Simplified English Grammar = الواضح في قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية
215 pages
English

Simplified English Grammar = الواضح في قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية

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215 pages
English
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Description

This book is addressed to Arab students learning English. It deals with tenses, clauses, and the main grammar aspects, explained in both English and Arabic

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 2001
Nombre de lectures 9
EAN13 9796500000602
Langue English

Exrait


ﺢﺿاﻮﻟا
ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ ﰲ

ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا
SIMPLIFIED
ENGLISH
GRAMMAR

Muhammad A. Abdul Karim

ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد:ﴍﺎﻨﻟا
٨١٨ ب .ص
١١٩١٠ ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ
ندرﻷا
ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
٠٠٩٦٢٦ – ٥٤١١ ٥٤٧ ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ


Copyright: 2001 by the Publisher

All rights are reserved.

No part of this book may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording without the prior written permission of the
publisher.

2001 Edition

ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا
٨١٨ ب .ص
١١٩١٠ ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ
ندرﻷا
٠٠٩٦٢٦ - ٥٤١١٥٤٧ ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ

Publisher: DAR ALFALAH
P.O.Box 818
Swaileh11910
Jordan
Tel& Fax 009626 - 5411547

ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر
٢٠٠١/٩/١٨٩٣
425,
Abdul Karim, Muhammad A.
Simplified English Grammar/Muhammad A. Abdul Karim. Amman: Dar Alfalah for
Publication & Distribution.Descriptors, 2001
(206) P.
Deposit no.: 1893/9/2001
Descriptors: English Language
.ندرﻷا ، ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟاﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ داﺪﻋإ ﻢﺗ x
٢٠٠١/٩/١٨٠٧ ﴩﻨﻟا تﺎﻋﻮﺒﻄﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻹا ﻢﻗر
ISBN 9957 – 401 – 44 – 0 (ﻚﻣدر)


INTRODUCTION
ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ
كﺎﻨﻫو .ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ ﻢﻬﻓ ﰲ ﺔﺑﻮﻌﺻ نوﺪﺠﻳ بﺮﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ًارﺜﻛ نأ ﻆﺣﻼﻳ
نأ ءاﺮﻘﻠﻟ ﺪﻴﻔﳌا ﻦﻣ ﻪﻧأ ﻒﻟﺆﳌا ىأر ﺪﻗو.تﺎﺑﻮﻌﺼﻟا هﺬﻬﻟ ةﺪﻳﺪﻋ بﺎﺒﺳأ ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎﺑ
ﺪﻘﻟو .ﺔﺤﺿاووﺔﻄﺴﺒﻣ ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﺑ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ حﴩﻳ بﺎﺘﻛ ﻢﻬﻳﺪﻳأ نﺑ نﻮﻜﻳ
:ﲇﻳ ﺎﻣ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻊﺿو ﰲ ﻲﻋور

ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا ﻦﻣو ﺐﻛﺮﳌا ﱃإ ﻂﻴﺴﺒﻟا ﻦﻣو ﺐﻌﺼﻟا ﱃإ ﻞﻬﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ جرﺪﺘﻳ .١
.ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﱃإ
ﻊﻴﻤﺟ ﺲﻴﻟو ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ تﺎﻋﻮﺿﻮﻣ زﺮﺑأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ لوﺎﻨﺘﻳ .٢
.ﺎﻬﺗﺎﻋﻮﺿﻮﻣ
ﻦﻣ ﺪﻛﺄﺘﻠﻟ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ حﺎﻀﻳإ ﰲ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻳ .٣
.حﴩﻠﻟ ئرﺎﻘﻟا ﻢﻬﻓ
.رﺎﺼﺘﺧﻻﺎﺑ ظﺎﻔﺘﺣﻻا ﻊﻣ ﺔﻠﺜﻣﻷا ﻦﻣ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا رﻜﻳ .٤
ﻪﺴﻔﻧ ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺗ ﲆﻋ ئرﺎﻘﻟا ناﺪﻋﺎﺴﻳ (هﺮﺧآ ﰲو ﻪﻟوأ ﰲ) بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﰲ نﻼﺼﻓ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ .٥
.ﻢﻬﻔﻳ م اذﺎﻣو ﻢﻬﻓ اذﺎﻣ فﺮﻌﻳ ﻰﺘﺣ ﻪﺴﻔﻨﺑ
.نﻠﺼﻔﻟا ﻦﻳﺬﻫ ﰲ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا باﻮﺠﻟا ﻊﻣ (ﺄﻄﺨﻟا ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﺢﺤﺻ) ﻦﻳرﺎم ﺪﺟﻮﻳ
ْ ّ

.بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ئرﺎﻘﻟا ﺪﻴﻔﺘﺴﻳ نأ ﻞﻣﺄﻧ ًﺎﻣﺎﺘﺧ

ﻒﻟﺆﳌا

iii

1. Parts of Speech
2. Nouns
3. Gender
4. Number
5. Pronouns
6. Verbs
7. Auxiliaries
8. Tenses
9. The Passive Voice
10. Adjectives
11. Adverbs
12. Prepositions
13. Conjunctions
14. Test I
15. Sentences
16. Interrogative Sentences
17. The Question – Tag
18. Negative Sentences
19. Conditional Sentences

Contents

تﺎﻳﻮﺘﺤﳌا

مﻼﻜﻟا مﺎﺴﻗأ……………….
ءاﺳﻷا…………………..
ﺚﻧﺆﳌاو ﺮﻛﺬﳌا……………
ﻊﻤﺠﻟاو دﺮﻔﳌا……………..
ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا………………….
لﺎﻌﻓﻷا…………………...
ةﺪﻋﺎﺴﳌا لﺎﻌﻓﻷا…………...
ﻞﻌﻔﻟا ﻎﻴﺻ………………..
لﻮﻬﺠﻤﻠﻟ ﻰﻨﺒﳌا……………
تﺎﻔﺼﻟا…………………..
فوﺮﻈﻟا………………….
ﺮﺠﻟا فوﺮﺣ………………
ﻒﻄﻌﻟا تاودأ……………..
(١) رﺎﺒﺘﺧا………………..
ﻞﻤﺠﻟا……………………
ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻬﻔﺘﺳﻻا ﻞﻤﺠﻟا………….
ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻬﻔﺘﺳﻻا ﺔﻘﺤﻠﳌا…………
ﺔﻴﻔﻨﳌا ﻞﻤﺠﻟا……………...
ﺔﻴﻃﴩﻟا ﻞﻤﺠﻟا…………….

iv

١
3
5
7
12
18
28
38
56
62
73
82
92
94
110
121
129
133
138

20. Indirect Speech
21. The Noun Clause
22. The Adverb Clause
23. The Adjective Clause
24. Capital Letters
25. Spelling Rules
26. Grammatical Terms
27. Punctuation
28. Subject – Verb Agreement
29. Test II

ﴍﺎﺒﳌا رﻏ مﻼﻜﻟا………….
ﺔﻴﻤﺳﻹا ﺔﻠﻴﻤﺠﻟا…………….
ﺔﻴﻓﺮﻈﻟا ﺔﻠﻴﻤﺠﻟا…………….
ﺔﻴﻔﺻﻮﻟا ﺔﻠﻴﻤﺠﻟا……………
ﻞﺘﺑﺎﻜﻟا فوﺮﺣ……………..
ﺔﺌﺠﻬﺘﻟا ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ……………...
ﺔﻳﻮﺤﻧ تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﻣ………….
ﻢﻴﻗﱰﻟا……………………
ﻞﻌﻔﻟاو أﺪﺘﺒﳌا ﻖﻓاﻮﺗ………...
(٢) رﺎﺒﺘﺧا………………..

