Mexicanos, Third Edition
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Responding to shifts in the political and economic experiences of Mexicans in America, this newly revised and expanded edition of Mexicanos provides a relevant and contemporary consideration of this vibrant community. Emerging from the ruins of Aztec civilization and from centuries of Spanish contact with indigenous people, Mexican culture followed the Spanish colonial frontier northward and put its distinctive mark on what became the southwestern United States. Shaped by their Indian and Spanish ancestors, deeply influenced by Catholicism, and often struggling to respond to political and economic precarity, Mexicans play an important role in US society even as the dominant Anglo culture strives to assimilate them. With new maps, updated appendicxes, and a new chapter providing an up-to-date consideration of the immigration debate centered on Mexican communities in the US, this new edition of Mexicanos provides a thorough and balanced contribution to understanding Mexicans' history and their vital importance to 21st-century America.



1. Spaniards and Native Americans, Prehistory-1521

2. The Spanish Frontier, 1521-1821

3. The Mexican Far North, 1821-1848

4. The American Southwest, 1848-1900

5. The Great Migration, 1900-1930

6. The Depression, 1930-1940

7. The Second World War and Its Aftermath, 1940-1965

8. The Chicano Movement, 1965-1975

9. Goodbye to Aztlán, 1975-1994

10. The Hispanic Challenge, 1994-2008

11. Mexicanos and the Homeland Security State, 2008-Present

Appendix A: National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies Scholars of the Year

Appendix B: Hispanic-American Medal of Honor Recipients

Select Bibliography of Chicana/o Studies since 2000





Publié par
Date de parution 05 juin 2019
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780253041746
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

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This book is a publication of
Indiana University Press
Office of Scholarly Publishing
Herman B Wells Library 350
1320 East 10th Street
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 USA
2019 by Manuel G. Gonzales
First Edition 1999
Second Edition 2009
Third Edition 2019
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992.
Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Gonzales, Manuel G., author.
Title: Mexicanos : a history of Mexicans in the United States / Manuel G. Gonzales.
Other titles: History of Mexicans in the United States
Description: Third edition. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, [2019] Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2019012422 (print) LCCN 2019012626 (ebook) ISBN 9780253041753 (ebook) ISBN 9780253041715 (hardback : alk. paper) ISBN 9780253041722 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Mexican Americans-History.
Classification: LCC E184.M5 (ebook) LCC E184.M5 G638 2019 (print) DDC 973/.046872-dc23
LC record available at
1 2 3 4 5 24 23 22 21 20 19
To my loving and supportive wife, CYNTHIA MERRILL GONZALES

1 Spaniards and Native Americans, Prehistory-1521
2 The Spanish Frontier, 1521-1821
3 The Mexican Far North, 1821-1848
4 The American Southwest, 1848-1900
5 The Great Migration, 1900-1930
6 The Depression, 1930-1940
7 The Second World War and Its Aftermath, 1940-1965
8 The Chicano Movement, 1965-1975
9 Goodbye to Aztl n, 1975-1994
10 The Hispanic Challenge, 1994-2008
11 Mexicanos and the Homeland Security State, 2008-Present
Appendix A: National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies Scholars of the Year
Appendix B: Hispanic-American Medal of Honor Recipients
Select Bibliography of Chicana/o Studies since 2000

