has
said.
This kind of acquisition takes time and patience. Until a student has acquired an
item, he will make numerous errors in its use. Learning by contrast, produces
correct forms almost immediately.
There are however some weighty advantages to acquisition as compared with
learned may forgot- ten after ( or before ! ) the next test, while what has been
acquired is relatively permanent. What has been acquired serves directly as the
basis for smooth production either of speech or of writing. Learned material is
useful for monitoring, correcting or translating what has originated from
material which has already been acquired either in the target language or in the
native language, but not for much else. Not least, learning will work only for
those items which can be stated fairly simply: English house corresponds to
Spanish casa, for example, and the ending-s is used only for English verbs which
are in the present tense with a third person singular subject. Acquisition works
for everything; for all of the matters that i‘ ve just mentioned. but also for
phonetic nuances, use of definite and indefinite articles, choice of just the right
preposition or verb tense, and so on. The essential difference between learning
and acquisition may lie in what the student does with what is put in front of
him, but many parts of a language simply defy anyone to perform learning on
them!
Over the centuries language teachers have used countless methods and
rechniques. Most of the time, by whatever method, we have concentrated on
trying to teach so that our students would learn. Acquisition has come- when it
has come at all-as a desirable but incidental by-product of good teaching and
good learning. Its recent identification as a separate process casts light on what
we have been doing all along.

17



Helpful Vocabulary :
learning and acquiring بﺎﺴﺘآﻻ او ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻟا
to gain ability ةرﺪﻗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﺼﺤﻳ
considerable discussion ﺮﻴﺒآ لﺪﺟ
essentially the same ﻲﺳﺎﺳأ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ نﻼﺛﺎﻤﺘﻣ
until very recently ﺐﻳﺮﻗ ﺖﻗو ﻰﺘﺣ
one followed the other ﺮﺧﻵا َﻊﺒََﺗ ﺎﻤهﺪﺣأ
age of puberty غﻮﻠﺒﻟا ﻦﺳ
indicated that نأ ﻰﻠﻋ لَد
perhaps throughout life ةﺎﻴﺤﻟا ﺔﻠﻴﻃ ﺎﻤﺑر
it may be that نأ ﻞﻤﺘﺤﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ
adult acquisition غﻮﻠﺒﻟا بﺎﺴﺘآا
be that as it may ﺮﻣأ ﻦﻣ ﻦﻜﻳ ﺎﻤﻬﻣو
the very act of selecting ﻪﺗاذ رﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻا ﻞﻌﻓ
communicative exchange ﻲﻟﺎﺼﺗا لدﺎﺒﺗ
present, drill, test ﺮﺒﺘﺨﻳ ، بر ﺪﻳ ، ضﺮْ ﻌ ﻳ
special presentation صﺎﺧ ضْ ﺮَ ﻋ
in the academic sense ﻲﻤ ﻳدﺎآﻷا ﻰﻨﻌﻤﻟﺎﺑ
a little beyond that level ىﻮﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻚﻟذ ﻦﻣ ﻼﻴﻠﻗ ﻰﻠﻋأ
in time ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻤﻟا ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻲﻓ
for a while ﺔهْ ﺮ ﺒﻟ ، ةﺰﻴﺟو ةﺮﺘﻔﻟ
by contrast ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻤﻟﺎﺑ
as compared with ـــﺑ ﺎﻬﺘﻧرﺎﻘﻣ ﺪﻨ ﻋ
18
Exercise 1. Translate the previous passage into Arabic.
Exercise 2 . Fill in this table with the suitable English
derivatives whenever possible, and write down the
Arabic equivalents of all the words.
Verb Noun Adjective
English Arabic English Arabic English Arabic
forget
question occupy
control
gain
learn
process Available
acquire
adult normal
indicate restrict
test communication
genuine
assume
language
Exercise 3. Translate these words related to the same
filed :
learn instruct
teach instructor
learner instruction ﺲﻳرﺪﺗ
teacher teaching ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ
19

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