v

143
153
158
163
174
177
181
184
188
195

- 1
PARTS OF SPEECH

مﻼﻜﻟا مﺎﺴﻗأ


:ﻲﻫ مﺎﺴﻗأ ﺔﻴﻧﺎم ﱃإ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ تاﻠﻜﻟا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﺗ
1- Nouns ﻢﺳﻻا
boy, chair,ﻞﺜﻣ ناﻮﻴﺣ وأ تﺎﺒﻧ وأ نﺎﻜﻣ وأ ءﳾ وأ ﺺﺨﺷ ﻢﺳا ﱃإ رﺸﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو
.room, rose, cat
2- Pronoun رﻤﺿ
.I, we, you, itﻞﺜﻣ ﻢﺳﻻا مﺎﻘﻣ مﻮﻘﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو
3- Verb ﻞﻌﻓ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﺎﻣ ﻦﻣز ﰲ ﻞﻌﻓ ثوﺪﺣ ﲆﻋ لﺪﺗ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻮﻫو
go, write, sleep, eat
4. Adjective ﺔﻔﺻ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﻢﺳﻼﻟ ﺔﻔﺻ ﲆﻋ لﺪﺗ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻲﻫو
black, green, large, beautiful
5. Adverb لﺎﺣوأ فﺮﻇ
quickly,carefullyﻞﺜﻣ ﻞﻌﻔﻟا ﻒﺼﺗ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻮﻫو
6. Prepositionﺮﺠﻟا فﺮﺣ
on, at, in, toﻞﺜﻣ ﻢﺳﻻا ﻞﺒﻗ ﻊﻘﺗ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻲﻫو
7. Conjunctionﻒﻄﻌﻟا ةادأ
ﲆﻋ ًﺎﻓﺮﻇ وأ ﺔﻔﺻ ﲆﻋ ﺔﻔﺻ وأ ﻞﻌﻓ ﲆﻋ ًﻼﻌﻓ وأ ﻢﺳا ﲆﻋ ًاﺳا ﻒﻄﻌﺗ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻲﻫو
and, or, butﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻠﻤﺟ ﲆﻋ ﺔﻠﻤﺟ وأ فﺮﻇ

1


8. Interjectionﺐﺠﻌﺘﻟا ةادأ
Oh! Bravo!ﻞﺜﻣ ﺐﺠﻌﺘﻟا وأ ءاﺪﻨﻟا ﻰﻋ لﺪﺗ ﺔﻤﻠﻛ ﻲﻫو

:حاﱰﻗا
لوﺎﺣو كاﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻦﻣ ﻪﻧأ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﺗ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ بﺎﺘﻛ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺤﻔﺻ ﺔﻳأ ﱃإ ﺮﻈﻧا
.ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻧاﺜﻟا مﺎﺴﻗﻷا ﱃإ ﺔﺤﻔﺼﻟا ﻚﻠﺗ ﰲ تاﻠﻜﻟا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺗ

2

- 2
NOUNS
ءاﺳﻷا


:ﺎﻬﻨﻣ مﺎﺴﻗأ ةﺪﻋ ﱃإ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻢﺳﻻا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﻳ
1. Proper Nounﻢَﻠَﻌﻟا ﻢﺳا
ﻞﺜﻣ نﻌﻣ نﺎﻜﻣ وأ نﻌﻣ ﺺﺨﺸﻟ ﻢﺳا ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
Salma,London, Amman, France
.ﻞﺘﺑﺎﻛ فﺮﺤﺑ أﺪﺒﻳ ًﺎماد ﻮﻫو
2. Common Nounمﺎﻋ ﻢﺳا
ﻞﺜﻣ ﺎﻣ عﻮﻧ داﺮﻓأ ﻦﻣ ﺪﺣاو ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫو
table,dog, girl, tree
3. Material Nounةدﺎﻣ ﻢﺳا
ﻞﺜﻣ ةدﺎﻣ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
water,oil, wood, sugar
:لﻮﻘﻨﻓ ﺎﻣﺎﻋ نﺎﻛ اذإ the وأ a ﻪﻘﺒﺴﺗ نأ زﻮﺠﻳ ﻻ ﻢﺳﻻا اﺬﻫو
Wateris necessary.
4. Collective Nounﻊﻤﺠﻟا ﻢﺳا
ﻞﺜﻣ ﻊﻤﺟ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ دﺮﻔﻣ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
Army,herd, crowd
5. Abstract Nounرﺪﺼﳌا ﻢﺳا

