Europe and its Interior Other(s)
217 pages
English

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217 pages
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Who were and who are the European other(s), and how have their socio-cultural circumstances been aesthetically expressed and discussed in works of literature and art in European history? Members of the interdisciplinary group of researchers "The Borders of Europe" address these questions in this book and shed new light on the notion of European transnational identity, self-conscience and exclusion. Making a mental, space-time journey across and beyond internal and external borders of Europe - moving from medieval times to the present, from Istanbul to the northernmost tip of Norway - the authors show how the dangerous dynamics of othering, estrangement, intolerance and hatred have become an inherent part of the continent's history.

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Publié par
Date de parution 01 novembre 2014
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9788771241297
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

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Europe and Its Interior Other(s)
E D I T O
R S |  H E L G E  V I D A R H
O L M
| S I S S
E L L Æ G R E I
D | T O R G E I
R S K O
R G E N
Europe and ïts ïnterîor Oter(s)
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Europe and ïts ïnterîor Oter(s)
Edîted by Hege Vîdar Hom, Sîsse Lægreîd and Torgeîr Skorgen
Aarus Unîversîty Press |a
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Europe and ïts ïnterîor Oter(s) © he autors and Aarus Unîversîty Press Cover by Jørgen Sparre Cover îmage: Magrîtte, René (1898-1967): “a reproductîon înterdîte”, 1937 Rotterdam, Museum Boîjmans van Beunîngen. Oî on canvas, 81 x 65 cm © 2014. Bï, ADAGP, Parîs/SCAA, Forence © René Magrîtte, he Estate o Magrîtte/bîedkunst.dk
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7
Contents
Hege Vîdar Hom, Sîsse Lægreîd and Torgeîr Skorgen ïntroductîon: European Notîons o ïdentîty and Oterness în Tîmes o Crîsîs – Present and Past
Part 1: he Hîstorîca Dîmensîon o te European Oter(s)
23
37
55
Jørgen Brun Meetîng te Oter în a Medîeva Cîvarîc Nove Øyunn Hestetun Pîgrîms’ Progress: eavîng te Od Word or te New Word, wît Robert Cusman Mîcae Grote Resîstance to Hîstory: Heînrîc von Keîst’s War PoemGermanîa an îre Kînder
Part 2: Europe and te Jews
93
111
127
145
Torgeîr Skorgen ïnventîng Toerance în Europe and Utopîa: ïncusîon and Excusîon
Žejka Švrjuga Queerîng te Hoocaust: Makîng te ïmpossîbe Possîbe
Sîsse Lægreîd Andorran Jews and Oter Strangers: Narratîves o ïdentîty and Oterness în European Post-War îterature
Hege Vîdar Hom Jewîsness as an Expressîon o te European Oter în te Noves o Marguerîte Duras
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Part 3: Varîatîons on te ïnterîor Oter(s)
159
185
199
214
Lîîan Jorunn Hee he Boomerang o ïmperîa Conquest: On Russîa’s ïnterna Orîentas and te Coonîzatîon o One’s Own
Knut Ove Arntzen Scenîc andscapes and Dîaogîc Spaces on te Outskîrts o Europe: Arctîc Drama and Poar Surreaîsm în te Arts – a Cross-dîscîpînary Approac
Sîrî Skjod Lexau ïstanbu’s Arcîtecture în îterature – From e Corbusîer to Oran Pamuk
Autors’ Bîograpîes
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ïntroductîon: European Notîons o ïdentîty and Oterness în Tîmes o Crîsîs – Present and Past Hege Vîdar Hom, Sîsse Lægreîd and Torgeîr Skorgen
“ïs tere a European ïdentîty? ïs tere a Europe?” hese questîons posed by Vácav Have (2000), ave been asked tîme and agaîn by European poîtîcîans and researcers în order to Ind ways o deaîng wît te ever încreasîng prob-ems o întegratîon wîtîn an expandîng European Unîon currenty acîng îts bîggest Inancîa and poîtîca crîsîs sînce îts oundatîon. houg te answers to te questîon o European îdentîty vary, te împortance and reevance o bot askîng te questîon and reaîzîng îts împact seem în essence to ave been summed up by Vácav Have (2000), wo more tan a decade ago stated:
By înquîrîng about ît; tînkîng about ît; by tryîng to grasp îts essence, we contrîbute to our own se-awareness. hîs îs îmmensey împortant –especîay because we Ind ourseves în a mutî-cutura, mutî-poar word în wîc recognîzîng one’s îdentîty îs a prerequîsîte or co-exîstence wît oter îdentîtîes.
Sînce 2007 te European crîsîs reerred to above, as not ony drîven te younger generatîon o Soutern Europe înto coectîve agony about îts own uture în terms o work, an îndependent exîstence, and te possîbîîty o raîs-îng a amîy. ït as aso ed to a arge scae poîtîca, economîc and cutura poarîzatîon aong a sout-nort axîs, wîc appears bot new and od at te same tîme, appeaîng to certaîn Protestant stereotypes o te economîcay backward, azy and moray îrresponsîbe Souterners, as expressed în te debate about te 2013 Inancîa crîsîs o te Cyprîot bank system.  Nortern European cîcés about te ‘azy Greeks’ and te ‘crîmîna Rus-sîans’ ony ead to new ostîîty towards te Inancîa EU eîtes, recenty în partîcuar towards Germany, te Inancîay and poîtîcay most poweru member o te EU, now ed responsîbe or te arsy prescrîbed medîcîne or members acîng te current crîsîs, îke Greece, ïtay or Spaîn. ïn tese countrîes antî-German attîtudes represent a new trend, sînce parts o te oder generatîon o tese countrîes spent many years o teîr îves workîng în te German îndustry durîng te prosperous post-war German economîc mîrace