Today Latinos and Latinas represent 18 percent of the US population. Mexicanos, Mexican-origin inhabitants, continue to constitute the majority of this spiraling demographic, and the account offered here is the story of their history and current status, their accomplishments and failures.
The field of Latina/o studies, of which the history of Mexicanos is an integral part, has been prospering on college campuses across the country since the turn of the century. 1 In the discipline of history, this success reflects not only favorable demographic changes but also the firm foundation established by pioneers such as the historians Rodolfo Acu a, Juan G mez-Qui ones, and Richard Griswold del Castillo. High academic achievement has continued under their successors, established researchers and teachers like Vicki Ruiz, George J. S nchez, and Deena Gonz lez. It is this second generation of professors who today direct the Latina/o studies programs and centers on most college campuses across the country. Now, almost forty years after the birth of ethnic studies, a third generation of historians has emerged in the discipline. Like their predecessors, they continue to do pioneering work in excavating the Hispanic past. They have made many valuable contributions to the field, notably in the study of mujeres. The latest generation of Latina/o scholars is more fully integrated into the academic establishment than their predecessors had been, a positive trend in my view, but one that has drawn occasional criticism. 2 For the most part, though, aging minority faculty have embraced their younger colleagues. Indeed, many of the up-and-coming luminaries in the field of history were mentored by older distinguished professors. Albert Camarillo, Antonia Casta eda, and Vicki Ruiz are among the most respected of these mentors. However, a few of the veteranos , older faculty members, fear that the current generation of scholars is gradually abandoning the social activism of the founders-in truth, an argument from the beginning that has never gone away-which may be true. However, Mexican American scholarship has continued to improve, both quantitatively and qualitatively, which is undoubtedly the most compelling reason for the greater acceptance in academe of ethnic studies today than in the past.
First published in 1999 and revised ten years later, Mexicanos continues to be required reading in a variety of courses at both the high school and college levels, not only in the American Southwest but also throughout the United States. The book s widespread popularity in academe mirrors the increasing dispersal of Mexicanos and the interest they have generated throughout the country. This third edition retains the strengths of the previous two editions. Minor revisions have been made throughout to incorporate major new findings in ethnic studies during the past decade and to preserve the narrative flow of earlier editions. Several chapters have been substantially revised, and an entirely new chapter, Mexicanos and the Homeland Security State, has been added. Focusing on the impassioned immigration debate surrounding Mexicanos, this concluding section covers the last ten years of their history, a period of great concern to sociologists and political scientists as well as historians, as my updated bibliography illustrates.
One of the major strengths of Mexicanos is the bibliography. I have tried my best to keep up with the escalating production of doctoral dissertations in recent years and have insisted on incorporating these monographs into the current edition, which may seem pedantic to some casual observers. However, these dissertation titles are important because they provide readers with an idea of the new avenues of historical investigation that young Mexican American scholars are opening up. And, of course, the sheer number of these dissertations is a testament to the growing popularity of Latina/o studies.
Mexicanos is a synthesis based on the works of hundreds of scholars cited in the text. I am indebted to each and every one of them. I also continue to be in the debt of all those friends and colleagues who contributed their time and effort to the book. Several of them should be singled out for special recognition. These include, in no particular order, professors Elizabeth Coonrod Mart nez, California State University, Sonoma; Ignacio Garc a, Brigham Young University; Juan Mora-Torres, DePaul University; Alexandro Gradilla, California State University, Fullerton; Antonia Casta eda, St. Mary s University, San Antonio; Armando Alonzo, Texas A M University; Deena J. Gonz lez, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles; Arnoldo De Le n, Angelo State University; Emilio Zamora, University of Texas, Austin; Lorena Oropeza, University of California, Davis; Lisa Jarvinen, LaSalle University; Benny J. Andr s Jr., University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Jos Alamillo, California State University, Channel Islands; and Vanna Gonzales, Contra Costa College. I also wish to thank my colleagues in the Department of History at Diablo Valley College, especially Greg Tilles and Jim Rawls, for insights and encouragement that they provided over the years, and Albert Ponce in the Department of Political Science and David Vela in the Department of English, as well, for kindly sharing their expertise.
Archivist Lillian Castillo-Speed at the Chicano Studies Library, University of California, Berkeley, and two former archivists, Christine Mar n at the Chicano Research Collection, Arizona State University, and Walter Brem at the Bancroft Library at Berkeley, have been extraordinarily helpful on this and many other occasions. Kathryn Blackmer-Reyes and Julia Curry Rodr guez, stalwarts at the National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies, provided valuable counsel.
I want to express my gratitude, too, to Rogelio Agras nchez Jr., proprietor of the fabulous Agras nchez Mexican Film Archives at Harlingen, Texas, for his generosity in providing photographs, and to Lauren Shaw, publications manager at the Migration Policy Institute, for her invaluable assistance in finding and procuring maps. Carlos Larralde, formerly of Golden West College, continues to be a loyal collaborator, a constant source of comfort and goodwill. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic are other dear friends who have been exceptionally supportive, as was true of the late Edythe M. Cavender.
As always, it has been a great privilege to work with the staff at Indiana University Press. I am deeply grateful to my editor, Jennika Baines, and her able assistant, Kate Schramm. Both provided professional guidance and valuable suggestions. This manuscript was significantly enhanced by their efforts. The same can be said for Theresa Marguerite Quill, social science librarian (and cartographer extraordinaire) at the university s Herman B Wells Library.
Special acknowledgment is due to Robert J. Sloan, retired editorial director at Indiana University Press. Despite my affiliation with an obscure two-year college and a modest track record as an author, Robert was willing to take a chance on me way back in 1999, when the first edition of Mexicanos was published, followed by a Mexican American history anthology a year later. I am eternally grateful for that opportunity.
The late David J. Weber, my most memorable mentor, remains a mo

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