3

ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻔﺻ وأ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ وأ ﻞﻌﻓ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
dictation,sickness, redness

:حاﱰﻗا
ﱃإ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ءاﺳﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺗ لوﺎﺣو ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ بﺎﺘﻛ يأ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺤﻔﺻ ﺔﻳأ ﰲ ﺮﻈﻧا
.ﺔﺴﻤﺨﻟا عاﻮﻧﻷا

4

- 3
GENDER
ﺚﻧﺆﳌاو ﺮﻛﺬﳌا


:ﻲﻫ مﺎﺴﻗأ ﺔﻌﺑرأ ﱃإ ﺚﻴﻧﺄﺘﻟاو رﻛﺬﺘﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻢﺳﻻا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﻳ
1. Masculineﺮﻛﺬﻣ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﻂﻘﻓ ﺮﻛذ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
man,boy, father, brother, cock
2. Feminineﺚﻧﺆﻣ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﻂﻘﻓ ﻰﺜﻧأ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫو
woman,girl, mother, sister, hen
3. Commonكﱰﺸﻣ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﻰﺜﻧأ وأ ﺮﻛذ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
friend,pupil, child, baby, teacher
4. Neuterﺪﻳﺎﺤﻣ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﺚﻴﻧﺄﺘﻟا وأ رﻛﺬﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﻪﻟ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻻ ﻢﺳا ﻮﻫ
door,room, pencil, book
:تﺎﻈﺣﻼﻣ
ﻪﻴﻟإ ﺎﻧﴍأ ًﺎﺜﻧﺆﻣ ﻢﺳﻻا نﺎﻛ اذﺈﻓ رﻤﻀﻟا ماﺪﺨﺘﺳا ﺪﻨﻋ ةدﺎﻋ ﻢﺳﻻا ﺲﻨﺟ ﺮﻬﻈﻳ -١
. he ﺔﻤﻠﻜﺑ ﻪﻴﻟإ ﺎﻧﴍأ ًاﺮﻛﺬﻣ نﺎﻛ اذإو she ﺔﻤﻠﻜﺑ
ﻞﺜﻣ ﺲﻨﺠﻟا ﺔﻛﱰﺸﻣ نﻮﻜﺗ ةدﺎﻋ لﺎﻌﻓﻷا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻘﺘﺸﳌا ءاﺳﻷا -٢
teacher, swimmer, thinker

5


-:ﺚﻧﺆﳌاوﺮﻛﺬﳌا
:قﺮﻃ ثﻼﺛ كﺎﻨﻫ ﺚﻧﺆﳌا ﱃإ ﺮﻛﺬﳌا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻳﻮﺤﺘﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ
:ةﺪﻳﺪﺟﺔﻤﻠﻛ ماﺪﺨﺘﺳا .١
Masculine Feminine
man woman
boy girl
son daughter
bull cow
dog bitch

:- essﻮﻫ صﺎﺧ ﻊﻄﻘﻣ ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .٢
Masculine Feminine
lion lioness
host hostess
master mistress

:ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا ﻦﻣ ءﺰﺟ ﻞﻳﺪﺒﺗ .٣
Masculine Feminine
grandfather grandmother
landlord landlady
he-teacher she-teacher


:حاﱰﻗا
رﻛﺬﺘﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ءاﺳﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺗ لوﺎﺣو ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ بﺎﺘﻛ يأ ﱃإ ﺮﻈﻧا
.ﺔﻌﺑرﻷا عاﻮﻧﻷا ﺪﺣأ ﱃإ ﺚﻴﻧﺄﺘﻟاو