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8
Hege Vîdar Hom, Sîsse ægreîd and Torgeîr Skorgen
(Wîrtscatswunder). As so-caed guest workers (Gastarbeîter), îmmîgrants rom Sout-Eastern Europe, earned good money. hîs în turn was învested în new estabîsments în teîr natîve countrîes.  ïn te wake o te înternatîona oî crîsîs în 1973, German autorîtîes ad decared tat Germany was no îmmîgratîon country, a statement wîc was repeated and conIrmed bot în te 80s as we as în te 90s. ïn te present sîtuatîon, owever, German autorîtîes ave ad to învent a new and more încusîve termînoogy or te new generatîon o guest workers rom Soutern Europe, as Germany Inds îtse quîte desperatey în need o new skîed em-poyees.  Wat îs requîred în te current sîtuatîon o crîsîs în Europe, îs a new mînd-set, reaîzîng tat many guest workers ave deveoped and wî deveop a eeîng o beongîng to teîr European îmmîgratîon country. hey are tereore pannîng to stay în te new country and brîng teîr amîîes aong. hîs eads to a new demograpîc sîtuatîon în many European countrîes: ïn Germany or înstance, today more tan 11 mîîon Germans are îmmîgrants or cîdren o îmmîgrants. Neverteess, many empoyers, and even some autorîtîes, contînue to reer to tem as guest workers, wo îke vîsîtors, woud soon be eavîng to return to teîr natîve countrîes.  ïn tîs sense bot te German termGastarbeîterte Norwegîan and remmedkuture, te term mosty used to descrîbe non-European îmmîgrants and reugees to Norway o oreîgn cutura orîgîn, are symptomatîc îndîcatîons o te kînd o ambîvaence, wîc te resîdent popuatîon trougout îstory as et towards peope comîng rom countrîes ar away. As strangers ookîng, takîng and beavîng dîferenty, tey were and stî are generay tougt o as îndîvîduas or groups not reay beongîng, but as peope ony beîng ere today and (peraps) gone tomorrow. However, sînce tey tend to stay on în teîr new country, tey become înterîor oter(s), wo are stî rooted în teîr od countrîes and as suc at te same tîme asymmetrîcay deIned as ‘out-groups’ by te domînatîng, and more or ess, resîdent ‘în-groups’ în teîr new country (Koseeck 1989).  he compex reatîon between te stranger and te oca communîty was addressed by te German-Jewîs socîoogîst Georg Sîmme (1858-1918). ïn a sort essay în îs bookSozîoogîecaed “Exkurs über den Fremden” (1908), e presented te stranger as a unîque socîoogîca category. Sînce ten, Sîmme’s Fremdeas become a rater întrîguîng concept în modern socîoogy, troug îts empasîs on te paradoxîca opposîtîon between îberty to move on and Ixatîon to a îmîted space:
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ïntroductîon
ï wanderîng îs te îberatîon rom every gîven poînt în space, and tus te conceptîon opposîte to Ixatîon at suc a poînt, te socîoogîca orm o te stranger presents te unîty, as ît were, o tese two caracterîstîcs (Sîmme 1996: 37).
Dîferent bot rom te ‘outsîder’, wo îs not reated to a specîIc group, and rom te ‘wanderer’ wo comes one day and eaves te next, te stranger îs a member o te group în wîc e îves and partîcîpates and yet remaîns dîstant rom natîve members o te group:
he stranger îs tus beîng dîscussed ere, not în te sense oten touced upon în te past, as te wanderer wo comes today and eaves tomorrow, but rater as te person wo comes today and stays tomorrow. He îs, so to speak, tepotentîa wanderer: atoug e as not moved on, e as not quîte overcome te reedom o comîng and goîng (Sîmme 1996: 37).
Unîke oter orms o socîa dîstance and dîference (suc as cass, gender, and even etnîcîty), te specîIcîty o te stranger as to do wît îs orîgîns. he stranger îs regarded as extraneous to te group even toug e îs în a more or ess constant reatîon to oter group members. Oten îs dîstance îs more empasîzed tan îs nearness, and îs sîtuatîon îs caracterîzed as beîng sîmu-taneousy cose and ar away. Sînce e once came rom aar, tere îs aways a possîbîîty tat e mîgt be eavîng agaîn at some poînt. hereore a kînd o înerent mobîîty and Luctuatîon seems to stîck to îm as a dîstînctîve mark.  On te oter and, because te stranger îs consîdered not to be commît-ted to te kînd o îe-ong communîty constîtuted by work and permanent resîdents, e may approac ît wît some kînd o objectîvîty. And due to îs contact on a daîy basîs wît a number o îndîvîduas îvîng în te oca com-munîty, e aso partîcîpates în ît. But sînce tey see îm as not reay beongîng and tereore expect îm to be eavîng sooner or ater, te ocas tend to te îm teîr înnermost secrets. Beîng conceîved as a vîsîtor wom tey mîgt not see agaîn at a, e woud ave no partîcuar înterest în mîsusîng tem. heîr secrets, tey tînk, coud ony be mîsused by oters wo are more organîcay connected to te communîty and îts partîcuar înterests. Paradoxîcay ît îs te same quaîty o mobîîty and dîstance wîc makes te stranger suspîcîous to te resîdent popuatîon. For te same reason, te stranger îs consîdered an objectîve observer watcîng te oca communîty rom a kînd o bîrd’s-eye perspectîve.  However, îs posîtîon makes te stranger vunerabe to atred and to te oca popuatîon’s need or a scapegoat, în case a mîsortune soud occur. ïn tîs sense, despîte te reedom o te posîtîon o te stranger, îs posîtîon îs a
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