6

Singular
pen
chair
window

Singular
glass
church
brush
box

- 4
NUMBER
ﻊﻤﺠﻟاو دﺮﻔﳌا


:اﻫ نﻤﺴﻗ ﱃإ دﺪﻌﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﻢﺳﻻا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﻳ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ
Singular.١ دﺮﻔﳌا
Plural ﻊﻤﺠﻟا.٢

:ﻊﻤﺠﻟا ﱃإ دﺮﻔﳌا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻳﻮﺤﺘﻟا
:ﺎﻬﻨﻣ قﺮﻃ ةﺪﻌﺑ ﻊﻤﺟ ﱃإ دﺮﻔﳌا لﻮﺤﺘﻳ
:-sﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .١
Plural
pens
chairs
windows
:ﻞﺜﻣs, z, ch, sh, xﺘﻬﻲ د ﻳﻨ -ﺑـِ ذإ اﳌاﺮﻔﺎﻛ نesﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .2
Plural
glasses
churches
brushes
boxes
ﺢﻴﺤﺻفﺮﺣ ﻪﻠﺒﻗو(o)فﺮﺤﺑ ﻲﻬﺘﻨﻳ دﺮﻔﳌا نﺎﻛ اذإ -esﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .3

7

:ﻞﺜﻣ
potato (es), hero (es),negro (es).
:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻠﻋ فﺮﺣ ﻪﻠﺒﻗو(o)فﺮﺤﺑ ﻲﻬﺘﻨﻳ دﺮﻔﳌا نﺎﻛ اذإ -sﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .٤
cuckoo cuckoos
ﺢﻴﺤﺻ فﺮﺤﺑ ًﺎﻗﻮﺒﺴﻣ y فﺮﺤﺑ ﻲﻬﺘﻨﻳ دﺮﻔﳌا نﺎﻛ اذإ – esﺔﻓﺎﺿإو i فﺮﺤﺑ y ﻞﻳﺪﺒﺗ .٥
:ﻞﺜﻣ
lady ladies
fly flies
country countries

:ﻞﺜﻣ (i, e, u, o, aﻠﺔ ﺮف ﻋً ﺑﺤﺒﻮﻗﺎ)ﺴﻣ(y)فﺮﺤﺑ ﻲﻬﺘﻨﻳ دﺮﻔﳌا نﺎﻛ اذإ –sﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .٦
boy boys
ray rays
key keys

:ﻞﺜﻣfeوأf ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎن اﳌﻔﺮدإاذﻛ ( ِـves) ـ (f) ﻞﻳﺪﺒﺗ .٧
wife wives
knife knives
leaf leaves

:ﻞﺜﻣoof,ief,rf,ffنﺎﻛ اذإﻳ دﺮﻔﳌا ٨ ﺔ . ﺑـِﻨﺘﻬﻲإﺿﺎﻓ -s
roof roofs
hoof hoofs
cliff cliffs
chief chiefs
:ﻞﺜﻣﺔﻴﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟا ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا ﻊﻤﺠﻧ ، ﺐﻛﺮﳌا ﻢﺳﻻا ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﰲ .9

8


mother - in - lawmothers - in - law
maidservant maidservants

ﺖﺴﻴﻟ ﺎﻬﻧأ ﻮﻟو ةرﺧﻷا ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا ﻊﻤﺠﻧ -ful ﺔﻤﻠﻜﺑ ﻲﻬﺘﻨﳌا ﺐﻛﺮﳌا ﻢﺳﻻا ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﰲ .١٠
:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟا ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا
spoonful spoonfuls
handful handfuls
mouthful mouthfuls

:ﻞﺜﻣ دﺮﻔﳌا ﻢﺳﻻا ﻂﺳو ﻞﻳﺪﺒﺗ .١١
man men
mouse mice
foot feet
tooth teeth
:ﻞﺜﻣ -ren وأ -en ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ .١٢
child children
ox oxen

ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻮﻫ اﻛ ﺎﻬﻌﻤﺟو ﺎﻫدﺮﻔم ﻆﻔﺘﺤﺗ (ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا رﻏ) ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷا ءاﺳﻷا ﺾﻌﺑ .١٣
:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ تءﺎﺟ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷا
datum data
basis bases
medium media

:ﻚﻟذ لﺎﺜﻣ.ﺎﻫدﺮﻔﻣ ﻞﺜﻣ ﺎﻬﻌﻤﺟ ءاﺳﻷا ﺾﻌﺑ .١٤
deer deer
sheep sheep
swine Swine

9

:ﻞﺜﻣ ،ﻰﻨﻌﳌاﰲ قﺮﻓ نود نﺘﻘﻳﺮﻄﺑ ﻊﻤﺠﺗ ءاﺳﻷا ﺾﻌﺑ .١٥
fish fish
fish fishes

:ﻞﺜﻣ ،ﻰﻨﻌﳌا فﻼﺘﺧا ﻊﻣ ﻦﻜﻟو نﺎﻌﻤﺟ ﺎﻬﻟ ءاﺳﻷا ﺾﻌﺑ .١٦
bro
(ﻷاو مﻷا ﻦﻣ ةﻮﺧإ
ther brother ب)
brother
brethren(ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺴﻧﻹا ﰲ ةﻮﺧإ)
cloth
cloths(ﺔﺸﻤﻗأ)
cloth clothes(ﺲﺑﻼﻣ)
staff staffsن)ﻇّﻔﻮﻮﻣ(
staff
staves(ةﺎﺼﻋ ﻊﻤﺟ ﴢﻋ)

menﱃإmanﻞﻳﻮﺤﺘﺑ ةدﺎﻋ ﻊﻤﺠﻟا نﻮﻜﻴﻓ ، -manﺔﻤﻠﻜﺑ ﺐﻛﺮﳌا دﺮﻔﳌا ﻰﻬﺘﻧا اذإ .١٧
:ﻞﺜﻣ ،
workman workmen

Dutchman Dutchmen


ﻮﻫ اﻛ ﻊﻤﺠﻳ ، (se) وأ (ss) ﰲﺮﺤﺑ ﺐﻌﺷ ﱃإ ءاﺘﻧﻻا ﲆﻋ لاﺪﻟا دﺮﻔﳌا ﻰﻬﺘﻧا اذإ .١٨
:ﻞﺜﻣ ، ﻞﻳﺪﻌﺗ نود
a Chinese three Chinese

a Swiss three Swiss

:تﺎﻈﺣﻼﻣ
:لﻮﻘﻧ ًﻼﺜﻣ .ًﺎ ﻌﻤﺟ ﺖﺴﻴﻟو دﺮﻔﻣ ﱪﺘﻌﺗ - icsءاا ﻌﻟﻮﻠ مﻟاﻲﺘﺗ أﺳﻬﻲﻨﺘـِ ﺑ-١
Physicsisa science.
economics,politics, mathematics لﺎﺜﻣ :ﻚﻟذ

10


ًﺎ ﻌﻤﺟ ﺲﻴﻟو ًادﺮﻔﻣ ﱪﺘﻌﺗ newsﺔﻤﻠﻛ -٢
The newsisgood.

:حاﱰﻗا
ةدﺮﻔﳌا ءاﺳﻷا جﺮﺨﺘﺳا.ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ بﺎﺘﻛ يأ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺤﻔﺻ ﺔﻳأ ﱃإ ﺮﻈﻧا
.ﻊﻤﺟ ﺎﻬﻟ نﺎﻛ اذإplural.ﻊﻤﺠﻟا ﱃإ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻞﻛ لﻮﺣ ﻢﺛsingular nouns


11

- 5
PROUNOUNS
ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا

:ﻞﻗﺎﻌﻟا رﻏو ﻞﻗﺎﻌﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ نﻤﺴﻗ ﱃإ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﺗ
:ﻞﺜﻣ ﻞﻗﺎﻋ ﲆﻋ لد ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو :Personal Pronounﻞﻗﺎﻌﻟا رﻤﺿ .١

I, we, he, she, you

ناﻮﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ) ﻞﻗﺎﻌﻟا رﻏ ﲆﻋ لد ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو :Impersonal Pronounﻞﻗﺎﻌﻟا رﻏ رﻤﺿ .٢
.itﻞﺜﻣ (داﺟ وأ

:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا ﻦﻣ ىﺮﺧأ عاﻮﻧأ كﺎﻨﻫو
mine, yours,:ﻞﻤﺸﻳو ﻚﻠﻤﺘﻟا ﲆﻋ لد ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو :Possessive Pronounﺔﻴﻜﻠﳌا ﺮﺋاﺿ .١
his, hers, ours, yours, theirs
The book ismine
That pen isyours
لﻮﻌﻔﳌاو ﻞﻋﺎﻔﻟا نﻮﻜﻳ ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻳو :Reflexive Pronounرﻤﺿ .٢ ﺲﻜﻌﻨﻣ
:ﲇﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻞﻤﺸﻳو.ﻪﺗاذ ﺺﺨﺸﻟا
myself, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.

He sawhimselfin the mirror.(ةآﺮﳌا ﰲ ﻪﺴﻔﻧ ىأر)

:Emphatic Pronounﺪﻴﻛﻮﺘﻟا رﻤﺿ .٣

12


وأ ﻢﺳﻻا ﺪﻴﻛﻮﺘﻟ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻳ ﻪﻨﻜﻟو ، ﺲﻜﻌﻨﳌا رﻤﻀﻟا ﻞﺛﺎم ﻞﻜﺸﻟا ﺚﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﻮﻫو
.ﻪﻠﺒﻗ يﺬﻟا رﻤﻀﻟا
Hihimselfsaid it.(ﻚﻟذ لﺎﻗ ﻪﺴﻔﻧ ﻮﻫ)

:Demonstrative Pronounةرﺎﺷﻹا رﻤﺿ .٤
:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺎﻣ ءﳾ وأ ﺎﻣ ﺺﺨﺷ ﱃإ ةرﺎﺷإ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ رﻤﺿ ﻮﻫو
this, that, these, those
Thisis his bag.

:Interrogative Pronounمﺎﻬﻔﺘﺳﻻا رﻤﺿ .٥
:ﻞﺜﻣ ،wh-ﰲﺮﺤﺑ ةدﺎﻋ أﺪﺒﻳو لاﺆﺴﻟا ﺔﻳاﺪﺑ ﰲ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻳو
what, who, whom, which
Whatis your name?

:Relative Pronounﻞﺻﻮﻟا رﻤﺿ .٦
:ﻞﺜﻣ ، ةﺪﺣاو ﺔﺒﻛﺮﻣ ﺔﻠﻤﺟ ﰲ نﺘﻠﻤﺟ ﻞﺻﻮﻟ ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﻳو
who, whom, that, which.
This is the manwhomI told you about.

:Indefinite Pronounرﻜﻨﺘﻟا رﻤﺿ .٧
:ﻞﺜﻣ ، ةدﺪﺤﻣ ةﺮﻜﻧ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ رﻤﺿ ﻮﻫو
someone, something, anyone.
I sawsomeonepassing there.

:ﻞﺜﻣ ىﺮﺧأ ﺔﻋﻮﻨﺘﻣ مﺎﺴﻗأ ﱃإ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﺗو
.I, weﻞﺜﻣ ﻢﻠﻜﺘﳌا ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو.First-Person Pronounﻢﻠﻜﺘﳌا رﻤﺿ .١
ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو .Second-Person Pronounﺐﻃﺎﺨﳌا رﻤﺿ .٢

13

.youﻞﺜﻣ ﺐﻃﺎﺨﳌا
he, she,:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺐﺋﺎﻐﻟا ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو.Third-Person Pronounﺐﺋﺎﻐﻟا رﻤﺿ .٣
.they

:ﻲﻫ ىﺮﺧأ عاﻮﻧأ ﱃإ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﺗو
.ﻂﻘﻓ ﺮﻛﺬﻣ ﲆﻋ لد ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو.he, himﻞﺜﻣMasculine Pronounﺮﻛﺬﻣ رﻤﺿ .١
.ﻂﻘﻓ ﺚﻧﺆﻣ ﲆﻋ لد ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو.she, herﻞﺜﻣFeminine Pronounﺐﻧﺆﻣ رﻤﺿ .٢
I, we,.ﻞﺜﻣ ﺮﻛﺬﳌاو ﺚﻧﺆﻤﻠﻟ ﺢﻠﺼﻳ ﺎﻣﻮﻫوCommon Pronounكﱰﺸﻣ رﻤﺿ .٣
.you, they, us
ﻞﺜﻣ ًﺎﺜﻧﺆﻣ وأ ًاﺮﻛﺬﻣ ﺲﻴﻟ ﺎﻣ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو .Neutral Pronounﺪﻳﺎﺤﻣ رﻤﺿ .٤
.it

:ﻲﻫ ىﺮﺧأ مﺎﺴﻗا ﱃإ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﺗو
he, she,.ﻞﺜﻣ أﺪﺘﺒﻣ نﻮﻜﻳ نأ ﺢﻠﺼﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫوNominative Pronounﻊﻓﺮﻟا رﻤﺿ .١
.they
:ﻞﺜﻣ ، ﻪﺑ ًﻻﻮﻌﻔﻣ نﻮﻜﻳ نأ ﺢﻠﺼﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو .Accusative Pronounﺐﺼﻨﻟا رﻤﺿ .٢
.him, her, them

:ﻲﻫ ىﺮﺧأ مﺎﺴﻗأ ﱃإ ًﺎﻀﻳأ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا ﻢﺴﻘﻨﺗو
.I, he, she, itﻞﺜﻣ دﺮﻔﻣ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو :Singular Pronounدﺮﻔﻣ رﻤﺿ .١
.we, they, them, usﻞﺜﻣ ﻊﻤﺟ ﲆﻋ لﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو .Plural Pronounﻊﻤﺟ رﻤﺿ .٢

14


ﻊﻤﺠﻟاو دﺮﻔﻤﻠﻟ ﺢﻠﺼﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻮﻫو.Singular – Plural Pronounﻊﻤﺟو دﺮﻔﻣ رﻤﺿ .٣
.youﻞﺜﻣ

Table of Pronoun:ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا لوﺪﺟ

1

2

3

4

ﻊﻓﺮﻟا ﺮﺋاﺿﺐﺼﻨﻟا ﺮﺋاﺿﺔﻴﻜﻠﳌا ﺮﺋاﺿﺔﺴﻜﻌﻨﻣ ﺮﺋاﺿ
Nominative AccusativePossessive Reflexive
Pronouns PronounsPronouns Pronouns
I memine myself

we us oursourselves

you you yoursyourself

you you yoursyourselves

he himhis himself

she herhers herself

it it- itself

they them theirs themselves


:ﲇﻳ ﺎﻣ ﺮﺋاﻀﻟا لوﺪﺟ ﰲ ﻆﺣﻼﻳ
:ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﰲ أﺪﺘﺒﻣ ﻊﻘﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﻲﻫو ﻊﻓﺮﻟا ﺮﺋاﻀﺑ صﺎﺧ لوﻷا دﻮﻤﻌﻟا .١
Iwrote some letters.
.نﻧأ وأ ﻢﺘﻧأ ﺎﻫﺎﻨﻌﻤﻓ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟاyouﻣأ ﺎَﺖﻧأ ﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻨاﻷوﱃ. you، لوﻷا دﻮﻤﻌﻟا ﰲ .٢

15

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